Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) produces a low-oxygen (O2) environment that can increase produce shelf life by decreasing product respiration and growth of pathogens. However, low O2 is known to increase insect tolerance to irradiation, and the use of MAP with products treated by irradiation before export to control quarantine pests may inadvertently compromise treatment efficacy. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important economic and quarantine pest of tropical fruits and vegetables, and one of the most radiation-tolerant tephritid fruit flies known. The effect of low O2 generated by MAP on the radiation tolerance of B. cucurbitae was examined. Third-instar larval B. cucurbitae were inoculated into ripe papayas and treated by 1) MAP + irradiation, 2) irradiation alone, 3) MAP alone, or (4) no MAP and no irradiation, and held for adult emergence. Three types of commercially available MAP products were tested that produced O2 concentrations between 1 and 15%, and a sublethal radiation dose (50 Gy) was used to allow comparisons between treatments. Ziploc storage bags (1-4% O2) increased survivorship to adult from 14 to 25%, whereas Xtend PP61 bags (3-8% O2) and Xtend PP53 bags (11-15% O2) did not enhance survivorship to the adult stage in B. cucurbitae irradiated at 50 Gy. Radiation doses approved by the United States Department of Agriculture and the International Plant Protection Commission for B. cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) are 150 and 100 Gy, respectively. In large-scale tests, 9,000 B. cucurbitae and 3,800 C. capitata larvae infesting papayas in Ziploc bags were irradiated at 150 and 100 Gy, respectively, with no survivors to the adult stage. MAP can increase insect survivorship during irradiation treatment at certain doses and O2 concentrations, but should not compromise the efficacy of the 150-Gy generic radiation treatment for tephritid fruit flies or the 100-Gy radiation treatment for C. capitata.
Follett PA, Wall M, Bailey W
irradiation, Melon fly, Ceratitis capitata, quarantine, generic dose, modified atmosphere
Cold storage is used to preserve fruit quality after harvest during transportation in marketing channels. Low temperature can be a stressor for insects that reduces survivorship, and cold storage may contribute to the efficacy of postharvest quarantine treatments such as irradiation against quarantine insect pests. The combined effect of irradiation and cold storage was examined in a radiation-tolerant fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly), and a radiation-intolerant fruit fly,Ceratitis capitat (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Third instars on diet or in papaya were treated with a sublethal radiation dose of 30 Gy and stored at 4 or 11_C for 3-13 d and held for adult emergence. For both fruit fly species, survival of third instars to the adult stage generally decreased with increasing cold storage duration at 4 or 11_C in diet or papaya. Survivorship differences were highly significant for the effects of substrate (diet > papaya), temperature (11 > 4 degrees C), and irradiation (0>30 Gy). Few Mediterranean fruit flies survived in any cold storage treatment after receiving a radiation dose of 30 Gy no melon fly larvae survived to the adult stage after irradiation and 11 d cold storage at 4 or 11 degree C in papayas. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and widens the margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments. Potentially irradiation and cold storage can be used in combination to reduce the irradiation exposure requirements of quarantine treatments.
FOLLETT PETER A. and SNOOK KIRSTEN
irradiation, quarantine, postharvest, phytosanitary treatment, systems approach
Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College London. Centre for Environmental Policy, Department of Life Sciences,
Silwood Park Campus.
Walker Catherine Sophie
Journal of Malaysian Applied Biology. v. 16(2) 6 p
This study was conducted to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on insect pest of rice, stored for a period of 24 months, and packed in four different packaging materials. They were then exposed to gamma radiation using Gamma Cell 220, in a 60Co source. Samples were randomly sampled at the initial storage period and there after at 3 months interval. At each sampling time the grain weight loss and insect count, both dead and alive, were determined. The increasing dosages of irradiation did not show any consistent effect on the insect population in all the four packaging materials which indicated that the rice was already infested even before it was irradiated. The range of percentage weight loss for all the dosages of irradiation in all of the four packaging materials is 0.99 to 2.02. (A.J.)
Awang Rita Muhamad; Noorma Osman.; Agricultural Univ. of Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor
8 p, 31. Congress on Science and Technology of Thailand, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand), 18-20 Oct 2005
Mangosteen fruits (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) were investigated for the surface insects at under caps, skin and stem. Samples from Nakhonsithammarat and Chantaburi province were taken. Common quarantine pests such as citrus mealy bug (Pseudococcus cryptus), Orientalscale (Aonidiella orientallis), red tea mite (Oligpnychus coffee) and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) were found at 48.23, 26.67, 75.29 and 26.67% respectively. Effect of gamma radiation on the quarantine pests were studied. The result showed that the P. cryptus and A. orientallis were more radiosensititive than other (LD99=913.05 and 848.09 Gy). The dose for inhibiting disinfestations of O. coffee and P. latus were 1,662.77 and 2,271.97 Gy (at the dose of LD99).
