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Journal of Medical Entomology. Appeared or available online: 21 avril 2014
The mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) is a potent vector of several arboviral diseases, most notably chikungunya and dengue fever. In the context of the sterile insect technique (SIT), the sterilization of the male mosquitoes before their release can be achieved by gamma-ray irradiation. As gamma-ray irradiators are becoming increasingly problematic to purchase and transport, the suitability of an X-ray irradiator as an alternative for the sterilization of Ae. albopictus males was studied. The sterilization of up to 200,000 pupae at one time can be achieved with relative ease, and the sterility results obtained were comparable with those achieved by gamma irradiation, where 99% sterility is induced with a dose of 40 Gy. A significant reduction of longevity was observed in the latter stages of the males' life after irradiation treatments, especially at doses >40 Gy, which is consistent with the negative effects on longevity induced by similar radiation doses using gamma rays. Females irradiated at 40 Gy were not only 100% sterile, but also failed to oviposit entirely, i.e., all of the females laid 0 eggs. Overall, it was found that the X-ray irradiator is generally suitable for the sterilization process for sterile insect technique programs, as it showed a high processing capacity, practicality, high effectiveness, and reproducibility.
Yamada, H.; Parker, A. G.; Oliva, C. F.; Balestrino, F.; Gilles, J.R.L
Aedes albopictus; induced sterility; longevity; sterile insect technique; x-ray irradiation
Proc. of the final research co-ordination meet., Beijing, China, 25-29 May, 1987. - Vienna : IAEA , 1991. - 174 p. : ill. - (Panel proceedings series, ISSN 0074-1876). - ISBN 92-0-111191-6 : 20.00 р.
Insect disinfestation of food agricultural products irradiation
Bulletin of Entomological Research 104, 251–261 doi:10.1017/S0007485313000758
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a non-chemical approach used to control major pests from several insect families, including Tephritidae, and entails the mass-release of sterile insects that reduce fertility of wild populations. For SIT to succeed, released sterile males must mature and compete with wild males to mate with wild females. To reach sexual maturity, the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), must obtain adequate nutrition after adult emergence; however, in current SIT programs sterile B. tryoni receive a pre-release diet that lacks key nutrients required to sustain sexual development. The chief objective of this study was to determine whether pre-release yeast hydrolysate (YH) supplements affect the persistence and abundance of sexually mature sterile male B. tryoni under field conditions. Experiments were run in outdoor cages under conditions of low and high environmental stress that differed markedly in temperature and humidity, and in the field. Under low environmental stress conditions, survival of sterile B. tryoni was monitored in cages under three diet treatments: (i) sugar only, (ii) sugar plus YH or (iii) sugar plus YH for 48h and sugar only thereafter. Under high environmental stress conditions survival of sterile B. tryoni was monitored in cages under four diet treatments: (i) white sugar only, (ii) brown sugar only, (iii) white sugar plus YH and (iv) brown sugar plus YH. In a replicated field study, we released colour-marked sterile B. tryoni from two diet regimes, YH-supplemented or YH-deprived, and monitored abundance of sexually mature males. In the low-stress cage study, there was no effect of diet, although overall females lived longer than males. In the high stress cage study, mortality was lower for YH-fed flies than YH-deprived flies and females lived longer than males. In the field, YH supplementation resulted in higher abundance of sexually mature sterile males, with 1.2 YH-fed flies trapped for every YH-deprived fly trapped. Under field conditions, YH supplementation can increase over-flooding ratios and hence may improve the effectiveness of SIT programmes.
Reynolds O.L., Orchard B.A., Collins S.R. and Taylor P.W.
