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IDIDAS : AllReferences

References

  
  
Source
Abstract
Authors
Keywords
  
  
2015
International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences (IJRAS) Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 29-33
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitiscapitata) eggs and larvae (1st, 2nd and 3rd instars) in ‘Valencia’ oranges, and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. The fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. The treatment with gamma irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of all immature stages of C. capitata in ‘Valencia’ oranges if applied at the doses of 72.88 Gy. Larvae of 3rd instar are more radio resistent when compared to eggs and larval of 1st and 2nd instar. The doses of gamma radiation used do not affect the chemical proprieties of ‘Valencia’ orange fruits. IDIDAS COMMENT: infestation was artificial, so results may not reflect the natural situation for which a treatment must be efficacious. Also, no data on effect of the treatment (dose not stated) on fruit were given other than the comment that quality was similar to non-irradiated ‘Valencia’ orange.
Bortoli, Sergio A. De; de Albergaria, Nuno M. M. S.; Dória, Háyda O. S.; Vacari, Alessandra M.; Duarte, Rogério T.; Arthur, Valter
Ionizing Radiation, Quarantine Treatment, Disinfestation, Ceratitis Capitata, Citrus Sinensis
5042
  
2015
Biocontrol Science and Technology, 25:9, 1092-1103, DOI: 10.1080/09583157.2015.1030723
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata is a koinobiont larval parasitoid that is currently used to control fruit flies of the genera Anastrepha, Ceratitis and Bactrocera. In the rearing process, a fraction of the host larvae that are exposed to parasitoids escape from parasitism and develop into viable and fertile flies. This creates the need to eliminate emerging flies before the parasitoids are shipped for release, increasing costs due to additional handling steps. Exposure of fly eggs or larvae to gamma-irradiation before they are parasitised has been used to reproductively sterilise hosts, or even inhibit their emergence. Our aim was to determine whether X-ray radiation applied to Anastrepha fraterculus third instar larvae before they are exposed to parasitoids, inhibits fly emergence in non-parasitised larvae without affecting the performance of the parasitoids that emerge from parasitised larvae. Three X-ray doses: 6250.2 R, 8333.6 R and 10417 R (equivalent to 60, 80 and 100 Gy, respectively) and one γ-ray dose (100 Gy) were tested. Fly emergence decreased with increasing doses of radiation, showing null values for the higher X-ray dose and the dose of 100 Gy. Irradiation showed either no impact or a positive effect on parasitism rate and fecundity. Sex rate was biased towards females in almost every dose. We conclude that the two types of radiation evaluated here were equally effective in suppressing fly emergence with no detrimental effects on the biological quality of the produced parasitoids. X-rays offer an alternative method of irradiation than the conventional radiation source, i.e. γ-rays. These results represent a significant improvement in the development of a biological control programme against A. fraterculus.
Bachmann Guillermo E., Paladino Leonela Z. Carabajal, Claudia A. Conte, Francisco Devescovi, Fabián H. Milla, Jorge L. Cladera, Diego F. Segura & Mariana M. Viscarret
biological control; gamma rays; Anastrepha fraterculus; Diachasmimorpha longicaudata; fruit fly pests; natural enemies
5040
  
2015
Journal of Entomology and Nematology, Vol.7(3), pp. 26-29. DOI: 10.5897/JEN2015.0124
Fruit flies are regarded as one of the most devastating pest of fruits and vegetables on earth planet. Generally chemical control is implemented for their control but it poses lot of eco-environmental concerns so the emphasis is now turning towards eco-friendly management practices. Bio-control is an efficient and environmentally sound approach and augmentation is primarily focus on classical biological control program. In this study, eight sub-sterilizing doses of 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 were tested against Bactrocera zonata and Bactrocera cucurbitae pupae. The results showed that radiation prolong the duration of pupal stage and hatching is reduced by applying radiation. This also shows that when the quantity of the radiation increases, the adult emergence decreases. This study could be very useful in exploiting the potential host for longer period of time for culturing their pupal parasitoids.
NAVEED M., ARIF MJ., AHMAD N.
Sub sterilizing doses, radiation, fruit flies and emergence.
5038
  
2015
Florida Entomologist
Arthur V, Machi AR.
Acari, Eriophyidae
5031
  
2015
Florida Entomologist
Arthur V, Machi AR.
Acari, oxygen, air, atmospher, mites
5029
  
2015
Entomological Research, 45: 110–115. doi: 10.1111/1748-5967.12101
Ionizing radiation is increasingly used as an alternative to post-harvest crop fumigation by methyl bromide. We studied the effects of gamma irradiation on Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at different stages of development to determine the minimal dose for the prevention of normal emergence of adults. We selected five doses of gamma rays (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy) based on preliminary experiments and irradiated eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. A dose of 100 Gy to eggs allowed 21.83% of larvae to pupate, but these all died during the pupal stage. A dose of 100 Gy to last-instar larvae caused larval or pupal death, or the emergence of abnormal adults; no normal adults developed. Irradiation of pupae with doses of 300 Gy and above resulted either in their death or emergence of abnormal adults; however, after 100 or 200 Gy, normal adults emerged and F1 eggs were produced, but no eggs hatched. Following irradiation of adults, eggs were produced at all doses, although the numbers were significantly decreased compared to untreated controls (P < 0.05; 69.45–125.50 vs. 475.05 eggs per female); however, none of the eggs hatched. As prevention of normal emergence is a key outcome for measuring the effectiveness of radiation, then the 100 Gy dose was effective for irradiation of eggs and larvae, and 300 Gy for pupae.
Park, J. S., Lee, J. Y., Jeong, S. Y., Ahn, S.-J. and Kim, I.
Gamma irradiation; Helicoverpa assulta; Noctuidae; Oriental tobacco budworm; quarantine
5028
  
2015
Journal of Insect Physiology Volume 75, Pages 85–90
Highlights
• Argiope keyserlingi males perform vibratory courtship before mating with females.
• The thread assay is an appropriate proxy representing courtship on a female web.
• We quantify the dosage of gamma ray resulting in complete sterilization.
• The correct dosage of irradiation does not affect male courtship behaviour.
The sterile male technique is a common method to assign paternity, widely adopted due to its relative simplicity and low cost. Male sterility is induced by exposure to sub lethal doses of chemosterilants or irradiation, the dosage of which has to be calibrated for every species to provide successful male sterilisation, without affecting male physiology and behaviour. While the physiological effects of sterilisation are usually assessed for each study, the behavioural ones are rarely analysed in detail. Using the orb web spider Argiope keyserlingi as a model we first tested (1) the validity of the thread assay, which simulates male courtship behaviour in a standardised context, as a proxy representing courtship on a female web. We then investigated (2) the effectiveness of male sterilisation via irradiation and (3) its consequences on male courtship behaviour. Our results validate the thread assay and the sterile male technique as legitimate tools for the study of male courtship behaviour and fertilisation success. We show that these techniques are time and cost effective and reduce undesirable variation, thereby creating opportunities to study and understand the mechanisms underlying sexual selection.