Kongratarpon, Titima; Limohpasmanee, Wanitch; Vongcheeree, Satit; Segsarnviriya, Suchada; Pransopon, Prapon
CITRUS, DISINFESTATION, EXPERIMENTAL DATA, FRUITS, INHIBITION, INSECTS, IRRADIATION, MITES, QUARANTINE, RADIATION DOSES, SURFACES
BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY , VOL 22; NUMB 12, pages 1429-1441
We evaluated the effects of X-ray irradiation on larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), with the aim of finding a treatment that prevented adult fly emergence, yet did not adversely affect larval quality as rearing hosts for the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, small numbers of larvae were held in Petri dishes with and without small amounts of rearing media and then irradiated with doses of X-rays ranging from 0 to 8333.6 R (equivalent to 80 Gy). In the second experiment, higher numbers of larvae were held in a manner resembling mass-rearing conditions, and were then irradiated with X-rays ranging from 0 to 10,417 R (equivalent to 100 Gy). In both experiments, the only factor that significantly affected fly emergence was irradiation of larvae. Fly emergence decreased markedly as the irradiation dose increased, and complete suppression of fly emergence was achieved at 6250.2 R (equivalent to 60 Gy) when larvae were irradiated in small batches with or without rearing media. Irradiation also affected the fertility of those flies that did emerge following treatment. In the second experiment, we found the parasitoids reared from irradiated larvae produced a higher parasitism rate and a higher number of female offspring than did parasitoids reared from control (non-irradiated) larvae. Mean fecundity of F1 parasitoids reared from irradiated larvae were affected positively by irradiation only at the 8333.6 R (80 Gy) dose. Our results show that X-ray irradiation can be used to inhibit fruit fly adult emergence and that irradiated larvae are at least as good a rearing substrate as non-irradiated larvae. Future studies should focus on the adjustment of our findings to a mass-rearing scale.
Viscarret, M.M. Conte, C.A. Paladino, L.Z.C. Lopez, S.N. Segura, D.F. Muntaabski, I. Lanzavecchia, S.B. Cladera, J.L.
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata ,
Ceratitis capitata ,
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 16: 1730-1736.
The sterile insect technique is one of the most methods of fruit flies control. Flight ability of the Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata was conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on flight ability of PFF, B. zonata. Pupae of PFF, B. zonata, were irradiated in an air atmosphere at 24, 48 and 72 h before adult emergence with three doses of Cobalt60 (10, 30 and 50 Gray) and tested against 6, 12 and 20 cm tube heights. Flight Ability Percentage (FAP) of PFF was carried out for newly emerged flies and six-days-old of adult flies. FAP of newly emerged-and six- days-old of adult flies was inversely proportional to the tube heights, doses of gamma rays and with progress the age of flies. The FAP value was significantly higher at 6 cm tube height, followed by 12 cm then 20 cm tube heights for all tested levels of gamma rays, respectively.
El-Gendy I.R., El-Aw M.A.M., Hashem A.G. and Draz K.A.,
Sterile insect technique
M.Sc. Report, Nov 1983, 63 p, Tese (M.Sc.). Brazil
The sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Dip. Tephritidae) using gamma irradiation (γ) was studied under laboratory conditions at Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Living conditions for Med fly are optimum in this country and its biological cycle is completed in less than 30 days. There is a large number of varying host fruits for larvae development, which makes this pest very harmful, especially to citrus crops. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a type of physical control of pests, which does not cause any harm to other insects. Pupae with different ages were initially submitted to 0, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 Gy doses. Sterility was determined from fertility of eggs resulting from crosses of irradiated male x normal female and normal male x irradiated female. Later, pupae with 72 + - 12 hrs before emergence were submitted to 70 and 90 Gy doses with carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen fluxes. The sterilizing dose for the males was 90 Gy. Activity, of irradiated with and without gas lux and normal male, was evaluated with an activity-meter, and the dose least harmful to their behaviour was found to be 90 Gy with nitrogen flux. (Author).
Orig. Title: Uso da radiacao gama e gases inertes na esterilizacao de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera-Tephritidae) com vistas a aplicacao da tecnica do inseto esteril.
Almeida, M.S.-P. de
CERATITIS CAPITATA, COBALT 60, FRACTIONATED IRRADIATION, INERT ATMOSPHERE, INTERNAL CONVERSION RADIOISOTO, NITROGEN, STERILE MALE TECHNIQUE, SYNERGISM, RADIOISOTOPES
Journal of Economic Entomology 105(6):1971-1978.
