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Bone Mineral Density

Osteoporosis and associated fractures are a major cause of illness, disability and death in older people, especially in postmenopausal women. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the annual number of hip fractures worldwide will rise from 1.7 million in 1990 to around 6.3 million by 2050. WHO has established dual-energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the best densitometric technique for assessing bone mineral density in postmenopausal women and based the classification of osteoporosis on its results. The IAEA provides information on the theoretical background as well as the practical application of DXA in the related links to the right.


IAEA Publications

Dual Energy X ray Absorptiometry for Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition Assessment
IAEA Human Health Series No. 15; 2011, 118 pp. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.
This publication was developed as an integral part of the IAEA’s efforts to contribute to the transfer of technology and knowledge in the application of a widely used nuclear technique in nutrition, i.e. Dual-Energy X ray Absorptiometry (DXA). It provides information on the theoretical background as well as the practical application of DXA to measure bone mineral density and to assess body composition.

Dual Energy X ray Absorptiometry for Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition Assessment. Arabic Edition
IAEA Human Health Series No. 15; 2013, 132 pp. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.
This publication was developed as an integral part of the IAEA’s efforts to contribute to the transfer of technology and knowledge in the application of a widely used nuclear technique in nutrition, i.e. Dual-Energy X ray Absorptiometry (DXA). It provides information on the theoretical background as well as the practical application of DXA to measure bone mineral density and to assess body composition.


IAEA E-learning modules


Additional resources