 
Magris Martina, Wignall Anne E., Herberstein Marie E.
Reproductive behaviour;
Sterilization;
Argiope keyserlingi
5027
  
2015
Emomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 155: 117-122 DOl: 10.1 111/eca. l2289
The Ethiopian fruit fly, Dacus ciliatus (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a significant pest of cucurbit crops in Asia and Africa and is currently controlled with insecticides. The sterilizing effect of gamma radiation on D. ciliatus adults was investigated to assess the suitability of sterile insect technique (SIT) for use as an alternative, non-chemical strategy for the control of this pest. Late pupae (48 h before emergence) were irradiated with 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 Gy of gamma rays emitted by a 60Co source. Following emergence, the biological characteristics of the experimental cohorts (including all possible male-female combinations of irradiated and untreated flies) were recorded. No significant negative effects of irradiation on pupal eclosion or the ability of newly emerged flies to fly were observed. Samples of eggs at reproductive fly-ages (12-, 15-, and 17-day-old pairs) were collected and their hatch rates were assessed. At 60 Gy, females were completely sterilized, whereas complete sterilization of the males was observed only at 140 Gy (a small amount of fertility persisted even at 120 Gy). In addition to the above experiments, three fruit infestation trials were conducted with zucchini [Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae)] as the plant host and the pupae produced in those trials were collected and recorded. We observed significant (ca. 10%) infestation following treatment with up to 120 Gy and zero progeny only at 140 Gy, mirroring the egg-hatch results. Our findings support the feasibility of SIT for the control of D. ciliatus.
Rempoulakis, P., Castro, R., Nemny-Lavy, E. and Nestel, D.
SIT ;
irradiation;
sterility;
Diptera;
Tephritidae;
sterile insect technique;
Cucurbitaceae
5026
  
2015
J. Econ. Entomol. 108(1): 88–94; DOI: 10.1093/jee/tou013
The fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Walker) is an important quarantine pest that damages fruits and vegetables throughout Asian regions. Host commodities shipped from infested areas should undergo phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of shipping viable flies. The dose–response tests with 1-d-old eggs and 3-, 5-, 7-, 8-d-old larvae were initiated to determine the most resistant stages in fruits, and the minimum dose for 99.9968% prevention of adult eclosion at 95% confidence level was validated in the confirmatory tests. The results showed that 1) the pupariation rate was not affected by gamma radiation
except for eggs and first instars, while the percent of eclosion was reduced significantly in all instars at all radiation dose; 2) the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage; 3) the estimated dose to 99.9968% preventing adult eclosion from late third instars was 70.9 Gy (95% CL: 65.6–78.2, probit model) and 71.8 Gy (95% CL: 63.0–87.3, logit model); and iv) in total, 107,135 late
third instars cage infested in pumpkin fruits were irradiated at the target dose of 70 Gy (62.5–85.0, Gy measured), which resulted in no adult emergence in the two confirmatory tests. Therefore, a minimum dose of 85 and 72 Gy, which could prevent adult emergence at the efficacy of 99.9972 and 99.9938% at the 95% confidence level, respectively, can be recommended as a minimum dose for phytosanitary treatment
of B. tau in any host fruits and vegetables under ambient atmospheres.
Zhan Guoping , Ren Lili , Shao Ying , Wang Qiaoling , Yu Daojian , Wang Yuejin , Li Tianxiu
Bactrocera tau, phytosanitary irradiation, gamma radiation, irradiation, pumpkin
5025
  
2015
Apoptosis : an International Journal on Programmed Cell Death  20(1):1-9 (DOI: 10.1007/s10495-014-1055-3).
Transcriptional activation of pro-apoptotic genes in response to cytotoxic stimuli is a conserved feature of the cell death pathway in metazoans. However, understanding the extent of this conservation in insects has been limited by the lack of known pro-apoptotic genes in non-drosophilids. Recently, we described the pro-apoptotic genes, Asrpr and Ashid, from the tephritid, Anastrepha suspensa, that now allow us to explore the conservation of pro-apoptotic gene regulation between a tephritid and drosophilids. In this study, we determined the developmental profiles of Asrpr and Ashid transcripts during embryogenesis and in embryos exposed to γ-irradiation. Transcript levels of both genes determined by qRT-PCR were low throughout embryogenesis, with strong Ashid expression occurring during early to mid-embryogenesis and Asrpr expression peaking in late embryogenesis. This correlated to acridine orange stained apoptotic cells first appearing at 17 h and increasing over time. However, when irradiated at 16 h post-oviposition embryos exhibited significant levels of apoptosis consistent with strong induction of Asrpr and Ashid transcript levels by γ-irradiation in young embryos <24 h post-oviposition. Furthermore, embryos irradiated <24 h post-oviposition failed to hatch, those irradiated between 24 and 32 h had increased hatching rates, but between 48 and 72 h irradiation had no effect on egg hatching. This indicates a transition of embryos from an irradiation-sensitive to irradiation-resistance stage between 24 and 48 h. Throughout post-embryonic development, the two pro-apoptotic genes share similar patterns of up-regulated gene expression, which correlate to ecdysone-induced developmental events, especially during metamorphosis. Together these results provide the first direct evidence for a conserved molecular mechanism of the programmed cell death pathway in insects.
Nirmala X,  Schetelig MF,  Zimowska GJ,  Zhou L,  Handler AM
Ashid, Asrpr, Irradiation, Ecdysteroids, Cell death, Tephritids
5020
  
2015
MAGNT Research Report (ISSN. 1444-8939) Vol.3 ( 2). PP: 319-326
(Full text pdf attached)
Irradiation as a commercial insect control technique was applied for the first time in 1929 to cigars to control lasioderma serricorne although the X-ray machine used turned out to be unsuitable for continuous processing. Sterile insect technique (SIT) is a promising environment-friendly method for control or eradication of a number of insect pests. It is rapidly becoming a major component of integrated pest management for fruit fly control. Gamma irradiation is currently the most common method used to sterilize mass reared males for SIT and effectiveness of SIT depends greatly on the production of good quality sterile males that are released into target wild populations. To ensure that released males are effective at inducing reproductive failure in their mates, it is important that irradiation procedures achieve an adequate level of sterility. The Ultraviolet (UV) portion of the spectrum has been widely used as a germicide and as an attractant for insects in embryological physiological studies for the surface disinfection of insect eggs from pathogens and for the suppression of insects and different stages of the life cycle.
Espo E, Eyidozehi K, Ravan S
insect, history, Sterile insect technique
5019
  
2014
Pest Manag Sci. article published online: 10 September 2014
(wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/ps.3905
BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmeswas about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n = 12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n = 108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populationswere not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allowearly detection and delimitationwhile invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
Suckling David Maxwell, Kean John M, Stringer Lloyd D,
Cáceres-Barrios Carlos, Hendrichs Jorge, Reyes-Flores Jesus
and Dominiak Bernard C.
Tephritidae; male annihilation; sterile insect technique; bait; trap; surveillance; incursions; quarantine
5041
  
2014
J. Rediat. Res. Appl. Sci. 7:110-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrras.2013.12.007
Three substerilizing doses 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation were tested against full grown male and female pupae or against full-grown male or female pupae of Agrotis ipsilon. The results showed that fecundity of irradiated females crossed with irradiated males was decreased by increasing irradiation dose. The decrease in egg hatchability % and increase in sterility % induced by gamma radiation were found to be positively correlated with the dose level. The parentage of larval and pupal mortality increased significantly (p
Salem HM, Fouda MA, Abas A A, Ali WM, Gabarty A ().
Gamma irradiation Substerilizing doses Agrotis ipsilon
5039
  
2014
Journal of Economic Entomology 107: 154-160.                   DOI: 10.1603/EC13226
Phlyctinus callosus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of major phytosanitary concern for some of South Africa's biggest export markets such as the United States and Europe because this pest does not occur there. At present, fumigation with methyl bromide is the only postharvest disinfestation treatment against this pest; therefore, sustainable alternatives are needed. One such alternative is irradiation treatment of whole pallets of packed fruit to sterilize insects that may be present within the cartons. Wild adult P. callosus weevils were treated with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 Gy of gamma-irradiation and then cross mated to breed with either treated or nontreated adults of the opposite sex. Fecundity and fertility were monitored and recorded. Trials were conducted during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 fruit harvesting seasons. The results from both seasons indicated that irradiation did not affect fecundity but fertility was significantly affected, decreasing as irradiation doses increased. Egg hatch was zero for mating crosses that involved females weevils treated with a dose of 80 Gy gamma-irradiation. Probit analysis indicated that in the first season, the estimated LD95 for crosses involving treated males and treated females was 30 Gy, while in the second season it was 49.5 Gy. Respective estimated LD99S were 47.9 and 169.4 Gy. Ultimately, a dose lower than the current generic dose of 400 Gy, approved for irradiation disinfestation treatments, would control P. callosus should they occur in packed export fruit.
Duvenhage AJ, Johnson SA.
irradiation
Phlyctinus callosus
phytosanitary
fecundity
fertility
5024
  