The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60 90, 120, or 150 Gy or left untreated as controls in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation generally increased with increasing age and developmental stage. A radiation dose of 120 Gy applied to eggs and neonates prevented adult emergence A dose of 150 Gy prevented adult emergence in larvae at all stages. In large-scale validation tests, a radiation dose of 150 Gy applied to fifth instars in diet, apples or peppers resulted in no survival to the adult stage in 37,947 treated individuals. Pupae were more radio tolerant than larvae, and late stage pupae were more tolerant than early stage pupae. Radiation treatment of late pupae at 350 and 400 Gy resulted in three and one fertile eggs in 4,962 and 4,205 total eggs laid by 148 and 289 mating pairs, respectively. For most commodities, the fifth instar is the most radio tolerant life stage likely to occur with the commodity; a minimum radiation dose of 150 Gy will prevent adult emergence from this stage and meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. For traded commodities such as table grapes that may contain E. postvittana pupae, a radiation dose >400 Gy may be necessary to completely sterilize emerging adults. After review of the literature, a generic radiation treatment of 250 Gy is proposed for tortricid eggs and larvae in regulated commodities.
Follett Peter A. and Snook Kirsten
x-ray radiation, Lepidoptera, invasive species, regulatory pest, phytosanitary treatment
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 148: 203–212. doi: 10.1111/eea.12096
The sterile insect technique (SIT) potentially provides a socially acceptable approach for insect eradication of new pest incursions. The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was discovered in Berkeley (CA, USA) in 2006, leading to an incursion response that included this technology. In this study, we assessed factors affecting mating success from a bisex release of irradiated moths: effects of radiation dose on male multiple mating, male flight competition, female sex pheromone titre and attractiveness of irradiated females to males, and identification of successful mating in vineyards of either irradiated or wild males (identified by isotope analysis of spermatophores from sentinel females). There was a significant negative relationship between male radiation dose and mating frequency. In head-to-head flights of irradiated males against non-irradiated males to a pheromone lure in a wind tunnel, irradiated males reached the lure first only 31% of the time. With increasing radiation dose, the production of the major sex pheromone component in females, (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, dropped, from 0.7 ± 0.1 ng per female in non-irradiated females to 0.2 ± 0.07 ng per female when irradiated at 300 Gy. Male catch was reduced to 11% of control females in traps containing females irradiated at 300 Gy. Isotope analysis of spermatophores found in the bursa copulatrix of females indicated that mating success of irradiated males inside the live (entry-only) traps containing virgin females was lower (13.1 ± 3.3%) than suggested by male catch (21.2 ± 3.8%) in pheromone traps, the current standard for assessing field competitiveness. Impacts of irradiation on male and female moth fitness should be taken into account to improve estimates of irradiated to wild male E. postvittana overflooding ratios needed for population suppression.
Stringer, L. D., Sullivan, N. J., Sullivan, T. E.S., Mitchell, V. J., Manning, L.-A. M., Mas, F., Hood-Nowotny, R. C. and Suckling, D. M.
sterile insect technique;
Epiphyas postvittana ;
Mutagenesis 28 (5): 531-541. doi: 10.1093/mutage/get030 First published online: June 22, 2013
The response of eukaryotic cells to ionising radiation (IR)-induced double-strand DNA breaks is highly conserved and involves a DNA repair mechanism characterised by the early phosphorylation of histone protein H2AX (producing the active form γH2AX). Although the expression of an induced γH2AX variant has been detected in Drosophila melanogaster, the expression and radiation response of a γH2AX homologue has not been reported in economically important fruit flies. We use Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae, Queensland fruit fly or ‘Q-fly’) to investigate this response with a view to developing molecular assays to detect/quantify exposure of fruit flies to IR and consequent DNA damage. Deep sequencing confirmed the presence of a H2AX homologue that we have termed H2AvB (i.e. variant Bactrocera) and has an identical sequence to a histone reported from the human disease vector Glossina morsitans. A linear dose–response of γH2AvB (0–400 Gy IR) was observed in whole Q-fly pupal lysates 24h post-IR and was detected at doses as low as 20 Gy. γH2AvB signal peaked at ~20min after IR exposure and at 24h post-IR the signal remained elevated but declined significantly by 5 days. Persistent and dose-dependent γH2AvB signal could be detected and quantified either by western blot or by laser scanning cytometry up to 17 days post-IR exposure in histone extracts or isolated nuclei from adult Q-flies (irradiated as pupae). We conclude that IR exposure in Q-fly leads to persistent γH2AvB signals (over a period of days) that can easily be detected by western blot or quantitative immunofluorescence techniques. These approaches have potential as the basis for assays for detection and quantification of prior IR exposure in pest fruit flies.