Diptera, Tephritidae, protein, diet, nutrition, sterile insect technique
Bulletin of Entomological Research 104, 176–181 doi:10.1017/S0007485313000643
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are major pests worldwide. The sterile insect technique, where millions of flies are reared, sterilized by irradiation and then released, is one of the most successful and ecologically friendly methods of controlling populations of these pests. The mating behaviour of irradiated and nonirradiated flies has been compared in earlier studies, but there has been little attention paid to the anti-predator behaviour of mass-reared flies, especially with respect to wild flies. Tephritid flies perform a supination display to their jumping spider predators in order to deter attacks. In this study,we evaluated the possibility of using this display to determine the anti-predator capabilities of mass-reared irradiated, non-irradiated flies, and wild flies. We used an arena setup and observed bouts between jumping spiders (Phidippus audax Hentz) and male Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens Loew). We show that although all flies performed a supination display to their predator, wild flies were more likely to perform a display and were significantly more successful in avoiding attack than mass-reared flies. We suggest that this interaction can be used to develop a rapid realistic method of quality control in evaluating anti-predator abilities of mass-reared fruit flies.
Rao D., Aguilar-Argüello S., Montoya P. and Díaz-Fleischer F.
salticidae, supination, predator–prey interaction, sterile insect technique
pp.301-305 In: Fruit Flies Biology and Management Proceedings of the International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 1990, Antigua, Guatemala, October 14-20, 1990, edited by Martin Aluja, Pablo Liedo. ISBN: 978-1-4757-2280-2 (Print) 978-1-4757-2278-9 (Online 2014) First edition 1993 Electronic edition 2014 DOI 10.1007/978-1-4757-2278-9 Publisher: Springer New York
Sci. agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.) vol.51 no.2 Piracicaba May/Aug.1994
The aim of this experiment was to determine the desinfestation dose of gamma radiation in Averrhoa carambola infested with larvae of Anastrepha obliqua. Fruits were collected in the field, each having about 11 larvae in the last instar. Fruits were irradiated with the following gamma radiation doses: 0 (control), 50, 150, 300, 600 and 900 Gy. Each treatment consisted of 9 fruits (3 replications) giving the amount of 99 larvae for each treatment. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted to 25 ± 5°C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%, until larvae left the fruit and became transformed into pupae and adults. The lethal dose (LD100) of gamma radiation for larvae in the fruits was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the total emergency of adults.
Arthur V. ; Wiendl P.M.
Averrhoa carambola, Anastrepha obliqua, quarantine, carambola, fruits-flies, irradiation
PLoS ONE 9(1): e88128. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088128
Early life events can have dramatic consequences on performance later in life. Exposure to stressors at a young age affects development, the rate of aging, risk of disease, and overall lifespan. In spite of this, mild stress exposure early in life can have beneficial effects on performance later in life. These positive effects of mild stress are referred to as physiological conditioning hormesis. In our current study we used anoxia conditioning hormesis as a pretreatment to reduce oxidative stress and improve organismal performance, lifespan, and healthspan of Caribbean fruit flies. We used gamma irradiation to induce mild oxidative damage in a low-dose experiment, and massive oxidative damage in a separate high-dose experiment, in pharate adult fruit flies just prior to adult emergence. Irradiation-induced oxidative stress leads to reduced adult emergence, flight ability, mating performance, and lifespan. We used a hormetic approach, one hour of exposure to anoxia plus irradiation in anoxia, to lower post-irradiation oxidative damage. We have previously shown that this anoxic-conditioning treatment elevates total antioxidant capacity and lowers post-irradiation oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. In this study, conditioned flies had lower mortality rates and longer lifespan compared to those irradiated without hormetic conditioning. As a metric of healthspan, we tracked mating both at a young age (10 d) and old age (30 d). We found that anoxia-conditioned male flies were more competitive at young ages when compared to unconditioned irradiation stressed male flies, and that the positive effects of anoxic conditioning hormesis on mating success were even more pronounced in older males. Our data shows that physiological conditioning hormesis at a young age, not only improves immediate metrics of organismal performance (emergence, flight, mating), but the beneficial effects also carry into old age by reducing late life oxidative damage and improving lifespan and healthspan. Full paper:
López-Martínez G, Hahn DA
Fruit fly Tephritidae Anoxia Antioxidants Death rates Drosophila Insects Oxidative damage Oxidative stress
J. Econ. Entomol. 107(1): 185Ð197; DOI:
As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moths antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after1hof anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moths lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations.