2014
Journal of Stored Products Research 59:108-112
The biological activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oil vapor was tested against the stored product pest rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Adult weevils were exposed to seven different concentrations of basil oil ranging from 0.12 ml/mle0.60 ml/ml in Petri dishes and mortality was assessed at 3, 4 and 5 d post treatment. Mortality increased with increasing exposure time and basil oïl concentration. At 3, 4 and 5 d post treatment, the LC50 values were 8.14, 6.50 and 4.91 ml/ml of basil oil, respectively. S. oryzae was also exposed to 0.12 or 0.24 ml/ml basil oil and irradiated at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 or 120 Gy in Petri dishes before mortality assessment at 5 d post treatment. The effectiveness of irradiation treatment against S. oryzae was enhanced by exposure to basil oil. S. oryzae exposed to 0.12 and 0.24 ml/ml of basil oil were 4.1 and 5.3 times more sensitive to irradiation, respectively, compared to control weevils treated only with irradiation. The effect of basil oil and irradiation on mortality was synergistic when used in  combination against S. oryzae in packaged rice. The type of rice package affected treatment efficacy. In paper rice packages, 78% mortality was observed with 2.5 ml/ml basil oil and a radiation dose of 200 Gy at 5 d post treatment. In plastic packages, 100% mortality was achieved with 0.83 ml/ml basil oil and a radiation dose of 200 Gy at 5 d post treatment. Basil oil has potential as a synergist to lower the radiation dose required to control phytosanitary pests.
Hossain Farah, Lacroix Monique, Salmieri Stephane, Vu Khanh, Follett Peter A.
Sitophilus oryzae
Basil oil
Ionizing radiation
Radiation sensitivity
Phytosanitary treatment
5023
  
2014
Journal of Economic Entomology 107: 161-165                   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC13316
The mango pulp weevil, Sternochetus frigidus (F.), is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to the United States and other countries. Previously, a radiation dose of 100 Gy was proposed for phytosanitary treatment of S. frigidus based on dose-response studies with larvae, pupae, and adult weevils. To validate an irradiation treatment, large-scale confirmatory tests were conducted with adults (the most radiation-tolerant stage) in mangoes at 100 and 150 Gy. After treatment, adults were removed from fruit, sexed, and mated in pairs to observe any reproduction. At 100 Gy, adults laid a small number of eggs but none of the eggs hatched. At 150 Gy (measured doses 96.7-164.1 Gy),4,559 treated weevils laid no eggs, indicating that this dose caused complete sterility. Irradiation treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 165 Gy will therefore provide quarantine security for S. frigidus in exported Philippine mangoes.
Obra GB, Resilva SS, Follett PA, Lorenzana LRJ.
Sternochetus frigidus, mango pulp weevil, postharvest phytosanitary treatment, quarantine pest, disinfestation
5021
  
2014
Malaria Journal 13:484 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-13-484
full pdf (www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-13-484.pdf) Background The success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) depends the release of large numbers of sterile males, which are able to compete for mates with the wild male population within the target area. Unfortunately, the processes of colonisation, mass production and irradiation may reduce the competitiveness of sterile males through genetic selection, loss of natural traits and somatic damage. In this context, the capacity of released sterile Anopheles arabiensis males to survive, disperse and participate in swarms at occurring at varying distances from the release site was studied using mark-release-recapture (MRR) techniques. Methods In order to assess their participation in swarms, irradiated and marked laboratory-reared male mosquitoes were released 50, 100 or 200 m from the known site of a large swarm on three consecutive nights. Males were collected from this large swarm on subsequent nights. Over the three days a total of 8,100 males were released. Mean distance travelled (MDT), daily probability of survival and estimated population size were calculated from the recapture data. An effect of male age at the time of release on these parameters was observed. Results Five per cent of the males released over three days were recaptured. In two-, three- and four-day-old males, MDT was 118, 178 and 170 m, and the daily survival probability 0.95, 0.90 and 0.75, respectively. From the recapture data on the first day following each release, the Lincoln index gives an estimation of 32,546 males in the natural population. Discussion Sterile An. arabiensis males released into the field were able to find and participate in existing swarms, and possibly even initiate swarms. The survival probability decreased with the age of male on release but the swarm participation and the distance travelled by older males seemed higher than for younger males. The inclusion of a pre-release period may thus be beneficial to male competitiveness and increase the attractiveness of adult sexing techniques, such as blood spiking.
Ageep Tellal B, Damiens David, Alsharif Bashir, Ahmed Ayman, Salih Elwaleed HO, Ahmed Fayez TA, Diabaté Abdoulaye, Lees Rosemary S, Gilles Jeremie RL and El Sayed Badria B
Malaria, Sterile insect technique, SIT, Mark release recapture, Dispersion, Survival, Population estimation
5018
  
2014
Malaria Journal 2014, 13:460 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-13-460
Free full text Abstract Background Understanding the factors that account for male mating competitiveness is critical to the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Here, the effects of partial sterilization with 90 Gy of radiation on sexual competitiveness of Anopheles coluzzii allowed to mate in different ratios of sterile to untreated males have been assessed. Moreover, competitiveness was compared between males allowed one versus two days of contact with females. Methods Sterile and untreated males four to six days of age were released in large cages (~1.75 sq m) with females of similar age at the following ratios of sterile males: untreated males: untreated virgin females: 100:100:100, 300:100:100, 500:100:100 (three replicates of each) and left for two days. Competitiveness was determined by assessing the egg hatch rate and the insemination rate, determined by dissecting recaptured females. An additional experiment was conducted with a ratio of 500:100:100 and a mating period of either one or two days. Two controls of 0:100:100 (untreated control) and 100:0:100 (sterile control) were used in each experiment. Results When males and females consort for two days with different ratios, a significant difference in insemination rate was observed between ratio treatments. The competitiveness index (C) of sterile males compared to controls was 0.53. The number of days of exposure to mates significantly increased the insemination rate, as did the increased number of males present in the untreated: sterile male ratio treatments, but the number of days of exposure did not have any effect on the hatch rate. Discussion The comparability of the hatch rates between experiments suggest that An. coluzzii mating competitiveness experiments in large cages could be run for one instead of two days, shortening the required length of the experiment. Sterilized males were half as competitive as untreated males, but an effective release ratio of at least five sterile for one untreated male has the potential to impact the fertility of a wild female population. However, further trials in field conditions with wild males and females should be undertaken to estimate the ratio of sterile males to wild males required to produce an effect on wild populations.
Maïga H, Damiens D, Niang A, Sawadogo SP, Fatherhaman O, Lees RS, Roux O, Dabiré RK, Ouédraogo GA, Tripet F, Diabaté A, Gilles JR.
Male mating biology, Anopheles coluzzii, Sterile insect technique, Competitiveness
5016
  
2014
Journal of Applied Entomology, 138: 708–714. doi: 10.1111/jen.12112
The New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), has been eradicated from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique. This success has been based on mass production of high-quality screwworms using artificial diets since 1958. Many diet formulations for both larvae and adults have been developed, mainly driven by cost efficiency and material supply. However, only four larval and two adult diet formulations have been applied in the six sterile fly mass production plants in the USA, Mexico and Panama. Herein, we briefly review the history of screwworm diet research and development, introduce the diet formulations used in mass rearing and discuss their advantages and disadvantages in terms of plant application. Finally, we propose future research on screwworm nutrition, potential protein sources, feeding stimulants, further optimization of screwworm formulations and possible methods to reduce the negative qualities of waste generated during the mass production.
Chen, H., Chaudhury, M. F., Sagel, A., Phillips, P. L. and Skoda, S. R.
diet formulation; insect nutrition; solidifying agents; sterile insect technique; waste diet management
5015
  
