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Journal of Economic Entomology 107(3):1172-1178
The sterile insect technique has been routinely used to eradicate fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) incursions. This study considers whether fly quality in a mass-rearing facility can be improved by reducing irradiation doses, without sacrificing reproductive sterility. Pupae were exposed to one of five target irradiation dose ranges: 0, 40-45, 50-55, 60-65, and 70-75 Gy. Pupae were then assessed using routine quality control measures: flight ability, sex ratio, longevity under nutritional stress, emergence, and reproductive sterility. Irradiation did not have a significant effect on flight ability or sex ratio tests. Longevity under nutritional stress was significantly increased at 70-75 Gy, but no other doses differed from 0 Gy. Emergence was slightly reduced in the 50-55, 60-65, and 70-75 Gy treatments, but 40-45 Gy treatments did not differ from 0 Gy, though confounding temporal factors complicate interpretation. Reproductive sterility remained acceptable (> 99.5%) for all doses--40-45 Gy (99.78%), 50-55 Gy (100%), 60-65 Gy (100%), and 70-75 Gy (99.99%). We recommend that B. tryoni used in sterile insect technique releases be irradiated at a target dose of 50-55 Gy, providing improved quality and undiminished sterility in comparison with the current 70-75 Gy standard while also providing a substantial buffer against risk of under dosing.
Dominiak BC, Sundaralingam S, Jiang L, Fanson BG, Collins SR, Banos C, Davies JB, Taylor PW
Bactrocera,, insect quality parameter, mass production, sterile insect technique, Tephritidae
Neotropical Entomology (Impresso); v. 39(4); p. 601-607; Available from
We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)
Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo
Applied Entomology and Zoology; v. 26(2); p. 265-270
Hibino, Y.; Iwahashi, O.; Ryukyu Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa
Nippon Oyo Dobutsu Konchu Gakkai-Shi; v. 31(2) p. 134-137; ISSN 0021-4914; CODEN NIPTA;
The duration and distance of flight and the flight velocity of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, were investigated by using a flight mill system. Mean flight duration of the normal female flies was significantly longer than that of the sterile ones which were irradiated with a dose of 7, 20, 30 KR γ-ray. No significant differences were recognized between normal and sterile male flies irradiated with 7 KR. No adverse effect of irradiation on the flight velocity was detected. Flight distance was the longest for the unirradiated flies and it decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses, but the difference among normal and sterile flies irradiated with either 7 or 20 KR was not statistically significant. Generally, the flight ability decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses. (author)
Nakamori Hiroaki
Journal of Applied Entomology, 138: 355–360. doi: 10.1111/jen.12076
Irradiation is a post-harvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products traded between countries. As little is known about irradiation effects on ants, radiotolerance of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae), was studied to determine a dose sufficient for its control. Queens collected from Buenos Aires, Argentina, were irradiated with 30, 60, 90 Gy or left untreated as controls, and then followed for 8 weeks to evaluate their survival and fecundity. Overall queen survival and brood viability decreased with increasing irradiation dose. The number of eggs was reduced by 50%, 69% and 56% in the 30, 60 and 90 Gy doses, respectively, compared with untreated control queens. The percentage of eggs that developed into larvae decreased from 41.1% in the control to 22.5%, 1.4%, and 0% in the 30, 60, and 90 Gy treatments, respectively. Thus, the number of larvae was reduced by 69% in the 30 Gy treatment compared with the control, only one larva was observed in the 60 Gy treatment, and none in the 90 Gy treatment. Only one pupa was observed in the 30 Gy treatment and none in the 60 and 90 Gy treatments during the 8-week experiment. Queens irradiated with 60 and 90 Gy had significantly reduced longevity compared with queens treated with lower doses or untreated queens. Radiation dose ≥90 Gy stopped brood development in Argentine ant queens and should be sufficient as a phytosanitary treatment. The radiotolerance of Argentine ant appears to be similar to that of two other important invasive ants.