gamma radiation, oxidative damage, antioxidant, hormesis, anoxia
International Atomic Energy Agency; Food and Agriculture Organization: Sterility principle for insect control 1974. Proceedings of the symposium on the sterility principle for insect control jointly organized by the IAEA and the FAO of the United Nations and held in Innsbruck, 22-26 July 1974. 1975 pp. 103-114
The authors outline work in the Soviet Union on radiation-induced sterilisation for the control of insect pests. Particular attention has been paid to the control of pests of stored grains and pulses, and facilities have been developed for the irradiation of large quantities of foodstuffs during storage. The species used in studies to develop artificial diets, procedures for mass-rearing and facilities for irradiation in general have included Agrotis segetum (Schiff.), Heliothis armigera (Hb.) (Chloridea obsoleta auct.) Hylemya (Chortophila) brassicae (Bch.), Myiopardalis pardalina (Big.), Yponomeuta padellus malinellus Zell. (Hyponomeuta malinella), Cydia (Grapholitha) molesta (Busck.), Pegomya hyoscyami (Panz.), C. (Laspeyresia) pomonella (L.), Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Bruchus pisorum (L.).
Andreev, S. V.; Martens, B. K.
Insecta, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae
Radiobiologia, radiotherapia 23:6 pg 687-91
Larvae of Agrotis segetum were collected from potato fields. The larvae were kept in petri dishes in an incubator, under controlled conditions of temperature (27 +- 0.5 /sup 0/C) and an alternate photoperiod (12L : 12 D). The larvae were fed on fresh potato leaves. Fifth instar larvae from laboratory-reared insects (after third generation) were gamma irradiated at different doses of 0, 50, 100 and 150 Gy. For each dose 20 larvae were irradiated and daily observations were made on postirradiation mortality. Similarly 5 day old pupae from laboratory-reared insects were irradiated at doses of 0, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy. For each dose 20 pupae were irradiated and adults which emerged out were mated with normal females to see the egg laying and their hatchability percentage. The mortality as well as the number of eggs laid and the hatchability percentage were dose-dependent. A sterility dose is proposed between 50-75 Gy in 5 day old pupae.
Bhagat RM, Kumar A
Insecta, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae
Appl Radiat Isot;73:101-8
This study investigated the effects of two substerilizing doses of gamma radiation, 100 and 150 Gray (Gy), and/or the plant extract Conyza dioscorides (Barnoof) in two solvents on certain biological aspects and the energy budget of the Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel). Data revealed that the treatment combination of gamma radiation with the plant extract significantly increased reproduction compared with the control at all treatment levels (doses and concentrations). Most of the treatments increased the values of developmental/day and larval duration in the F(1) progeny compared with the progeny from the control treatment, although the percentage survival was decreased in all treatments. These values were more obvious in the combination treatments compared with either gamma radiation or plant extract treatments alone. The coefficient of metabolizable energy (C.M.E.) was not affected by any treatments. No consistent effect on the efficiency of storage of ingested energy [E.S.I.(E.)] and the efficiency of storage of metabolizable energy [E.S.M.(E.)] when the F(1) progeny were treated with plant extract alone or with the plant extract combined with the 100 Gy dose of radiation was noted, while they were both significantly increased at all treatment levels when the 150 Gy dose of radiation was combined with the plant extract. The results obtained are discussed in terms of their implications for the best substerilizing dose of radiation on parental male pupae of A. ipsilon.
Mohamed HF
substerilizing radiation irradiation lepidoptera plant extract Conyza dioscorides reproduction
Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt., ( 114p.).