Mohammad S. Siddiqui, Erika Filomeni, Maxime François, Samuel R. Collins, Tamara Cooper, Richard V. Glatz, Phillip W. Taylor, Michael Fenech1 and Wayne R. Leifert
Diptera, Tephritidae, Bactrocera, deep sequencing, dna, gene sequencing, sequencing
Insects, 3, 1105-1125; doi:10.3390/insects3041105
The use of irradiated hosts in mass rearing tephritid parasitoids represents an important technical advance in fruit fly augmentative biological control. Irradiation assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, while at the same time it has no
appreciable effect on parasitoid quality, i.e., fecundity, longevity and flight capability.
Parasitoids of fruit fly eggs, larvae and pupae have all been shown to successfully develop in irradiated hosts, allowing a broad range of species to be shipped and released without post-rearing delays waiting for fly emergence and costly procedures to separate flies and
wasps. This facilitates the early, more effective and less damaging shipment of natural enemies within hosts and across quarantined borders. In addition, the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids can be monitored by placing irradiated sentinel-hosts in the field.
The optimal radiation dosages for host-sterility and parasitoid-fitness differ among species, and considerable progress has been made in integrating radiation into a variety of rearing procedures.
Jorge Cancino, Lia Ruiz, Mariana Viscarret, John Sivinski and Jorge Hendrichs
irradiation; mass rearing; parasitoids; fruit flies; Diachasmimorpha longicaudata;
Anastrepha; Bactrocera; Ceratitis
Entomological Science 15, 63-67
Electron beam irradiation has been evaluated for the survival and reproduction of Liposcelis paeta Pearman (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae). All effects increased with increasing doses from 50 to 1000 Gy when the electron energy was 2 MeV. Eggs were unable to develop into adults following a dose of 100 Gy. Complete (100%) mortality was achieved about 5 weeks after adult emergence from nymphs irradiated at 300 Gy, whereas 100% mortality of adults was achieved 9 weeks after irradiation at 300 Gy. The fecundity was greatly reduced to 1.82% of that of control when L. paeta adults were irradiated at 250 Gy. A dose of 300 Gy caused complete reproductive sterility in adults. These results suggest that the most susceptible stage was the egg stage, then nymph and adult stages. A dose of 300 Gy is suggested for quarantine treatment of commodities infested by L. paeta.
Wang, J., Guo, D., Fan, J., Chen, Y., Zhang, J., Yang, B., Li, X.,
Adult Epiphyas postvittana Walker were irradiated using a Cobalt 60 source to determine the dose needed to achieve complete egg sterility of mated female moths, and egg sterility of female moths mated to F1 generation males. Adult male and female E. postvittana were irradiated at 100, 200, 250, and 300 Gy and their fertility (when crossed with normal moths) was compared with nonirradiated moths. Viable progeny (determined by egg hatch) were found at doses of 100 and 200 Gy, but very little at 250 and 300 Gy. In particular, there was no survival of female progeny into the F1 generation. Males irradiated at 250 and 300 Gy had very low egg eclosion rates (2.25 and 1.86% at 250 and 300 Gy, respectively) when mated with normal females. The F2 generation from those male progeny had a mean percent hatched of 1.02%. Based on our results, a dose of 250Ð300 Gy is recommended for irradiation of E. postvittana adults used for sterile insect technique (SIT) if sterility of parental moths is the desired outcome. Our data also suggests that inclusion of F1 hybrid sterility rather than parental generation sterility into programs using the SIT may allow for doses lower than what we have reported, especially during initial phases of an eradication program where increase Þtness of moths might be desirable. Further research is needed to verify the use of F1 hybrid sterility in light brown apple moth SIT programs
JANG ERIC B., MCINNIS DONALD O., KURASHIMA RICK, WOODS BILL, AND SUCKLING DAVID M.
mating disruption, irradiation, sterile insect technique, light brown apple moth
Biology Open 000, 1–5. doi: 10.1242/bio.2012323 Advance Online Publication February 2, 2012
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly used to control pest insect populations. The success of SIT control programs depends on the ability to release sterile males and on the capacity of sterile males to compete with wild males to inseminate wild females. In this study, we evaluated the mating performance of Schistocerca gregaria (Försk.) males irradiated with 4 Gray. We compared reproductive traits, such as duration of precopulation time, mating duration, quantity of sperm stored by females after copulation, number of females mated successively and postmating competition of irradiated males with non-irradiated males. Irradiated males were able to mate but the resulting number of offspring was dramatically reduced compared to the average number of offspring observed during a regular mating. During a single copulation, irradiated males transferred fewer sperm than regular males but, theoretically, this quantity is enough to fertilize all the eggs produced by a female during its reproductive life. Irradiated males also had the ability to remove sperm from a previous mating with unirraditated males. This new information on the mating strategies helps explain the post-copulation guarding behaviour of S. gregaria.