2014
Entomological Science. doi: 10.1111/ens.12120
Two- to three-day-old male Drosophila melanogaster flies were irradiated with 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50 Gy doses of gamma radiation. The longevity and rate of development were observed for three successive generations to assess the impact of irradiation. The mean lifespan of irradiated flies was significantly increased at 1, 2 and 8 Gy, while it was vice versa for high doses at 30, 40 and 50 Gy. Paternal irradiation had an impact on F1 generation, with significantly increased mean longevity at 2 (female), 4, 6, 8 and 10 and decreased mean longevity at 40 and 50 Gy (male and female). Significant increase in the longevity was observed in the F2 generation of the 8 (male and female) and 10 Gy (male) irradiated groups, while decreased longevity was observed in F2 female progeny at 40 Gy. In the case of F3 progeny of irradiated flies, longevity did not show significant difference with the control. Paternal exposure to radiation had a significant impact on the mean egg to adult developmental time of the F1 generation; it was shortened at 2 Gy and extended at 25, 30, 40 and 50 Gy compared to the control. Mean development time at 30, 40 and 50 Gy was significantly increased in the F2 generation, while there were no significant changes in the F3 generation. The present study concludes that the effect of acute gamma irradiation on longevity and “egg to adult” development time of D. melanogaster may persist to following generations
Shameer, P. M., Sowmithra, K., Harini, B. P., Chaubey, R. C., Jha, S. K. and Shetty, N. J.
eclosion; generation; hormesis; ionizing radiation; lifespan
5014
  
2014
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 153: 55–63. doi: 10.1111/eea.12228
Mating ability, survival, and fitness of mass-produced sterile insects when released into the wild, are critical to the success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a pest management strategy, but their field performance remains one of the greatest challenges. Thermal stress tolerance by irradiated insects is a determinant of sterile insect quality, hence knowledge of their physiological competitiveness is essential for developing the SIT. Here, we report the results of experiments investigating effects of laboratory rearing and increasing radiation dosage on thermal limits to activity of the adult stage of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and critical thermal minimum (CTmin) were assayed using a dynamic method on both sexes of E. saccharina moths in laboratory vs. wild populations (to determine effect of rearing history). Furthermore, the laboratory population was exposed to 150, 200, and 250 Gy, to determine the effect of radiation dose. Laboratory-reared E. saccharina were more heat tolerant compared to wild moths for both sexes (CTmax = 44.5 vs. 44.3 °C), whereas in the case of CTmin (3.7 vs. 4.4 °C), wild moths were more cold tolerant than their laboratory-reared counterparts. Irradiation had a negative effect on both CTmax and CTmin. Moths treated at the lowest radiation dose were more cold and heat tolerant than those treated at the highest dosages (CTmin = 4.5 vs. 6.2 °C; CTmax = 43.9 vs. 43.5 °C), thereby reinforcing the importance of lower dosages rather than those that induce full sterility against E. saccharina. In general, sex had no influence on critical thermal limits in all moth treatments except for those irradiated at 150 Gy. The data presented in this article provide evidence that increasing radiation dose impacts on fitness of laboratory-produced moths relative to their wild counterparts, which in turn could affect the effectiveness of the SIT programme.
Mudavanhu, P., Addison, P. and Conlong, D. E.
sugarcane; laboratory domestication; radiation treatment; critical thermal limits; physiological fitness; sterile insect technique; Lepidoptera; Pyralidae; SIT
5013
  
2014
Radiation Measurements 67: 48-54
h i g h l i g h t s Behaviour of Gafchromic HD-810 film is investigated for low energy X radiation. Its response significantly depends on the surrounding material during irradiation. Response is found to be proportional to kerma for the surrounding material. Response of Gafchromic MD-V2-55 is independent of surrounding material. Abstract Recent developments have produced low energy X ray systems capable of providing a radiation dose to adequate volumes suitable for sterile inset programmes. To support the adoption of these new systems, the performance of the Gafchromic® HD-810 dosimetry system previously used for gamma irradiation needed to be better understood at the lower photon energies. For low energy photons, the optical density of the irradiated Gafchromic HD-810 film dosimeters significantly depends on the material surrounding them. For example, if paper, Mylar® or PVC is used to house the dosimeter during irradiation, the optical density can vary by as much as a factor of three or more for the same dose. This paper is an attempt to elucidate the performance of the Gafchromic HD-810 film dosimeters for such low energy X radiation (~150 keV). Our data show that this behaviour can be explained by the fact that these materials have significantly different photon mass attenuation coefficient. This conclusion was reinforced with mathematical simulation using Monte Carlo modelling. We also show that with the different structure of another Gafchromic film dosimeter (MD-V2-55) this effect is virtually non-existent. An understanding of the behaviour of thin film dosimeters like Gafchromic HD-810 under radiation is crucial for reliable dosimetry.
Mehta Kishor, Parker Andrew, Tessier Frederic
Gafchromic dosimeter Low-energy photons RS-2400 Electron equilibrium
5012
  
2014
Journal of Economic Entomology 107(3):1172-1178
The sterile insect technique has been routinely used to eradicate fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) incursions. This study considers whether fly quality in a mass-rearing facility can be improved by reducing irradiation doses, without sacrificing reproductive sterility. Pupae were exposed to one of five target irradiation dose ranges: 0, 40-45, 50-55, 60-65, and 70-75 Gy. Pupae were then assessed using routine quality control measures: flight ability, sex ratio, longevity under nutritional stress, emergence, and reproductive sterility. Irradiation did not have a significant effect on flight ability or sex ratio tests. Longevity under nutritional stress was significantly increased at 70-75 Gy, but no other doses differed from 0 Gy. Emergence was slightly reduced in the 50-55, 60-65, and 70-75 Gy treatments, but 40-45 Gy treatments did not differ from 0 Gy, though confounding temporal factors complicate interpretation. Reproductive sterility remained acceptable (> 99.5%) for all doses--40-45 Gy (99.78%), 50-55 Gy (100%), 60-65 Gy (100%), and 70-75 Gy (99.99%). We recommend that B. tryoni used in sterile insect technique releases be irradiated at a target dose of 50-55 Gy, providing improved quality and undiminished sterility in comparison with the current 70-75 Gy standard while also providing a substantial buffer against risk of under dosing.
Dominiak BC, Sundaralingam S, Jiang L, Fanson BG, Collins SR, Banos C, Davies JB, Taylor PW
Bactrocera,, insect quality parameter, mass production, sterile insect technique, Tephritidae
5010
  
2014
Journal of Applied Entomology, 138: 355–360. doi: 10.1111/jen.12076
Irradiation is a post-harvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products traded between countries. As little is known about irradiation effects on ants, radiotolerance of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae), was studied to determine a dose sufficient for its control. Queens collected from Buenos Aires, Argentina, were irradiated with 30, 60, 90 Gy or left untreated as controls, and then followed for 8 weeks to evaluate their survival and fecundity. Overall queen survival and brood viability decreased with increasing irradiation dose. The number of eggs was reduced by 50%, 69% and 56% in the 30, 60 and 90 Gy doses, respectively, compared with untreated control queens. The percentage of eggs that developed into larvae decreased from 41.1% in the control to 22.5%, 1.4%, and 0% in the 30, 60, and 90 Gy treatments, respectively. Thus, the number of larvae was reduced by 69% in the 30 Gy treatment compared with the control, only one larva was observed in the 60 Gy treatment, and none in the 90 Gy treatment. Only one pupa was observed in the 30 Gy treatment and none in the 60 and 90 Gy treatments during the 8-week experiment. Queens irradiated with 60 and 90 Gy had significantly reduced longevity compared with queens treated with lower doses or untreated queens. Radiation dose ≥90 Gy stopped brood development in Argentine ant queens and should be sufficient as a phytosanitary treatment. The radiotolerance of Argentine ant appears to be similar to that of two other important invasive ants.
Coulin, C., Calcaterra, L. A. and Follett, P. A.
invasive ant; irradiation; Linepithema humile ; phytosanitary treatment; quarantine pest
5006
  