The effect of gamma irradiation on the greasy cutworm A. ipsilon (Hufn.). Special attention was given to the sterilization studies in the hope of promoting the sterile insect technique for the pest control program. The obtained results could be summarized as follows: Three ages of eggs were irradiated as newly laid egg (6-12 h old), middle age egg (24-36 h-old) and old egg (60-72 h-old). The mortality among irradiated eggs was directly related to the increase of irradiation dose or the decrease of the age of treated eggs. The dose of irradiation required for complete mortality was found to be 0.0525 and 0.7 Gy for newly laid eggs, middle age and old eggs, respectively. Irradiation of eggs had no effect on the incubation period.
Ibrahim N.A.
lepidoptera eggs radiation irradiation mortality
Arab J. of Nuc. Sci. and Applications, v. 33(3) p. 22 5-2 31.
The mating competitiveness of P1 and F1 generations of A. ipsilon when irradiated as full-grown pupae with 75 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation was evaluated. The mating competitiveness values showed that either males or females of P1 or F1 generation were full competitive after treatment with 75 or 150 y at all released ratios. Mating competitiveness of both irradiated males and females was also studied to avoid problems concerning mass sexing. The results revealed that confining both sexes together gave excellent results for population suppression in both P1 and F1 in both tested doses and ratios. The addition of irradiated females to the release ratio make these females encountered in mating with untreated females, and possessed 78% of all matings occurred in parent generation in the two tested doses at 5:5:1 ratio and increased to reach 88% by F1 females 75 Gy while it was reduced to only 31% at 150 Gy, but still act in mating.
El-Naggar, S. E. M., Ibrahim, S. M. , El-Shall, S. S. A.
lepidoptera radiation irradiation competitiveness mating
Insect Sci. and Application, 5(6):501-503.
Irradiated full-grown pupae of A. ipsilon with 50 or 100 Gy gamma radiation and crossed with unirradiated females. The F 1 progeny were more sterile than parents. The percentage of mated females of the F1 generation was greatly reduced while the mating frequency was increased. There were fewer inseminated females among the F1, particularly when the female inherited the sterility. The mortality among larvae of the F1 generation was high and dose-dependent, and that among F2 larvae was even higher. The sex ratio of the F1 progeny was altered in favor of males, while that of the F2 was normal; 100 Gy applied to P1 males were sufficient to inhibit hatching of the eggs produced by F1 adults.
El-Naggar, S. , Megahed, M. M. , Sallam, H. A. , Ibrahim, S.M.
lepidoptera radiation irradiation
African J. Agric. Sci., 12(1-2):155-162).
The mortality of eggs of the noctuid A. ipsilon exposed in the laboratory to gamma radiation was directly related to the increase in dose or the decrease in age of the eggs. When 3rd instar larvae were exposed at 20 - 300 Gy, all those treated at 150 Gy died during the larval stage, whereas at 80 Gy about 30% of the larvae pupated and 40% of the pupae gave rise to malformed adults. When fully-grown larvae were exposed to 200 Gy, they died during the larval stage, but 80 Gy permitted 40% of the larvae to pupate, although none of the pupae gave rise to adults. Mortality increased with dosage, and irradiation resulted in delayed development and an adult sex ratio that favored males.
El-Naggar, S., Megahed, M. M., Sallam, H. A. , Ibrahim, S. M.,
lepidoptera larvae eggs mortality
Insect Sci. and Application, 5(6):501-503.
Irradiated full-grown pupae of A. ipsilon with 50 or 100 Gy gamma radiation and crossed with unirradiated females. The F 1 progeny were more sterile than parents. The percentage of mated females of the F1 generation was greatly reduced while the mating frequency was increased. There were fewer inseminated females among the F1, particularly when the female inherited the sterility. The mortality among larvae of the F1 generation was high and dose-dependent, and that among F2 larvae was even higher. The sex ratio of the F1 progeny was altered in favor of males, while that of the F2 was normal; 100 Gy applied to P1 males were sufficient to inhibit hatching of the eggs produced by F1 adults.
El-Naggar, S. , Megahed, M. M. , Sallam, H. A. , Ibrahim, S.M.,
Lepidoptera inherited sterility radiation irradiation
Mededelingen-van-de-Faculteit-Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit-Gent. 48(2): 385-392.