Dushimirimana Severin, Hance Thierry and Damiens David
Last-male sperm precedenceIrradiationSperm managementSchistocerca gregaria.
The fruit ßy, Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops. In this study, host preference of B. tau females and the effects of host species and larval density on larval survival, pupal weight, adult emergence, and developmental duration were investigated on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrical L. (Roem)), bitter gourd [Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) L.], guava [Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) L.], and tangerine [Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae) (Blanco)]. The results showed that females preferred to cucumber over other host species. Larval feeding experience affected subsequent host oviposition preference of adult females. Host species and initial larval density affected certain aspects of the biology of B. tau. Larval density negatively affected insect performance. Survival rates at low densities were signiÞcantly higher than that at high densities. Total developmental duration reduced at high larval densities. Cucumber was more suitable to larval growth. Larvae on cucumber grew faster and the puparia were heavier than that on other host species. Larval survival, pupation rate and adult emergence were higher on cucumber compared with those in other host species. Oviposition preference of adult females was correlated with performance of their offspring.
WU BAOFENG, SHEN KE, AN KUNPENG, HUANG JIE, AND ZHANG RUNJIE
Bactrocera tau, larval density, host species, development, intraspeciÞc competition
The western cherry fruit ßy, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, infests introduced, domesticated sweet [Prunus avium (L.) L.], and tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) as well as native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas) Eaton. Bitter cherries are smaller than sweet and tart cherries and this could affect various life history traits of ßies. The objectives of the current study were to determine 1) if body size and egg loads of ßies infesting sweet, tart, and bitter cherries differ from one another; and 2) if any observed body size differences are genetically based or caused by the host fruit environment. Pupae and adults of both sexes reared from larval-infested sweet and tart cherries collected in Washington and Montana were larger than those reared from bitter cherries. In addition, ßies of both sexes caught on traps in sweet and tart cherry trees were larger than those caught in bitter cherry trees and females trapped from sweet and tart cherry trees had 54.0Ð98.8% more eggs. The progeny of ßies from naturally-infested sweet and bitter cherries reared for one generation in the laboratory on sweet cherry did not differ in size. The same also was true for progeny of sweet and bitter cherry ßies reared in the Þeld on bitter cherry. The results suggest that the larger body sizes of ßies from sweet and tart cherries than bitter cherries in the Þeld are caused by host fruit and not genetic factors.
YEE WEE L., GOUGHNOUR ROBERT B., AND JFEDER EFFREY L.
Western cherry fruit ßy, Prunus avium, Prunus emarginata, head width, wing length
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 142: 17–26
The success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly ormedfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), depends largely on the ability of sterile flies to spread in the target area and compete with the wild males for wild females. Our objectives in the present study were three-fold: (1) to evaluate the dispersal ability of sterile male medflies and compare their spatial dispersion patterns with that of wildmales, (2) to evaluate how different release methods affect subsequent spatial dispersal, and (3) to determine whether manipulating the prerelease diet of sterile males affects their dispersal. To achieve these objectives, we conducted three experiments in the field where we quantified and analyzed the spatial and temporal dispersal patterns of sterilemedflies and the dispersion of resident wild males. Overall, ca. 5% of the released sterile flies were recaptured 100 m from the release point, and ca. 2% were recaptured 200 m from the release point. The released flies rarely survived longer than 5–7 days. We repeatedly found that the spatial dispersion patterns of sterile males significantly correlated with those of wild males. Release methods strongly affected subsequent fly dispersal in the field as significantly more flies were recaptured following a scattered release vs. a central one. Finally, we show that enriching sterile fly pre-release diet with protein did not affect subsequent dispersal in the field.We conclude that sterile males are able to match the dispersion patterns of wild males, an outcome that is highly important for SIT success. Large releases from central points distant from each other may leave many areas uncovered. Accordingly, scattered releases, repeated twice a week, will provide better coverage of all available aggregations sites. The spatial performance of protein-fed males suggests that pre-release diet amendments may be used without detriment as a sexual stimulant in SIT programs.
Gavriel Sagi, Gazit Yoav, Leach Adrian, Mumford John & Yuval1 Boaz.