Coulin, C., Calcaterra, L. A. and Follett, P. A.
invasive ant; irradiation; Linepithema humile ; phytosanitary treatment; quarantine pest
2009 International Nuclear Atlantic Conference - INAC 2009 Rio de Janeiro,RJ, Brazil, September27 to October 2, 2009 ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE ENERGIA NUCLEAR - ABEN ISBN: 978-85-99141-03-8
Recent fears of terrorism provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programs around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing energy from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. In order to validate a novel X-ray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24 to 48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of γ radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at about 40-60 Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. There were no significant differences between X and γ radiation regarding mating indices. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and γ radiation, and X-rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as γ rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X-ray irradiators for pest control programs in UN Member States.
Mastrangelo, Thiago; Walder, Julio M.M.; Parker, Andrew G.; Jessup, Andrew; Pereira Rui; Orozco-Davila, Dina; Islam, Amirul; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Walder, Julio M.M.
Southwestern Entomologist; v. 18(4); ISSN 0147-1724; ; p. 281-286
Boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, administered a 46 or so gray (Gy) fractionated irradiation treatment followed by a dip in a solution containing 0.032% LY-121342 benzamide, 2-chloro-N-[[[6-[2,4-dichlorophenyl]methoxy]- 3-pyridinyl]amino]carbonyl]-6-fluoro- or LY-135926 benzamide, N-[[[6-[2,4-dichlorophenylmethoxy]-3-pyridinyl]amino] carbonyl]- had significantly higher mortality after 5 d for treated males and 10 d for treated females compared with weevils given a 43 Gy fractionated irradiation plus 0.032% LY-135926 treatment. We found only 3.0% F1 adult emergence from treated male x untreated female matings, and fecundity in treated female X untreated male matings was reduced to zero following the 43 Gy plus 0.032% LY-135926 treatment. All combination treatments of male and female weevils surviving after 15 d proved to be 98.3 ± 2.3% sterile.
Haynes, J.W.; Smith, J.W.
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 19 (3) pp 193-202 DOI 10.1303/jjaez.19.193
The sensitivity of Xylosandrus germanus (Bldf.), X. compactus (Eichh.) and Xyleborus crassiusculus (Motsch.) (semiopacus Eichh.) to irradiation was tested in the laboratory in Japan with a view to the possibility of using radiation for control of ambrosia beetles in cut timber. The LD50's and LD99's for females, determined 12 days after treatment, were 39 and 73 krad, 50 and 91 krad and 94 and 130 krad for the 3 species, respectively. Doses that prevented adult emergence in all species were 3 krad for 5-day-old eggs, 5-7 krad for third-instar larvae and over 10 krad for pupae. The sterilising dose was 2-4 krad for all stages of all the species. Xylosandrus females that mated soon after emergence and were then exposed to 2-4 krad produced only male offspring. Treatment of adults and pupae with 10-30 krad effectively prevented the production not only of progeny surviving to the adult stage but also of further boring damage.
Yoshida, T.; Fukami, J. I.; Fukunaga, K.; Matsuyama, A
agricultural entomology applications control gamma radiation genetics IONIZING RADIATION pest control radiation stored products timbers wood borers
J. Econ. Entomol. 107(3): 964-969; DOI:
Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option for exported commodities such as stone fruits and small fruits to prevent movement of the new invasive pest spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Walker) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The effects of irradiation on larval and pupal development and adult reproduction in D. suzukii were examined. Larvae (Þrst, second, and third instars) and pupae (1-2-d-old, 3-5-d-old, and 7-8-d-old) on diet were irradiated at target doses of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. Males and females were equally susceptible.Aradiation dose of 40 Gy applied to Þrst- and second-instar larvae prevented adult emergence. The late-stage pupa was the most radiation-tolerant stage that occurs in fruit, and individuals irradiated at this stage readily emerged as adults; therefore, prevention of F1 adults was the desired treatment response for large-scale validation tests with naturally infested fruit. In largescale tests, a radiation dose of 80 Gy applied to late-stage pupae in sweet cherries or grapes resulted in no production of F1 adults in 33,000 treated individuals, which meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. A minimum absorbed dose of 80 Gy is recommended for quarantine control of D. suzukii.