The effect of gamma radiation on aspects of the biology of A. ipsilon (Hufn.) exposed as pupae in the laboratory in Egypt. Adult emergence was reduced, and the rate of malformation in survivors increased, as the radiation dose increased, the effect being greater in females than in males. Exposure of mature pupae to 200 Gy reduced mating in the ensuing adults and induced sterility in females, whereas 250 Gy was required for male sterility. Female fecundity was reduced proportionally to the treatment dose. Irradiation of females at any given dose always caused greater sterility than did irradiation of males at the same dose, but treatment of both partners of a mating pair reduced fertility more markedly than did treatment of either sex separately
El-Kady, E. A., Salem, Y. S. , Hekal, A. M.
Lepidoptera irradiation radiation
MSc. Al Azhar university-Cairo-Egypt
Three doses (50, 100 and 150 Gy) of gamma irradiation were tested against full – grown male and female pupae or against full grown male or female pupae of A.ipsilon. The results showed that fecundity of irradiated females crossed with irradiated males was decreased by increasing irradiation dose. The mean number of eggs /♀ was 316 ± 17.3, 250.7 ± 28 and 50.3 ± 10.5 at 50, 100 and 150 Gy, respectively vs. 1172.3 ± 64 for the control. In addition, the decrease in egg – hatchability % and increase in sterility % induced by gamma irradiation were found to be positively correlated with the dose. The parentage of larval and pupal mortality increased significantly (p
Ahlam Gabarty Abd EL- Wahed Ali
inherited sterility radiation irradiation lepidoptera plant oil enzyms
M.Sc Thesis. Fac. Agric.Cairo Univ.
Full-grown male and female pupae of black cut worm A. ipsilon were exposed to three doses of gamma irradiation 50, 100 and 150 Gy. Increasing the dose of irradiation applied to the parental male gradually reduced the egg hatch. The reduction was significant at all tested doses level when compared to the control treatment. The average number of eggs did not significantly different from untreated control at 50 and 100 Gy but it was significantly reduced at150 Gy. Also, the data indicated that the percentage of egg hatch was reduced gradually a t all tested mating combination of F I in comparison with their untreated control. Full-grown female pupae were exposed to three doses of gamma irradiation, the average number of eggs and percentage of egg hatch of treated female mated with normal male decreased. However, the data indicated that the percentage of egg hatch was increased at all tested mating combination of F 1 in comparison with their P I . The results lead to a conclusion that sterility could be inherited by irradiation of full grown male pupae more than irradiated full grown female pupae.
Abd El-Hamid
inherited sterility insect lepidoptera radiation irradiation
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria), Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy), Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology, 445 p, Jun 1968, p. 69-73, Symposium on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology, Vienna (Austria), 4-8 Dec 1967, IAEA-SM--102/7, ISSN 0074-1884,
Effects of host irradiation on the development of its parasite were investigated. Females of Bracon brevicomis readily accepted irradiated larvae of tile wax moth (Galleria mellonella) and rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica) for oviposition. However, irradiated wax moth larvae adversely influenced the viability of eggs laid on them and also the survival of the parasite grubs feeding on their bodies. The female grubs were affected more than the males. Rice moth larvae, on the other hand, exerted no significant influence on the viability of parasite eggs, but adversely affected the survival of the grubs. The progeny of parents that had been reared on irradiated larvae also exhibited some developmental changes although grown on non-irradiated host larvae, and these changes were more pronounced when G. mellonella was used as the host insect. (author)
Rahalkar, G. W.; Ramakrishnan, V.
Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(5):2020-2026 doi:
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) produces a low-oxygen (O2) environment that can increase produce shelf life by decreasing product respiration and growth of pathogens. However, low O2 is known to increase insect tolerance to irradiation, and the use of MAP with products treated by irradiation before export to control quarantine pests may inadvertently compromise treatment efficacy. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important economic and quarantine pest of tropical fruits and vegetables, and one of the most radiation-tolerant tephritid fruit flies known. The effect of low O2 generated by MAP on the radiation tolerance of B. cucurbitae was examined. Third-instar larval B. cucurbitae were inoculated into ripe papayas and treated by 1) MAP + irradiation, 2) irradiation alone, 3) MAP alone, or (4) no MAP and no irradiation, and held for adult emergence. Three types of commercially available MAP products were tested that produced O2 concentrations between 1 and 15%, and a sublethal radiation dose (50 Gy) was used to allow comparisons between treatments. Ziploc storage bags (1-4% O2) increased survivorship to adult from 14 to 25%, whereas Xtend PP61 bags (3-8% O2) and Xtend PP53 bags (11-15% O2) did not enhance survivorship to the adult stage in B. cucurbitae irradiated at 50 Gy. Radiation doses approved by the United States Department of Agriculture and the International Plant Protection Commission for B. cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) are 150 and 100 Gy, respectively. In large-scale tests, 9,000 B. cucurbitae and 3,800 C. capitata larvae infesting papayas in Ziploc bags were irradiated at 150 and 100 Gy, respectively, with no survivors to the adult stage. MAP can increase insect survivorship during irradiation treatment at certain doses and O2 concentrations, but should not compromise the efficacy of the 150-Gy generic radiation treatment for tephritid fruit flies or the 100-Gy radiation treatment for C. capitata.
Follett PA, Wall M, Bailey W
irradiation, Melon fly, Ceratitis capitata, quarantine, generic dose, modified atmosphere
J. Econ. Entomol. 106(5): 2035Ð2042; DOI:
Cold storage is used to preserve fruit quality after harvest during transportation in marketing channels. Low temperature can be a stressor for insects that reduces survivorship, and cold storage may contribute to the efficacy of postharvest quarantine treatments such as irradiation against quarantine insect pests. The combined effect of irradiation and cold storage was examined in a radiation-tolerant fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly), and a radiation-intolerant fruit fly,Ceratitis capitat (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Third instars on diet or in papaya were treated with a sublethal radiation dose of 30 Gy and stored at 4 or 11_C for 3-13 d and held for adult emergence. For both fruit fly species, survival of third instars to the adult stage generally decreased with increasing cold storage duration at 4 or 11_C in diet or papaya. Survivorship differences were highly significant for the effects of substrate (diet > papaya), temperature (11 > 4 degrees C), and irradiation (0>30 Gy). Few Mediterranean fruit flies survived in any cold storage treatment after receiving a radiation dose of 30 Gy no melon fly larvae survived to the adult stage after irradiation and 11 d cold storage at 4 or 11 degree C in papayas. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and widens the margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments. Potentially irradiation and cold storage can be used in combination to reduce the irradiation exposure requirements of quarantine treatments.
irradiation, quarantine, postharvest, phytosanitary treatment, systems approach
Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College London. Centre for Environmental Policy, Department of Life Sciences, Silwood Park Campus. December 2012
Walker Catherine Sophie
Diptera Liriomyza Leafminer irradiation sterility SIT tomato
Journal of Malaysian Applied Biology. v. 16(2) 6 p
This study was conducted to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on insect pest of rice, stored for a period of 24 months, and packed in four different packaging materials. They were then exposed to gamma radiation using Gamma Cell 220, in a 60Co source. Samples were randomly sampled at the initial storage period and there after at 3 months interval. At each sampling time the grain weight loss and insect count, both dead and alive, were determined. The increasing dosages of irradiation did not show any consistent effect on the insect population in all the four packaging materials which indicated that the rice was already infested even before it was irradiated. The range of percentage weight loss for all the dosages of irradiation in all of the four packaging materials is 0.99 to 2.02. (A.J.)