Ceratitis capitata, sterile insect technique, dispersion, mark–release–recapture, nutritional ecology, Diptera, Tephritidae, medfly, SIT
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 142: 45–52, 2012
In this study, we investigated the attraction of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to volatiles of three mango [Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae)] cultivars in field cage tests. The number of flies captured with Multilure traps baited with Amate mature green mangoes was significantly higher than that captured in traps baited with Coche and Ataulfo fruits. There was no significant difference between the number of flies captured in traps baited with Coche or Ataulfo mangoes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis ofmango fruit volatiles identified 24, 22, and 19 compounds forAmate, Ataulfo, and Coche mango cultivars, respectively. A principal component analysis of the volatiles revealed that the Amate mango was more distant from the Ataulfo mango, and the latter cultivar was closer to the Coche mango. The compounds myrcene, a-pinene, b-selinene, and trans-b-ocimene were the most abundant in Amate mangoes, whereas 3- carene, b-selinene, terpinolene, and a-pinene were the predominant compounds of Ataulfo cultivars. In the Coche mango, the predominant compounds were 3-carene, b-selinene, terpinolene, and limonene. Traps baitedwith a blend ofmyrcene, a-pinene, and trans-b-ocimene capturedmore A. obliqua females and males than control traps. Flies were more attracted to the Super Q volatile extracts of Amate mango than to the three-component blend formulated in a ratio of 1:1:1. However, there was no significant difference between the number of flies caught by traps baited with Amate mango extracts and that caught by traps baited with the three-blend component when this was formulated according to the relative proportions in the mango extracts. Traps baited with myrcene, the major component, caught fewer flies than traps baited with Amate mango extracts.
Malo Edi A., Gallegos-Torres Itanegüi, Toledo Jorge, Valle-Mora Javier & Rojas Julio C.
Mangifera indica, Anastrepha obliqua, host plant recognition ⁄ discrimination, field cage tests, GC-MS, Diptera, Tephritidae, Anacardiaceae
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 142: 78–86, 2012
The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires production of large quantities of sterile males able to successfully compete with wild males for wild females. During eradication of a pest population, the release of fertile insects or capture of non-marked released flies can have deleterious effects and trigger costly control measures. These perceived risks encourage program managers to apply high radiation doses and high doses of marking dye. In addition,mass rearing factories are strategically located away from release areas to prevent escape of fertile individuals within eradicated areas, raising the need for lengthy transport. Such is the case for Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) released in mango producing areas of Mexico under an SIT-based eradication campaign. Here, we examined several standard quality-control parameters for mass-reared A. obliqua subjected to various time periods under hypoxia during transport,marked with different doses of fluorescent dye, and subjected to different radiation doses. Such factors were evaluated in isolation and in conjunction. Overall, long periods of hypoxia, high marking doses, and high radiation doses reduced the number of flying adults and increased the number of non-emerged pupae. Some quality-control parameters such as number of deformed adults, part-emerged pupae, and non-flying adults provided less informative guidance or redundant information of fly performance. Some tests such as mortality under stress and mating propensity in small cages were useless in detecting differences in quality among treatments for parameters evaluated during experiments. We discuss the quantity ⁄ safety-quality ⁄ performance conflict during eradication using SIT, propose different strategies according to different stages during eradication (management, suppression, eradication, outbreaks in free areas), where males irradiated at low doses and marked with low doses of dye can be released during early suppression, and examine the pertinence of carrying out different quality-control tests.
Rull J., Birke A., Ortega R., Montoya P. & López L.
Anastrepha obliqua, Diptera, Tephritidae, SIT, marking dye, radiation dose, hypoxia, quality control,mating propensity
Biological Control Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 247-254
Long-term separation of a host from its native parasitoids may result in divergent thermal adaptation between host and parasitoid. The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), most likely originated from Sub-Saharan Africa, but has since had a long invasion history in cultivated olives that spans geographical barriers and continents. This study compared three major thermal performance profiles (development, survival, and reproduction) across a wide range of temperatures (10–34 °C) among a Californian population of the olive fruit fly and two African parasitoids, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) and Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), believed to have co-adapted with the fruit fly in its native range. Temperature ranges for the development and survival were 10–30 °C for the fly, 10–28 °C for P. lounsburyi, and 14–32 °C for P. humilis. There was no difference in any thermal performance measured between two P. humilis populations (Kenya and Namibia) tested. The most suitable temperature ranges for reproduction were 22–30 °C for the fly, 18–32 °C for P. humilis, and 18–26 °C for P. lounsburyi. The results showed slight differences in the thermal profiles among olive fruit fly and both parasitoids species, with P. humilis being more heat tolerant whereas P. lounsburyi was less heat tolerant than the fruit fly. The results are discussed with respect to thermal co-adaptation and classical biological control of the olive fruit fly.
Wang Xin-geng, Levy Karmit, Son Youngsoo, Johnson Marshall W., Daane Kent M.