X-ray radiation, radio-tolerance, invasive species, regulatory pest, phytosanitary treatment
Radiation Measurements Available online 27 May 2014
Highlights • Behaviour of Gafchromic HD-810 film is investigated for low energy X radiation. • Its response significantly depends on the surrounding material during irradiation. • Response is found to be proportional to kerma for the surrounding material. • Response of Gafchromic MD-V2-55 is independent of surrounding material. Recent developments have produced low energy X ray systems capable of providing a radiation dose to adequate volumes suitable for sterile inset programmes. To support the adoption of these new systems, the performance of the Gafchromic® HD-810 dosimetry system previously used for gamma irradiation needed to be better understood at the lower photon energies. For low energy photons, the optical density of the irradiated Gafchromic HD-810 film dosimeters significantly depends on the material surrounding them. For example, if paper, Mylar® or PVC is used to house the dosimeter during irradiation, the optical density can vary by as much as a factor of three or more for the same dose. This paper is an attempt to elucidate the performance of the Gafchromic HD-810 film dosimeters for such low energy X radiation (∼150 keV). Our data show that this behaviour can be explained by the fact that these materials have significantly different photon mass attenuation coefficient. This conclusion was reinforced with mathematical simulation using Monte Carlo modelling. We also show that with the different structure of another Gafchromic film dosimeter (MD-V2-55) this effect is virtually non-existent. An understanding of the behaviour of thin film dosimeters like Gafchromic HD-810 under radiation is crucial for reliable dosimetry. We hope that this work can also provide guidance in the use of other thin film dosimeters at similar low photon energies.
Mehta Kishor, Parker Andrew, Tessier Frédéric
Gafchromic dosimeter; low-energy photons; RS-2400; electron equilibrium
Journal of Medical Entomology. Appeared or available online: 21 avril 2014
The mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) is a potent vector of several arboviral diseases, most notably chikungunya and dengue fever. In the context of the sterile insect technique (SIT), the sterilization of the male mosquitoes before their release can be achieved by gamma-ray irradiation. As gamma-ray irradiators are becoming increasingly problematic to purchase and transport, the suitability of an X-ray irradiator as an alternative for the sterilization of Ae. albopictus males was studied. The sterilization of up to 200,000 pupae at one time can be achieved with relative ease, and the sterility results obtained were comparable with those achieved by gamma irradiation, where 99% sterility is induced with a dose of 40 Gy. A significant reduction of longevity was observed in the latter stages of the males' life after irradiation treatments, especially at doses >40 Gy, which is consistent with the negative effects on longevity induced by similar radiation doses using gamma rays. Females irradiated at 40 Gy were not only 100% sterile, but also failed to oviposit entirely, i.e., all of the females laid 0 eggs. Overall, it was found that the X-ray irradiator is generally suitable for the sterilization process for sterile insect technique programs, as it showed a high processing capacity, practicality, high effectiveness, and reproducibility.
Yamada, H.; Parker, A. G.; Oliva, C. F.; Balestrino, F.; Gilles, J.R.L
Aedes albopictus; induced sterility; longevity; sterile insect technique; x-ray irradiation
Proc. of the final research co-ordination meet., Beijing, China, 25-29 May, 1987. - Vienna : IAEA , 1991. - 174 p. : ill. - (Panel proceedings series, ISSN 0074-1876). - ISBN 92-0-111191-6 : 20.00 р.
Insect disinfestation of food agricultural products irradiation
Bulletin of Entomological Research 104, 251–261 doi:10.1017/S0007485313000758
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a non-chemical approach used to control major pests from several insect families, including Tephritidae, and entails the mass-release of sterile insects that reduce fertility of wild populations. For SIT to succeed, released sterile males must mature and compete with wild males to mate with wild females. To reach sexual maturity, the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), must obtain adequate nutrition after adult emergence; however, in current SIT programs sterile B. tryoni receive a pre-release diet that lacks key nutrients required to sustain sexual development. The chief objective of this study was to determine whether pre-release yeast hydrolysate (YH) supplements affect the persistence and abundance of sexually mature sterile male B. tryoni under field conditions. Experiments were run in outdoor cages under conditions of low and high environmental stress that differed markedly in temperature and humidity, and in the field. Under low environmental stress conditions, survival of sterile B. tryoni was monitored in cages under three diet treatments: (i) sugar only, (ii) sugar plus YH or (iii) sugar plus YH for 48h and sugar only thereafter. Under high environmental stress conditions survival of sterile B. tryoni was monitored in cages under four diet treatments: (i) white sugar only, (ii) brown sugar only, (iii) white sugar plus YH and (iv) brown sugar plus YH. In a replicated field study, we released colour-marked sterile B. tryoni from two diet regimes, YH-supplemented or YH-deprived, and monitored abundance of sexually mature males. In the low-stress cage study, there was no effect of diet, although overall females lived longer than males. In the high stress cage study, mortality was lower for YH-fed flies than YH-deprived flies and females lived longer than males. In the field, YH supplementation resulted in higher abundance of sexually mature sterile males, with 1.2 YH-fed flies trapped for every YH-deprived fly trapped. Under field conditions, YH supplementation can increase over-flooding ratios and hence may improve the effectiveness of SIT programmes.