Awang Rita Muhamad; Noorma Osman.; Agricultural Univ. of Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor
irradiation rice syored product
8 p, 31. Congress on Science and Technology of Thailand, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand), 18-20 Oct 2005
Mangosteen fruits (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) were investigated for the surface insects at under caps, skin and stem. Samples from Nakhonsithammarat and Chantaburi province were taken. Common quarantine pests such as citrus mealy bug (Pseudococcus cryptus), Orientalscale (Aonidiella orientallis), red tea mite (Oligpnychus coffee) and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) were found at 48.23, 26.67, 75.29 and 26.67% respectively. Effect of gamma radiation on the quarantine pests were studied. The result showed that the P. cryptus and A. orientallis were more radiosensititive than other (LD99=913.05 and 848.09 Gy). The dose for inhibiting disinfestations of O. coffee and P. latus were 1,662.77 and 2,271.97 Gy (at the dose of LD99).
Kongratarpon, Titima; Limohpasmanee, Wanitch; Vongcheeree, Satit; Segsarnviriya, Suchada; Pransopon, Prapon
We evaluated the effects of X-ray irradiation on larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), with the aim of finding a treatment that prevented adult fly emergence, yet did not adversely affect larval quality as rearing hosts for the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, small numbers of larvae were held in Petri dishes with and without small amounts of rearing media and then irradiated with doses of X-rays ranging from 0 to 8333.6 R (equivalent to 80 Gy). In the second experiment, higher numbers of larvae were held in a manner resembling mass-rearing conditions, and were then irradiated with X-rays ranging from 0 to 10,417 R (equivalent to 100 Gy). In both experiments, the only factor that significantly affected fly emergence was irradiation of larvae. Fly emergence decreased markedly as the irradiation dose increased, and complete suppression of fly emergence was achieved at 6250.2 R (equivalent to 60 Gy) when larvae were irradiated in small batches with or without rearing media. Irradiation also affected the fertility of those flies that did emerge following treatment. In the second experiment, we found the parasitoids reared from irradiated larvae produced a higher parasitism rate and a higher number of female offspring than did parasitoids reared from control (non-irradiated) larvae. Mean fecundity of F1 parasitoids reared from irradiated larvae were affected positively by irradiation only at the 8333.6 R (80 Gy) dose. Our results show that X-ray irradiation can be used to inhibit fruit fly adult emergence and that irradiated larvae are at least as good a rearing substrate as non-irradiated larvae. Future studies should focus on the adjustment of our findings to a mass-rearing scale.
Viscarret, M.M. Conte, C.A. Paladino, L.Z.C. Lopez, S.N. Segura, D.F. Muntaabski, I. Lanzavecchia, S.B. Cladera, J.L.
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata , Ceratitis capitata , X-ray, parasitoids rearing
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 16: 1730-1736. DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2013.1730.1736
The sterile insect technique is one of the most methods of fruit flies control. Flight ability of the Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata was conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on flight ability of PFF, B. zonata. Pupae of PFF, B. zonata, were irradiated in an air atmosphere at 24, 48 and 72 h before adult emergence with three doses of Cobalt60 (10, 30 and 50 Gray) and tested against 6, 12 and 20 cm tube heights. Flight Ability Percentage (FAP) of PFF was carried out for newly emerged flies and six-days-old of adult flies. FAP of newly emerged-and six- days-old of adult flies was inversely proportional to the tube heights, doses of gamma rays and with progress the age of flies. The FAP value was significantly higher at 6 cm tube height, followed by 12 cm then 20 cm tube heights for all tested levels of gamma rays, respectively.