2014
J. Econ. Entomol. 107(3): 964-969; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC14006
Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option for exported commodities such as stone fruits and small fruits to prevent movement of the new invasive pest spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Walker) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The effects of irradiation on larval and pupal development and adult reproduction in D. suzukii were examined. Larvae (Þrst, second, and third instars) and pupae (1-2-d-old, 3-5-d-old, and 7-8-d-old) on diet were irradiated at target doses of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. Males and females were equally susceptible.Aradiation dose of 40 Gy applied to Þrst- and second-instar larvae prevented adult emergence. The late-stage pupa was the most radiation-tolerant stage that occurs in fruit, and individuals irradiated at this stage readily emerged as adults; therefore, prevention of F1 adults was the desired treatment response for large-scale validation tests with naturally infested fruit. In largescale tests, a radiation dose of 80 Gy applied to late-stage pupae in sweet cherries or grapes resulted in no production of F1 adults in 33,000 treated individuals, which meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. A minimum absorbed dose of 80 Gy is recommended for quarantine control of D. suzukii.
FOLLETT PETER A., SWEDMAN ALLISON, AND PRICE DONALD K.
X-ray radiation, radio-tolerance, invasive species, regulatory pest, phytosanitary treatment
5002
  
2014
Radiation Measurements Available online 27 May 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2014.05.018
Highlights • Behaviour of Gafchromic HD-810 film is investigated for low energy X radiation. • Its response significantly depends on the surrounding material during irradiation. • Response is found to be proportional to kerma for the surrounding material. • Response of Gafchromic MD-V2-55 is independent of surrounding material. Recent developments have produced low energy X ray systems capable of providing a radiation dose to adequate volumes suitable for sterile inset programmes. To support the adoption of these new systems, the performance of the Gafchromic® HD-810 dosimetry system previously used for gamma irradiation needed to be better understood at the lower photon energies. For low energy photons, the optical density of the irradiated Gafchromic HD-810 film dosimeters significantly depends on the material surrounding them. For example, if paper, Mylar® or PVC is used to house the dosimeter during irradiation, the optical density can vary by as much as a factor of three or more for the same dose. This paper is an attempt to elucidate the performance of the Gafchromic HD-810 film dosimeters for such low energy X radiation (∼150 keV). Our data show that this behaviour can be explained by the fact that these materials have significantly different photon mass attenuation coefficient. This conclusion was reinforced with mathematical simulation using Monte Carlo modelling. We also show that with the different structure of another Gafchromic film dosimeter (MD-V2-55) this effect is virtually non-existent. An understanding of the behaviour of thin film dosimeters like Gafchromic HD-810 under radiation is crucial for reliable dosimetry. We hope that this work can also provide guidance in the use of other thin film dosimeters at similar low photon energies.
Mehta Kishor, Parker Andrew, Tessier Frédéric
Gafchromic dosimeter; low-energy photons; RS-2400; electron equilibrium
5001
  
2014
Journal of Medical Entomology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME13223 Appeared or available online: 21 avril 2014
The mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) is a potent vector of several arboviral diseases, most notably chikungunya and dengue fever. In the context of the sterile insect technique (SIT), the sterilization of the male mosquitoes before their release can be achieved by gamma-ray irradiation. As gamma-ray irradiators are becoming increasingly problematic to purchase and transport, the suitability of an X-ray irradiator as an alternative for the sterilization of Ae. albopictus males was studied. The sterilization of up to 200,000 pupae at one time can be achieved with relative ease, and the sterility results obtained were comparable with those achieved by gamma irradiation, where 99% sterility is induced with a dose of 40 Gy. A significant reduction of longevity was observed in the latter stages of the males' life after irradiation treatments, especially at doses >40 Gy, which is consistent with the negative effects on longevity induced by similar radiation doses using gamma rays. Females irradiated at 40 Gy were not only 100% sterile, but also failed to oviposit entirely, i.e., all of the females laid 0 eggs. Overall, it was found that the X-ray irradiator is generally suitable for the sterilization process for sterile insect technique programs, as it showed a high processing capacity, practicality, high effectiveness, and reproducibility.
Yamada, H.; Parker, A. G.; Oliva, C. F.; Balestrino, F.; Gilles, J.R.L
Aedes albopictus; induced sterility; longevity; sterile insect technique; x-ray irradiation
5000
  
2014
Bulletin of Entomological Research 104, 251–261 doi:10.1017/S0007485313000758
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a non-chemical approach used to control major pests from several insect families, including Tephritidae, and entails the mass-release of sterile insects that reduce fertility of wild populations. For SIT to succeed, released sterile males must mature and compete with wild males to mate with wild females. To reach sexual maturity, the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), must obtain adequate nutrition after adult emergence; however, in current SIT programs sterile B. tryoni receive a pre-release diet that lacks key nutrients required to sustain sexual development. The chief objective of this study was to determine whether pre-release yeast hydrolysate (YH) supplements affect the persistence and abundance of sexually mature sterile male B. tryoni under field conditions. Experiments were run in outdoor cages under conditions of low and high environmental stress that differed markedly in temperature and humidity, and in the field. Under low environmental stress conditions, survival of sterile B. tryoni was monitored in cages under three diet treatments: (i) sugar only, (ii) sugar plus YH or (iii) sugar plus YH for 48h and sugar only thereafter. Under high environmental stress conditions survival of sterile B. tryoni was monitored in cages under four diet treatments: (i) white sugar only, (ii) brown sugar only, (iii) white sugar plus YH and (iv) brown sugar plus YH. In a replicated field study, we released colour-marked sterile B. tryoni from two diet regimes, YH-supplemented or YH-deprived, and monitored abundance of sexually mature males. In the low-stress cage study, there was no effect of diet, although overall females lived longer than males. In the high stress cage study, mortality was lower for YH-fed flies than YH-deprived flies and females lived longer than males. In the field, YH supplementation resulted in higher abundance of sexually mature sterile males, with 1.2 YH-fed flies trapped for every YH-deprived fly trapped. Under field conditions, YH supplementation can increase over-flooding ratios and hence may improve the effectiveness of SIT programmes.
Reynolds O.L., Orchard B.A., Collins S.R. and Taylor P.W.
Diptera, Tephritidae, protein, diet, nutrition, sterile insect technique
4998
  
2014
Bulletin of Entomological Research 104, 176–181 doi:10.1017/S0007485313000643
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are major pests worldwide. The sterile insect technique, where millions of flies are reared, sterilized by irradiation and then released, is one of the most successful and ecologically friendly methods of controlling populations of these pests. The mating behaviour of irradiated and nonirradiated flies has been compared in earlier studies, but there has been little attention paid to the anti-predator behaviour of mass-reared flies, especially with respect to wild flies. Tephritid flies perform a supination display to their jumping spider predators in order to deter attacks. In this study,we evaluated the possibility of using this display to determine the anti-predator capabilities of mass-reared irradiated, non-irradiated flies, and wild flies. We used an arena setup and observed bouts between jumping spiders (Phidippus audax Hentz) and male Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens Loew). We show that although all flies performed a supination display to their predator, wild flies were more likely to perform a display and were significantly more successful in avoiding attack than mass-reared flies. We suggest that this interaction can be used to develop a rapid realistic method of quality control in evaluating anti-predator abilities of mass-reared fruit flies.
Rao D., Aguilar-Argüello S., Montoya P. and Díaz-Fleischer F.
salticidae, supination, predator–prey interaction, sterile insect technique
4997
  