Reynolds O.L., Orchard B.A., Collins S.R. and Taylor P.W.
Diptera, Tephritidae, protein, diet, nutrition, sterile insect technique
Bulletin of Entomological Research 104, 176–181 doi:10.1017/S0007485313000643
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are major pests worldwide. The sterile insect technique, where millions of flies are reared, sterilized by irradiation and then released, is one of the most successful and ecologically friendly methods of controlling populations of these pests. The mating behaviour of irradiated and nonirradiated flies has been compared in earlier studies, but there has been little attention paid to the anti-predator behaviour of mass-reared flies, especially with respect to wild flies. Tephritid flies perform a supination display to their jumping spider predators in order to deter attacks. In this study,we evaluated the possibility of using this display to determine the anti-predator capabilities of mass-reared irradiated, non-irradiated flies, and wild flies. We used an arena setup and observed bouts between jumping spiders (Phidippus audax Hentz) and male Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens Loew). We show that although all flies performed a supination display to their predator, wild flies were more likely to perform a display and were significantly more successful in avoiding attack than mass-reared flies. We suggest that this interaction can be used to develop a rapid realistic method of quality control in evaluating anti-predator abilities of mass-reared fruit flies.
Rao D., Aguilar-Argüello S., Montoya P. and Díaz-Fleischer F.
salticidae, supination, predator–prey interaction, sterile insect technique
pp.301-305 In: Fruit Flies Biology and Management Proceedings of the International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 1990, Antigua, Guatemala, October 14-20, 1990, edited by Martin Aluja, Pablo Liedo. ISBN: 978-1-4757-2280-2 (Print) 978-1-4757-2278-9 (Online 2014) First edition 1993 Electronic edition 2014 DOI 10.1007/978-1-4757-2278-9 Publisher: Springer New York
Sci. agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.) vol.51 no.2 Piracicaba May/Aug.1994
The aim of this experiment was to determine the desinfestation dose of gamma radiation in Averrhoa carambola infested with larvae of Anastrepha obliqua. Fruits were collected in the field, each having about 11 larvae in the last instar. Fruits were irradiated with the following gamma radiation doses: 0 (control), 50, 150, 300, 600 and 900 Gy. Each treatment consisted of 9 fruits (3 replications) giving the amount of 99 larvae for each treatment. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted to 25 ± 5°C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%, until larvae left the fruit and became transformed into pupae and adults. The lethal dose (LD100) of gamma radiation for larvae in the fruits was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the total emergency of adults.
Arthur V. ; Wiendl P.M.