El-Gendy I.R., El-Aw M.A.M., Hashem A.G. and Draz K.A.,
radiation tephritidaae Sterile insect technique sterility
M.Sc. Report, Nov 1983, 63 p, Tese (M.Sc.). Brazil
The sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Dip. Tephritidae) using gamma irradiation (γ) was studied under laboratory conditions at Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Living conditions for Med fly are optimum in this country and its biological cycle is completed in less than 30 days. There is a large number of varying host fruits for larvae development, which makes this pest very harmful, especially to citrus crops. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a type of physical control of pests, which does not cause any harm to other insects. Pupae with different ages were initially submitted to 0, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 Gy doses. Sterility was determined from fertility of eggs resulting from crosses of irradiated male x normal female and normal male x irradiated female. Later, pupae with 72 + - 12 hrs before emergence were submitted to 70 and 90 Gy doses with carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen fluxes. The sterilizing dose for the males was 90 Gy. Activity, of irradiated with and without gas lux and normal male, was evaluated with an activity-meter, and the dose least harmful to their behaviour was found to be 90 Gy with nitrogen flux. (Author). Orig. Title: Uso da radiacao gama e gases inertes na esterilizacao de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera-Tephritidae) com vistas a aplicacao da tecnica do inseto esteril.
Almeida, M.S.-P. de
Journal of Economic Entomology 105(6):1971-1978.
The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60 90, 120, or 150 Gy or left untreated as controls in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation generally increased with increasing age and developmental stage. A radiation dose of 120 Gy applied to eggs and neonates prevented adult emergence A dose of 150 Gy prevented adult emergence in larvae at all stages. In large-scale validation tests, a radiation dose of 150 Gy applied to fifth instars in diet, apples or peppers resulted in no survival to the adult stage in 37,947 treated individuals. Pupae were more radio tolerant than larvae, and late stage pupae were more tolerant than early stage pupae. Radiation treatment of late pupae at 350 and 400 Gy resulted in three and one fertile eggs in 4,962 and 4,205 total eggs laid by 148 and 289 mating pairs, respectively. For most commodities, the fifth instar is the most radio tolerant life stage likely to occur with the commodity; a minimum radiation dose of 150 Gy will prevent adult emergence from this stage and meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. For traded commodities such as table grapes that may contain E. postvittana pupae, a radiation dose >400 Gy may be necessary to completely sterilize emerging adults. After review of the literature, a generic radiation treatment of 250 Gy is proposed for tortricid eggs and larvae in regulated commodities.
Follett Peter A. and Snook Kirsten
x-ray radiation, Lepidoptera, invasive species, regulatory pest, phytosanitary treatment
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 148: 203–212. doi: 10.1111/eea.12096
The sterile insect technique (SIT) potentially provides a socially acceptable approach for insect eradication of new pest incursions. The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was discovered in Berkeley (CA, USA) in 2006, leading to an incursion response that included this technology. In this study, we assessed factors affecting mating success from a bisex release of irradiated moths: effects of radiation dose on male multiple mating, male flight competition, female sex pheromone titre and attractiveness of irradiated females to males, and identification of successful mating in vineyards of either irradiated or wild males (identified by isotope analysis of spermatophores from sentinel females). There was a significant negative relationship between male radiation dose and mating frequency. In head-to-head flights of irradiated males against non-irradiated males to a pheromone lure in a wind tunnel, irradiated males reached the lure first only 31% of the time. With increasing radiation dose, the production of the major sex pheromone component in females, (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, dropped, from 0.7 ± 0.1 ng per female in non-irradiated females to 0.2 ± 0.07 ng per female when irradiated at 300 Gy. Male catch was reduced to 11% of control females in traps containing females irradiated at 300 Gy. Isotope analysis of spermatophores found in the bursa copulatrix of females indicated that mating success of irradiated males inside the live (entry-only) traps containing virgin females was lower (13.1 ± 3.3%) than suggested by male catch (21.2 ± 3.8%) in pheromone traps, the current standard for assessing field competitiveness. Impacts of irradiation on male and female moth fitness should be taken into account to improve estimates of irradiated to wild male E. postvittana overflooding ratios needed for population suppression.
Stringer, L. D., Sullivan, N. J., Sullivan, T. E.S., Mitchell, V. J., Manning, L.-A. M., Mas, F., Hood-Nowotny, R. C. and Suckling, D. M.
sterile insect technique; stable isotope; bursa copulatrix; mating success; Lepidoptera; Tortricidae; Epiphyas postvittana ; sex pheromone; SIT
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