2014
PLoS ONE 9(1): e88128. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088128
Early life events can have dramatic consequences on performance later in life. Exposure to stressors at a young age affects development, the rate of aging, risk of disease, and overall lifespan. In spite of this, mild stress exposure early in life can have beneficial effects on performance later in life. These positive effects of mild stress are referred to as physiological conditioning hormesis. In our current study we used anoxia conditioning hormesis as a pretreatment to reduce oxidative stress and improve organismal performance, lifespan, and healthspan of Caribbean fruit flies. We used gamma irradiation to induce mild oxidative damage in a low-dose experiment, and massive oxidative damage in a separate high-dose experiment, in pharate adult fruit flies just prior to adult emergence. Irradiation-induced oxidative stress leads to reduced adult emergence, flight ability, mating performance, and lifespan. We used a hormetic approach, one hour of exposure to anoxia plus irradiation in anoxia, to lower post-irradiation oxidative damage. We have previously shown that this anoxic-conditioning treatment elevates total antioxidant capacity and lowers post-irradiation oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. In this study, conditioned flies had lower mortality rates and longer lifespan compared to those irradiated without hormetic conditioning. As a metric of healthspan, we tracked mating both at a young age (10 d) and old age (30 d). We found that anoxia-conditioned male flies were more competitive at young ages when compared to unconditioned irradiation stressed male flies, and that the positive effects of anoxic conditioning hormesis on mating success were even more pronounced in older males. Our data shows that physiological conditioning hormesis at a young age, not only improves immediate metrics of organismal performance (emergence, flight, mating), but the beneficial effects also carry into old age by reducing late life oxidative damage and improving lifespan and healthspan. Full paper: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0088128
López-Martínez G, Hahn DA
Fruit fly Tephritidae Anoxia Antioxidants Death rates Drosophila Insects Oxidative damage Oxidative stress
4994
  
2014
J. Econ. Entomol. 107(1): 185Ð197; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC13370
As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moths antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after1hof anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moths lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations.
LOPEZ-MARTINEZ GIANCARLO, CARPENTER JAMES E., HIGHT STEPHEN D., AND HAHN DANIEL A.
gamma radiation, oxidative damage, antioxidant, hormesis, anoxia
4993
  
2013
Radiation Physics and Chemistry 90: 111-119.
Osouli Sh, Ziaie F, Haddad Irani Nejad K, Moghaddam M.
mites
5035
  
2013
Acta Agriculturae Zhejiangensis 25:533-536.
Wu Q, Lin WC, Wang BK, Qi WY, Xiong LD, Wei JY, Chen JY.
mite, China
5034
  
2013
Journal of Stored Products Research 52: 63-67.
doi:10.1016/j.jspr.2012.09.004
Irradiation is a quarantine treatment option for stored products pests. Dose response tests were conducted to identify a post-harvest radiation treatment that would control rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in rice. Rice infested with adult or immature weevils was treated at radiation doses of 30, 60, 90, or 120 Gy, or left untreated as a control. Live and dead beetles were counted weekly for 15 24 weeks. Treatment of adult weevils at a radiation dose of 120 Gy resulted in no live adults after two weeks, indicating that this radiation dose caused adult mortality and sterility, whereas a total of 1261 adult beetles emerged during 24 weeks in the untreated controls. Treatment of immature life stages (a mixture of eggs, larvae and pupae) with a radiation dose of 90 or 120 Gy resulted in no adults emerging after five or two weeks, respectively, indicating that these doses prevented reproduction, whereas a total of 4275 adults emerged throughout 15 weeks in the untreated controls. Weight loss of rice infested with immature or adult weevils was significantly reduced by irradiation treatment at 60 Gy and 120 Gy. In a large-scale confirmatory test, a radiation dose of 120 Gy applied to 38,025 adult weevils in rice resulted in no reproduction. Irradiation at 120 Gy will provide quarantine security for rice weevil, and prevent post-irradiation weight loss caused by insect feeding in the commodity. Irradiation may be particularly helpful in controlling phosphine-resistant populations, and could help manage resistance by preventing the spread of resistant weevils in exported grains. Irradiation is a control option for stored product insects. Rice weevil is the most serious pest of stored rice worldwide. Adult and immature weevils were treated at 0, 30, 60, 90 or 120 Gy in rice. Radiation treatment at 120 Gy sterilized rice weevil and prevented further damage. Irradiation can prevent the spread of phosphine-resistant weevils in exported grain.
Follett PA, Snook K, Janson A, Antonio B, Haruki A, Okamura M, Bisel J.
Sitophilus oryzae;
Rice weevil;
X-ray irradiation;
Phosphine resistance;
Disinfestation
5022
  
2013
Journal of Entomology and Nematology Vol. 5(4), pp. 45-49
The effect of gamma irradiation on the specific activity of ATP-ase, AChE and amino acid contents in different larval ages of Corcyra cephalonice (Staint) were studied. In general, the effect of irradiation on enzymes activity was highly noticed with AChE enzyme than ATP-ase enzyme. The higher the dose of gamma irradiation, the higher the rate of enzyme inhibition and vice versa. Also, the influence of gamma radiation on free and protein hydrolysate amino acid contents was more pronounced by increasing the irradiation dose and time after treatment. Increasing the dose was accompanied by reducing the free and protein amino acid contents. The results revealed that reduction in percent pupation, adult emergence, fecundity and fertility of the resulting adults depended upon the dose and larval age at the time of treatment. The severe reduction in fecundity and fertility was observed in 25 days old larvae treated with 80 Gy.
Al khalaf Areej Abdelkareem and Abdel Baki Salwa M.
Gamma irradiation, larvae, Corcyra cephalonice.
5011
  
2013
Appl Radiat Isot;73:101-8
This study investigated the effects of two substerilizing doses of gamma radiation, 100 and 150 Gray (Gy), and/or the plant extract Conyza dioscorides (Barnoof) in two solvents on certain biological aspects and the energy budget of the Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel). Data revealed that the treatment combination of gamma radiation with the plant extract significantly increased reproduction compared with the control at all treatment levels (doses and concentrations). Most of the treatments increased the values of developmental/day and larval duration in the F(1) progeny compared with the progeny from the control treatment, although the percentage survival was decreased in all treatments. These values were more obvious in the combination treatments compared with either gamma radiation or plant extract treatments alone. The coefficient of metabolizable energy (C.M.E.) was not affected by any treatments. No consistent effect on the efficiency of storage of ingested energy [E.S.I.(E.)] and the efficiency of storage of metabolizable energy [E.S.M.(E.)] when the F(1) progeny were treated with plant extract alone or with the plant extract combined with the 100 Gy dose of radiation was noted, while they were both significantly increased at all treatment levels when the 150 Gy dose of radiation was combined with the plant extract. The results obtained are discussed in terms of their implications for the best substerilizing dose of radiation on parental male pupae of A. ipsilon.
Mohamed HF
substerilizing radiation irradiation lepidoptera plant extract Conyza dioscorides reproduction
4990
  
2013
Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(5):2020-2026 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC13117
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) produces a low-oxygen (O2) environment that can increase produce shelf life by decreasing product respiration and growth of pathogens. However, low O2 is known to increase insect tolerance to irradiation, and the use of MAP with products treated by irradiation before export to control quarantine pests may inadvertently compromise treatment efficacy. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important economic and quarantine pest of tropical fruits and vegetables, and one of the most radiation-tolerant tephritid fruit flies known. The effect of low O2 generated by MAP on the radiation tolerance of B. cucurbitae was examined. Third-instar larval B. cucurbitae were inoculated into ripe papayas and treated by 1) MAP + irradiation, 2) irradiation alone, 3) MAP alone, or (4) no MAP and no irradiation, and held for adult emergence. Three types of commercially available MAP products were tested that produced O2 concentrations between 1 and 15%, and a sublethal radiation dose (50 Gy) was used to allow comparisons between treatments. Ziploc storage bags (1-4% O2) increased survivorship to adult from 14 to 25%, whereas Xtend PP61 bags (3-8% O2) and Xtend PP53 bags (11-15% O2) did not enhance survivorship to the adult stage in B. cucurbitae irradiated at 50 Gy. Radiation doses approved by the United States Department of Agriculture and the International Plant Protection Commission for B. cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) are 150 and 100 Gy, respectively. In large-scale tests, 9,000 B. cucurbitae and 3,800 C. capitata larvae infesting papayas in Ziploc bags were irradiated at 150 and 100 Gy, respectively, with no survivors to the adult stage. MAP can increase insect survivorship during irradiation treatment at certain doses and O2 concentrations, but should not compromise the efficacy of the 150-Gy generic radiation treatment for tephritid fruit flies or the 100-Gy radiation treatment for C. capitata.
Follett PA, Wall M, Bailey W
irradiation, Melon fly, Ceratitis capitata, quarantine, generic dose, modified atmosphere
4980
  