Bactrocera oleae; Psyttalia; Biological control; Co-adaptation; Host–parasitoid interaction; Temperature development; Thermal adaptation
The radiation biology of two geographically isolated populations of the light brown apple moth [Epiphyas postvittana (Walker)] was studied in Australia and New Zealand as an initiation of a SIT/F1 sterility program. Pharate and inf ou equal2 d pre-emergence pupae were exposed to increasing radiation doses up to a maximum dose of 300 Gy. Fertility and other life history parameters were measured in emerging adults (parental) and their progeny (F1-F3 adults). Parental fecundity was signiÞcantly affected by increasing irradiation dose in pharate pupae only. For both populations, parental egg fertility declined with increasing radiation. This was most pronounced for the irradiated parental females whose fertility declined at a higher rate than of irradiated males. At 250 Gy, females less than or equal 2 d preemergence pupae produced few larvae and no adults at F1. No larvae hatched from 250 Gy-irradiated female pharate pupae. At 300 Gy, males still had residual fertility of 2Ð5.5%, with pharate pupae being the more radio-sensitive. Radiation-induced deleterious inherited effects in offspring from irradiated males were expressed as increased developmental time in F1 larvae, a reduction in percent F1 female survival, decreased adult emergence and increased cumulative mortality over subsequent generations. Males irradiated at 150 Gy or above produced few but highly sterile offspring at F1 and mortality was sup 99% by F2 egg.
SOOPAYA RAJENDRA, STRINGER LLOYD D. , WOODS BILL , STEPHENS ANDREA E. A., BUTLER RUTH C., LACEY IAN, KAUR AMANDIP, AND SUCKLING DAVID M.
Epiphyas postvittana, irradiation, sterile insect technique, inherited sterility, eradication
Phytoparasitica 18: 117-124.
Yathom, S., R. Podava, S. Tal, and I. Ross.
Ann. Appl. Biol. 143: 25-34.
Kaspi, R., and M. P. Parrella.
Agromyzid leafminers are economic and quarantine pests of a variety of vegetables, ßowers, and ornamental foliage. Methyl bromide fumigation is often used as a phytosanitary treatment when quarantined agromyzids are found in shipped commodities; alternative treatments are sought. Ionizing radiation is a viable alternative that is increasing in use worldwide. A dose of 400 Gy is accepted by USDA-APHIS for all insects (except Lepidoptera pupae and adults) on all commodities. Efforts to lower this dose and make it acceptable to other countries involve determining radiotolerance of families of major quarantine pests. Agromyzidae is one such family for which no useful information on radiotolerance exists. This research sought to determine the dose required to control a major agromyzid pest, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and was performed on L. trifolii collected in Weslaco, TX, reared on Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Capsicum annuum L. and irradiated in the late puparial stage. The measure of efÞcacy was prevention of F1 mine formation. Puparia collected from Gossypium hirsutum L. and reared on P. vulgaris were more radiotolerant than those collected and reared on C. annuum. A dose of 214 Gy may prevent F1 mine formation of L. trifolii. This research used a variation of probit analysis where the direct response of the treated individual is not measured, but the response of the F1 generation is. This type of analysis is useful in phytosanitary irradiation research where the measure of efÞcacy often involves a response of the F1 generation.
HALLMAN GUY J., GUO KUN , AND LIU TONG-XIAN
quarantine treatment, phytosanitary treatment, American serpentine leafminer, ionizing radiation
Florida Entomologist 94(4):1026-1035
Fruit flies that belong to the genus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) are major invasive pests of agricultural crops in Asia and Australia. Increased transboundary movement of agricultural produce has resulted in the chance introduction of many invasive species that include Bactrocera mainly as immature stages. Therefore quick and accurate species diagnosis is important at the port of entry, where morphological identification has a limited role, as it requires the presence of adult specimens and the availability of a specialist. Unfortunately when only immature stages are present, a lacunae in their taxonomy impedes accurate species diagnosis. At this juncture, molecular species diagnostics based on COX-I have become handy, because diagnosis is not limited by developmental stages. Yet another method of quick and accurate species diagnosis for Bactrocera spp. is based on the development of species-specific markers. This study evaluated the utility of COX-I for the quick and accurate species diagnosis of eggs, larvae, pupae and adults of B. zonata Saunders, B. tau Walker, and B. dorsalis Hendel. Furthermore the utility of species-specific markers in differentiating B. zonata (500bp) and B. tau (220bp) was shown. Phylogenetic relationships among five subgenera, viz., Austrodacus, Bactrocera, Daculus, Notodacus and Zeugodacus have been resolved employing the 5′ region of COX-I (1490-2198); where COX-I sequences for B. dorsalis Hendel, B. tau Walker, B. correcta Bezzi and B. zonata Saunders from India were compared with other NCBI-GenBank accessions. Phylogenetic analysis employing Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Bayesian phylogenetic approach (BP) showed that the subgenus Bactrocera is monophyletic. <a href="http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1653/024.094.0441">pdf</a>
R. Asokan, K. B. Rebijith, Shakti K. Singh, A. S. Sidhu, S. Siddharthan, Praveen. K. Karanth, R. Ellango and V. V. Ramamurthy
Bactrocera, COX-I, species-specific marker, Bayesian phylogeny, monophyletic.