Averrhoa carambola, Anastrepha obliqua, quarantine, carambola, fruits-flies, irradiation
PLoS ONE 9(1): e88128. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088128
Early life events can have dramatic consequences on performance later in life. Exposure to stressors at a young age affects development, the rate of aging, risk of disease, and overall lifespan. In spite of this, mild stress exposure early in life can have beneficial effects on performance later in life. These positive effects of mild stress are referred to as physiological conditioning hormesis. In our current study we used anoxia conditioning hormesis as a pretreatment to reduce oxidative stress and improve organismal performance, lifespan, and healthspan of Caribbean fruit flies. We used gamma irradiation to induce mild oxidative damage in a low-dose experiment, and massive oxidative damage in a separate high-dose experiment, in pharate adult fruit flies just prior to adult emergence. Irradiation-induced oxidative stress leads to reduced adult emergence, flight ability, mating performance, and lifespan. We used a hormetic approach, one hour of exposure to anoxia plus irradiation in anoxia, to lower post-irradiation oxidative damage. We have previously shown that this anoxic-conditioning treatment elevates total antioxidant capacity and lowers post-irradiation oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. In this study, conditioned flies had lower mortality rates and longer lifespan compared to those irradiated without hormetic conditioning. As a metric of healthspan, we tracked mating both at a young age (10 d) and old age (30 d). We found that anoxia-conditioned male flies were more competitive at young ages when compared to unconditioned irradiation stressed male flies, and that the positive effects of anoxic conditioning hormesis on mating success were even more pronounced in older males. Our data shows that physiological conditioning hormesis at a young age, not only improves immediate metrics of organismal performance (emergence, flight, mating), but the beneficial effects also carry into old age by reducing late life oxidative damage and improving lifespan and healthspan. Full paper:
López-Martínez G, Hahn DA
Fruit fly Tephritidae Anoxia Antioxidants Death rates Drosophila Insects Oxidative damage Oxidative stress
J. Econ. Entomol. 107(1): 185Ð197; DOI:
As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moths antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after1hof anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moths lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations.
gamma radiation, oxidative damage, antioxidant, hormesis, anoxia
International Atomic Energy Agency; Food and Agriculture Organization: Sterility principle for insect control 1974. Proceedings of the symposium on the sterility principle for insect control jointly organized by the IAEA and the FAO of the United Nations and held in Innsbruck, 22-26 July 1974. 1975 pp. 103-114
The authors outline work in the Soviet Union on radiation-induced sterilisation for the control of insect pests. Particular attention has been paid to the control of pests of stored grains and pulses, and facilities have been developed for the irradiation of large quantities of foodstuffs during storage. The species used in studies to develop artificial diets, procedures for mass-rearing and facilities for irradiation in general have included Agrotis segetum (Schiff.), Heliothis armigera (Hb.) (Chloridea obsoleta auct.) Hylemya (Chortophila) brassicae (Bch.), Myiopardalis pardalina (Big.), Yponomeuta padellus malinellus Zell. (Hyponomeuta malinella), Cydia (Grapholitha) molesta (Busck.), Pegomya hyoscyami (Panz.), C. (Laspeyresia) pomonella (L.), Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Bruchus pisorum (L.).
Andreev, S. V.; Martens, B. K.
Insecta, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae
Radiobiologia, radiotherapia 23:6 pg 687-91
Larvae of Agrotis segetum were collected from potato fields. The larvae were kept in petri dishes in an incubator, under controlled conditions of temperature (27 +- 0.5 /sup 0/C) and an alternate photoperiod (12L : 12 D). The larvae were fed on fresh potato leaves. Fifth instar larvae from laboratory-reared insects (after third generation) were gamma irradiated at different doses of 0, 50, 100 and 150 Gy. For each dose 20 larvae were irradiated and daily observations were made on postirradiation mortality. Similarly 5 day old pupae from laboratory-reared insects were irradiated at doses of 0, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy. For each dose 20 pupae were irradiated and adults which emerged out were mated with normal females to see the egg laying and their hatchability percentage. The mortality as well as the number of eggs laid and the hatchability percentage were dose-dependent. A sterility dose is proposed between 50-75 Gy in 5 day old pupae.
Bhagat RM, Kumar A
Insecta, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae
Appl Radiat Isot;73:101-8
This study investigated the effects of two substerilizing doses of gamma radiation, 100 and 150 Gray (Gy), and/or the plant extract Conyza dioscorides (Barnoof) in two solvents on certain biological aspects and the energy budget of the Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel). Data revealed that the treatment combination of gamma radiation with the plant extract significantly increased reproduction compared with the control at all treatment levels (doses and concentrations). Most of the treatments increased the values of developmental/day and larval duration in the F(1) progeny compared with the progeny from the control treatment, although the percentage survival was decreased in all treatments. These values were more obvious in the combination treatments compared with either gamma radiation or plant extract treatments alone. The coefficient of metabolizable energy (C.M.E.) was not affected by any treatments. No consistent effect on the efficiency of storage of ingested energy [E.S.I.(E.)] and the efficiency of storage of metabolizable energy [E.S.M.(E.)] when the F(1) progeny were treated with plant extract alone or with the plant extract combined with the 100 Gy dose of radiation was noted, while they were both significantly increased at all treatment levels when the 150 Gy dose of radiation was combined with the plant extract. The results obtained are discussed in terms of their implications for the best substerilizing dose of radiation on parental male pupae of A. ipsilon.