2013
J. Econ. Entomol. 106(5): 2035Ð2042; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC13197
Cold storage is used to preserve fruit quality after harvest during transportation in marketing channels. Low temperature can be a stressor for insects that reduces survivorship, and cold storage may contribute to the efficacy of postharvest quarantine treatments such as irradiation against quarantine insect pests. The combined effect of irradiation and cold storage was examined in a radiation-tolerant fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly), and a radiation-intolerant fruit fly,Ceratitis capitat (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Third instars on diet or in papaya were treated with a sublethal radiation dose of 30 Gy and stored at 4 or 11_C for 3-13 d and held for adult emergence. For both fruit fly species, survival of third instars to the adult stage generally decreased with increasing cold storage duration at 4 or 11_C in diet or papaya. Survivorship differences were highly significant for the effects of substrate (diet > papaya), temperature (11 > 4 degrees C), and irradiation (0>30 Gy). Few Mediterranean fruit flies survived in any cold storage treatment after receiving a radiation dose of 30 Gy no melon fly larvae survived to the adult stage after irradiation and 11 d cold storage at 4 or 11 degree C in papayas. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and widens the margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments. Potentially irradiation and cold storage can be used in combination to reduce the irradiation exposure requirements of quarantine treatments.
FOLLETT PETER A. and SNOOK KIRSTEN
irradiation, quarantine, postharvest, phytosanitary treatment, systems approach
4979
  
2013
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 16: 1730-1736. DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2013.1730.1736
The sterile insect technique is one of the most methods of fruit flies control. Flight ability of the Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata was conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on flight ability of PFF, B. zonata. Pupae of PFF, B. zonata, were irradiated in an air atmosphere at 24, 48 and 72 h before adult emergence with three doses of Cobalt60 (10, 30 and 50 Gray) and tested against 6, 12 and 20 cm tube heights. Flight Ability Percentage (FAP) of PFF was carried out for newly emerged flies and six-days-old of adult flies. FAP of newly emerged-and six- days-old of adult flies was inversely proportional to the tube heights, doses of gamma rays and with progress the age of flies. The FAP value was significantly higher at 6 cm tube height, followed by 12 cm then 20 cm tube heights for all tested levels of gamma rays, respectively.
El-Gendy I.R., El-Aw M.A.M., Hashem A.G. and Draz K.A.,
radiation tephritidaae Sterile insect technique sterility
4974
  
2013
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 148: 203–212. doi: 10.1111/eea.12096
The sterile insect technique (SIT) potentially provides a socially acceptable approach for insect eradication of new pest incursions. The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was discovered in Berkeley (CA, USA) in 2006, leading to an incursion response that included this technology. In this study, we assessed factors affecting mating success from a bisex release of irradiated moths: effects of radiation dose on male multiple mating, male flight competition, female sex pheromone titre and attractiveness of irradiated females to males, and identification of successful mating in vineyards of either irradiated or wild males (identified by isotope analysis of spermatophores from sentinel females). There was a significant negative relationship between male radiation dose and mating frequency. In head-to-head flights of irradiated males against non-irradiated males to a pheromone lure in a wind tunnel, irradiated males reached the lure first only 31% of the time. With increasing radiation dose, the production of the major sex pheromone component in females, (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, dropped, from 0.7 ± 0.1 ng per female in non-irradiated females to 0.2 ± 0.07 ng per female when irradiated at 300 Gy. Male catch was reduced to 11% of control females in traps containing females irradiated at 300 Gy. Isotope analysis of spermatophores found in the bursa copulatrix of females indicated that mating success of irradiated males inside the live (entry-only) traps containing virgin females was lower (13.1 ± 3.3%) than suggested by male catch (21.2 ± 3.8%) in pheromone traps, the current standard for assessing field competitiveness. Impacts of irradiation on male and female moth fitness should be taken into account to improve estimates of irradiated to wild male E. postvittana overflooding ratios needed for population suppression.
Stringer, L. D., Sullivan, N. J., Sullivan, T. E.S., Mitchell, V. J., Manning, L.-A. M., Mas, F., Hood-Nowotny, R. C. and Suckling, D. M.
sterile insect technique; stable isotope; bursa copulatrix; mating success; Lepidoptera; Tortricidae; Epiphyas postvittana ; sex pheromone; SIT
4971
  
2013
Mutagenesis 28 (5): 531-541. doi: 10.1093/mutage/get030 First published online: June 22, 2013
The response of eukaryotic cells to ionising radiation (IR)-induced double-strand DNA breaks is highly conserved and involves a DNA repair mechanism characterised by the early phosphorylation of histone protein H2AX (producing the active form γH2AX). Although the expression of an induced γH2AX variant has been detected in Drosophila melanogaster, the expression and radiation response of a γH2AX homologue has not been reported in economically important fruit flies. We use Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae, Queensland fruit fly or ‘Q-fly’) to investigate this response with a view to developing molecular assays to detect/quantify exposure of fruit flies to IR and consequent DNA damage. Deep sequencing confirmed the presence of a H2AX homologue that we have termed H2AvB (i.e. variant Bactrocera) and has an identical sequence to a histone reported from the human disease vector Glossina morsitans. A linear dose–response of γH2AvB (0–400 Gy IR) was observed in whole Q-fly pupal lysates 24h post-IR and was detected at doses as low as 20 Gy. γH2AvB signal peaked at ~20min after IR exposure and at 24h post-IR the signal remained elevated but declined significantly by 5 days. Persistent and dose-dependent γH2AvB signal could be detected and quantified either by western blot or by laser scanning cytometry up to 17 days post-IR exposure in histone extracts or isolated nuclei from adult Q-flies (irradiated as pupae). We conclude that IR exposure in Q-fly leads to persistent γH2AvB signals (over a period of days) that can easily be detected by western blot or quantitative immunofluorescence techniques. These approaches have potential as the basis for assays for detection and quantification of prior IR exposure in pest fruit flies.
Mohammad S. Siddiqui, Erika Filomeni, Maxime François, Samuel R. Collins, Tamara Cooper, Richard V. Glatz, Phillip W. Taylor, Michael Fenech1 and Wayne R. Leifert
Diptera, Tephritidae, Bactrocera, deep sequencing, dna, gene sequencing, sequencing
4970
  
2012
Journal of Northwest A&F University 40: 57-61
The experiment was to study elimination effects of irradiation against different stages citrus red mite (Panonychus citri Mcgregor) and to conform the effective dosage in order to achieve inspection and quarantine. The eggs, larvae, protonymphs of citrus red mite were selected and irradiated by gamma irradiation (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 Gy), while adults were at the dosage of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy). The effect of irradiation against hatching rates and mortality of different stages of citrus red mites was studied. It was found that after being irradiated at the dosage of 200 Gy, the 24 h-old eggs of citrus red mites were not hatched, so the gamma irradiation at the dosage of 200 Gy obviously had lethal effect on the eggs. After irradiated at the dosage of 400 Gy, the mortality of the larvae was as high as 96%. Gamma irradiation among the 300-400 Gy made the larvae sterile and the dosage of 400 Gy was sterile dosage to the protonymphs of citrus red mite. The adults laid less eggs which did not hatch at more than dosage of 400 Gy. After 15 days, the mortality of adult mites irradiated at the dosage of 400-600 Gy was 100%; while irradiated at the dosage of 800 Gy, the mortality was 100% after 13 days. So the irradiation among the 400-800 Gy made the adults sterile or lethal. The gamma irradiation at the dosage 400 Gy made citrus red mite at different stages lethal or sterile. So the citrus fruits irradiated at 400 Gy could achieve quarantine treatment requirement.
Zhu FW, Deng YY, Weng QF, Hu M.Y.
mites, Panonychus citri, plant protection, irradiation, Citrus
5036
  