Florida Entomologist 94(4):1042-1050.
Sterile insect technique programs continue to use high radiation doses to sterilize Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), without always considering the relationship between sterility and competitiveness. The aims of the present work were to verify, under laboratory conditions, the assumptions made by Parker and Mehta (2007) regarding the relationships between the level of residual fertility, competitiveness and sperm transfer ratio of mass-reared C. capitata males, and radiation dose. The males were irradiated in the pupal stage at doses ranging from 50 to 145 Gy. Our results show that radiation dose has a linear relationship with both competitiveness and fertility after suitable transformation. We could show that there is a clear optimum radiation dose at a dose dependent on the over-flooding ratio achieved. (<a href="http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1653/024.094.0443">pdf</a>)
M'saad Guerfali Meriem, Parker Andrew, Fadhl Salma, Hemdane Heitham , Raies Aly and Claude Chevrier.
Ceratitis capitata, medfly, Diptera,Tephritidae, Sterility, Competitiveness, Radiation dose, SIT, Sterile Insect Technique, Optimization.
Florida Entomologist 94(4):956-963.
A change in temperature may be responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in organisms, which are often associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative damage. In the present study, the lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), were measured under thermal stress conditions of the relatively low (-5, -2.5, 0, and 5 °C) or high (35, 37.5, and 40 °C) temperatures. Subsequently, the time-related effect of thermal stress on activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were systematically determined. The results showed that LPO levels increased significantly in a time-dependent manner under thermal stress. The activities of CAT, GSTs, and SOD were significantly enhanced and likely provided a defense mechanism against oxidative damage due to the accumulation of ROS. POX and T-AOC levels were not significantly modified. These results suggest that thermal stress induces oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzymes likely play an important role in reducing oxidative damage in B. dorsalis.
Jia Fu-Xian, Dou Wei, Hu Fei and Wang Jin-Jun
Bactrocera dorsalis, thermal stress, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes.
Florida Entomologist 94(4):916-922.
Aromatherapy treatment using ginger oil has been shown to be effective in increasing the sexual competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratits capitata (Wiedemann) and can partially remedy the detrimental effects associated with the mass-rearing and irradiation processes that are used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ginger oil treatment on the sexual performance of males of 3 Anastrepha fruit fly species of economic importance (A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart), and A. serpentina (Wiedemann)) when they were at 6, 9, and 12 d old. The experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, and the number and duration of copulations achieved by each type of male were determined. Our results indicate that the male response to ginger oil exposure was different for each of the evaluated species. For A. ludens, we observed a detrimental effect on the number of copulations obtained by 6 d-old males but not by 9 or 12 d-old males. For A. obliqua, treatment with ginger oil did not significantly affect the evaluated parameters at any age. For treated A. serpentina males, 9 and 12 d-old males showed greater sexual performance when compared to untreated males. Copula duration was not affected by ginger oil treatment in any of the species. We determined that aromatherapy using ginger oil does not have the same beneficial effect in A. ludens and A. obliqua as it does in C. capitata, but in A. serpentina, the use of this product offers a great potential and might render important benefits in SIT applications.
Flores Salvador, Rivera J. Pedro, Hernandez Emilio and Montoya Pablo
tropical fruit flies, sexual behavior, aromatherapy, mating competitiveness
Florida Entomologist 94(4):874-881.
The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), is considered one of the most important pests of mango (Mangifera indica L.) and hog plums (Spondias spp.) in Latin America. A better understanding of the role of chemical compounds during the sexual behavior of A. obliqua may be useful to improve the monitoring of this tephritid fruit fly pest. The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the attraction of females and males to live calling males and to Super Q extracts of calling males; (2) to measure the female and males antennal responses to extracts from live calling males; (3) and to identify the compounds emitted by A. obliqua males during calling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both sexes were attracted to live males and to male extracts. Extracts from males elicited significant antennal responses from both sexes compared to those evoked by the control. GC-MS analyses of the volatile extracts showed that calling A. obliqua males consistently emitted 9 compounds, 6 of which are reported for the first time for this fruit fly species. Preliminary bioassays showed that females and males were attracted to (Z)-3-nonenol and (Z)-3-nonenol + β-farnesene. Further identification of the unknown compounds and their synthesis remain to be performed in order to evaluate their biological activity.
López-Guillén Guillermo , Leopoldo Cruz López, Edi A. Malo and Julio C. Rojas
West Indian fruit fly, sexual behavior, male volatiles, sexual/aggregation attraction.