Mohamed HF
substerilizing radiation irradiation lepidoptera plant extract Conyza dioscorides reproduction
Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt., ( 114p.).
The effect of gamma irradiation on the greasy cutworm A. ipsilon (Hufn.). Special attention was given to the sterilization studies in the hope of promoting the sterile insect technique for the pest control program. The obtained results could be summarized as follows: Three ages of eggs were irradiated as newly laid egg (6-12 h old), middle age egg (24-36 h-old) and old egg (60-72 h-old). The mortality among irradiated eggs was directly related to the increase of irradiation dose or the decrease of the age of treated eggs. The dose of irradiation required for complete mortality was found to be 0.0525 and 0.7 Gy for newly laid eggs, middle age and old eggs, respectively. Irradiation of eggs had no effect on the incubation period.
Ibrahim N.A.
lepidoptera eggs radiation irradiation mortality
Arab J. of Nuc. Sci. and Applications, v. 33(3) p. 22 5-2 31.
The mating competitiveness of P1 and F1 generations of A. ipsilon when irradiated as full-grown pupae with 75 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation was evaluated. The mating competitiveness values showed that either males or females of P1 or F1 generation were full competitive after treatment with 75 or 150 y at all released ratios. Mating competitiveness of both irradiated males and females was also studied to avoid problems concerning mass sexing. The results revealed that confining both sexes together gave excellent results for population suppression in both P1 and F1 in both tested doses and ratios. The addition of irradiated females to the release ratio make these females encountered in mating with untreated females, and possessed 78% of all matings occurred in parent generation in the two tested doses at 5:5:1 ratio and increased to reach 88% by F1 females 75 Gy while it was reduced to only 31% at 150 Gy, but still act in mating.
El-Naggar, S. E. M., Ibrahim, S. M. , El-Shall, S. S. A.
lepidoptera radiation irradiation competitiveness mating
Insect Sci. and Application, 5(6):501-503.
Irradiated full-grown pupae of A. ipsilon with 50 or 100 Gy gamma radiation and crossed with unirradiated females. The F 1 progeny were more sterile than parents. The percentage of mated females of the F1 generation was greatly reduced while the mating frequency was increased. There were fewer inseminated females among the F1, particularly when the female inherited the sterility. The mortality among larvae of the F1 generation was high and dose-dependent, and that among F2 larvae was even higher. The sex ratio of the F1 progeny was altered in favor of males, while that of the F2 was normal; 100 Gy applied to P1 males were sufficient to inhibit hatching of the eggs produced by F1 adults.
El-Naggar, S. , Megahed, M. M. , Sallam, H. A. , Ibrahim, S.M.
lepidoptera radiation irradiation
African J. Agric. Sci., 12(1-2):155-162).
The mortality of eggs of the noctuid A. ipsilon exposed in the laboratory to gamma radiation was directly related to the increase in dose or the decrease in age of the eggs. When 3rd instar larvae were exposed at 20 - 300 Gy, all those treated at 150 Gy died during the larval stage, whereas at 80 Gy about 30% of the larvae pupated and 40% of the pupae gave rise to malformed adults. When fully-grown larvae were exposed to 200 Gy, they died during the larval stage, but 80 Gy permitted 40% of the larvae to pupate, although none of the pupae gave rise to adults. Mortality increased with dosage, and irradiation resulted in delayed development and an adult sex ratio that favored males.
El-Naggar, S., Megahed, M. M., Sallam, H. A. , Ibrahim, S. M.,
lepidoptera larvae eggs mortality
Insect Sci. and Application, 5(6):501-503.
Irradiated full-grown pupae of A. ipsilon with 50 or 100 Gy gamma radiation and crossed with unirradiated females. The F 1 progeny were more sterile than parents. The percentage of mated females of the F1 generation was greatly reduced while the mating frequency was increased. There were fewer inseminated females among the F1, particularly when the female inherited the sterility. The mortality among larvae of the F1 generation was high and dose-dependent, and that among F2 larvae was even higher. The sex ratio of the F1 progeny was altered in favor of males, while that of the F2 was normal; 100 Gy applied to P1 males were sufficient to inhibit hatching of the eggs produced by F1 adults.
El-Naggar, S. , Megahed, M. M. , Sallam, H. A. , Ibrahim, S.M.,
Lepidoptera inherited sterility radiation irradiation
Mededelingen-van-de-Faculteit-Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit-Gent. 48(2): 385-392.
The effect of gamma radiation on aspects of the biology of A. ipsilon (Hufn.) exposed as pupae in the laboratory in Egypt. Adult emergence was reduced, and the rate of malformation in survivors increased, as the radiation dose increased, the effect being greater in females than in males. Exposure of mature pupae to 200 Gy reduced mating in the ensuing adults and induced sterility in females, whereas 250 Gy was required for male sterility. Female fecundity was reduced proportionally to the treatment dose. Irradiation of females at any given dose always caused greater sterility than did irradiation of males at the same dose, but treatment of both partners of a mating pair reduced fertility more markedly than did treatment of either sex separately
El-Kady, E. A., Salem, Y. S. , Hekal, A. M.
Lepidoptera irradiation radiation
MSc. Al Azhar university-Cairo-Egypt
Three doses (50, 100 and 150 Gy) of gamma irradiation were tested against full – grown male and female pupae or against full grown male or female pupae of A.ipsilon. The results showed that fecundity of irradiated females crossed with irradiated males was decreased by increasing irradiation dose. The mean number of eggs /♀ was 316 ± 17.3, 250.7 ± 28 and 50.3 ± 10.5 at 50, 100 and 150 Gy, respectively vs. 1172.3 ± 64 for the control. In addition, the decrease in egg – hatchability % and increase in sterility % induced by gamma irradiation were found to be positively correlated with the dose. The parentage of larval and pupal mortality increased significantly (p
Ahlam Gabarty Abd EL- Wahed Ali
inherited sterility radiation irradiation lepidoptera plant oil enzyms
M.Sc Thesis. Fac. Agric.Cairo Univ.
Full-grown male and female pupae of black cut worm A. ipsilon were exposed to three doses of gamma irradiation 50, 100 and 150 Gy. Increasing the dose of irradiation applied to the parental male gradually reduced the egg hatch. The reduction was significant at all tested doses level when compared to the control treatment. The average number of eggs did not significantly different from untreated control at 50 and 100 Gy but it was significantly reduced at150 Gy. Also, the data indicated that the percentage of egg hatch was reduced gradually a t all tested mating combination of F I in comparison with their untreated control. Full-grown female pupae were exposed to three doses of gamma irradiation, the average number of eggs and percentage of egg hatch of treated female mated with normal male decreased. However, the data indicated that the percentage of egg hatch was increased at all tested mating combination of F 1 in comparison with their P I . The results lead to a conclusion that sterility could be inherited by irradiation of full grown male pupae more than irradiated full grown female pupae.
Abd El-Hamid
inherited sterility insect lepidoptera radiation irradiation
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria), Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy), Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology, 445 p, Jun 1968, p. 69-73, Symposium on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology, Vienna (Austria), 4-8 Dec 1967, IAEA-SM--102/7, ISSN 0074-1884,
Effects of host irradiation on the development of its parasite were investigated. Females of Bracon brevicomis readily accepted irradiated larvae of tile wax moth (Galleria mellonella) and rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica) for oviposition. However, irradiated wax moth larvae adversely influenced the viability of eggs laid on them and also the survival of the parasite grubs feeding on their bodies. The female grubs were affected more than the males. Rice moth larvae, on the other hand, exerted no significant influence on the viability of parasite eggs, but adversely affected the survival of the grubs. The progeny of parents that had been reared on irradiated larvae also exhibited some developmental changes although grown on non-irradiated host larvae, and these changes were more pronounced when G. mellonella was used as the host insect. (author)
Rahalkar, G. W.; Ramakrishnan, V.
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