2012
Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College London. Centre for Environmental Policy, Department of Life Sciences, Silwood Park Campus. December 2012
Walker Catherine Sophie
Diptera Liriomyza Leafminer irradiation sterility SIT tomato
4978
  
2012
BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY , VOL 22; NUMB 12, pages 1429-1441
We evaluated the effects of X-ray irradiation on larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), with the aim of finding a treatment that prevented adult fly emergence, yet did not adversely affect larval quality as rearing hosts for the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, small numbers of larvae were held in Petri dishes with and without small amounts of rearing media and then irradiated with doses of X-rays ranging from 0 to 8333.6 R (equivalent to 80 Gy). In the second experiment, higher numbers of larvae were held in a manner resembling mass-rearing conditions, and were then irradiated with X-rays ranging from 0 to 10,417 R (equivalent to 100 Gy). In both experiments, the only factor that significantly affected fly emergence was irradiation of larvae. Fly emergence decreased markedly as the irradiation dose increased, and complete suppression of fly emergence was achieved at 6250.2 R (equivalent to 60 Gy) when larvae were irradiated in small batches with or without rearing media. Irradiation also affected the fertility of those flies that did emerge following treatment. In the second experiment, we found the parasitoids reared from irradiated larvae produced a higher parasitism rate and a higher number of female offspring than did parasitoids reared from control (non-irradiated) larvae. Mean fecundity of F1 parasitoids reared from irradiated larvae were affected positively by irradiation only at the 8333.6 R (80 Gy) dose. Our results show that X-ray irradiation can be used to inhibit fruit fly adult emergence and that irradiated larvae are at least as good a rearing substrate as non-irradiated larvae. Future studies should focus on the adjustment of our findings to a mass-rearing scale.
Viscarret, M.M. Conte, C.A. Paladino, L.Z.C. Lopez, S.N. Segura, D.F. Muntaabski, I. Lanzavecchia, S.B. Cladera, J.L.
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata , Ceratitis capitata , X-ray, parasitoids rearing
4975
  
2012
Journal of Economic Entomology 105(6):1971-1978.
The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60 90, 120, or 150 Gy or left untreated as controls in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation generally increased with increasing age and developmental stage. A radiation dose of 120 Gy applied to eggs and neonates prevented adult emergence A dose of 150 Gy prevented adult emergence in larvae at all stages. In large-scale validation tests, a radiation dose of 150 Gy applied to fifth instars in diet, apples or peppers resulted in no survival to the adult stage in 37,947 treated individuals. Pupae were more radio tolerant than larvae, and late stage pupae were more tolerant than early stage pupae. Radiation treatment of late pupae at 350 and 400 Gy resulted in three and one fertile eggs in 4,962 and 4,205 total eggs laid by 148 and 289 mating pairs, respectively. For most commodities, the fifth instar is the most radio tolerant life stage likely to occur with the commodity; a minimum radiation dose of 150 Gy will prevent adult emergence from this stage and meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. For traded commodities such as table grapes that may contain E. postvittana pupae, a radiation dose >400 Gy may be necessary to completely sterilize emerging adults. After review of the literature, a generic radiation treatment of 250 Gy is proposed for tortricid eggs and larvae in regulated commodities.
Follett Peter A. and Snook Kirsten
x-ray radiation, Lepidoptera, invasive species, regulatory pest, phytosanitary treatment
4972
  
2012
Insects, 3, 1105-1125; doi:10.3390/insects3041105
The use of irradiated hosts in mass rearing tephritid parasitoids represents an important technical advance in fruit fly augmentative biological control. Irradiation assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, while at the same time it has no appreciable effect on parasitoid quality, i.e., fecundity, longevity and flight capability. Parasitoids of fruit fly eggs, larvae and pupae have all been shown to successfully develop in irradiated hosts, allowing a broad range of species to be shipped and released without post-rearing delays waiting for fly emergence and costly procedures to separate flies and wasps. This facilitates the early, more effective and less damaging shipment of natural enemies within hosts and across quarantined borders. In addition, the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids can be monitored by placing irradiated sentinel-hosts in the field. The optimal radiation dosages for host-sterility and parasitoid-fitness differ among species, and considerable progress has been made in integrating radiation into a variety of rearing procedures.
Jorge Cancino, Lia Ruiz, Mariana Viscarret, John Sivinski and Jorge Hendrichs
irradiation; mass rearing; parasitoids; fruit flies; Diachasmimorpha longicaudata; Anastrepha; Bactrocera; Ceratitis
4969
  
2012
Entomological Science 15, 63-67
Electron beam irradiation has been evaluated for the survival and reproduction of Liposcelis paeta Pearman (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae). All effects increased with increasing doses from 50 to 1000 Gy when the electron energy was 2 MeV. Eggs were unable to develop into adults following a dose of 100 Gy. Complete (100%) mortality was achieved about 5 weeks after adult emergence from nymphs irradiated at 300 Gy, whereas 100% mortality of adults was achieved 9 weeks after irradiation at 300 Gy. The fecundity was greatly reduced to 1.82% of that of control when L. paeta adults were irradiated at 250 Gy. A dose of 300 Gy caused complete reproductive sterility in adults. These results suggest that the most susceptible stage was the egg stage, then nymph and adult stages. A dose of 300 Gy is suggested for quarantine treatment of commodities infested by L. paeta.
Wang, J., Guo, D., Fan, J., Chen, Y., Zhang, J., Yang, B., Li, X.,
Insecte Irradiation electron beam sterility mortality disinfestation
4968
  
2012
J. Econ. Entomol. 105(1): 54-61; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC11135
Adult Epiphyas postvittana Walker were irradiated using a Cobalt 60 source to determine the dose needed to achieve complete egg sterility of mated female moths, and egg sterility of female moths mated to F1 generation males. Adult male and female E. postvittana were irradiated at 100, 200, 250, and 300 Gy and their fertility (when crossed with normal moths) was compared with nonirradiated moths. Viable progeny (determined by egg hatch) were found at doses of 100 and 200 Gy, but very little at 250 and 300 Gy. In particular, there was no survival of female progeny into the F1 generation. Males irradiated at 250 and 300 Gy had very low egg eclosion rates (2.25 and 1.86% at 250 and 300 Gy, respectively) when mated with normal females. The F2 generation from those male progeny had a mean percent hatched of  1.02%. Based on our results, a dose of 250Ð300 Gy is recommended for irradiation of E. postvittana adults used for sterile insect technique (SIT) if sterility of parental moths is the desired outcome. Our data also suggests that inclusion of F1 hybrid sterility rather than parental generation sterility into programs using the SIT may allow for doses lower than what we have reported, especially during initial phases of an eradication program where increase Þtness of moths might be desirable. Further research is needed to verify the use of F1 hybrid sterility in light brown apple moth SIT programs
JANG ERIC B., MCINNIS DONALD O., KURASHIMA RICK, WOODS BILL, AND SUCKLING DAVID M.
mating disruption, irradiation, sterile insect technique, light brown apple moth
4967
  
2012
Biology Open 000, 1–5.  doi: 10.1242/bio.2012323 Advance Online Publication February 2, 2012
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly used to control pest insect populations. The success of SIT control programs depends on the ability to release sterile males and on the capacity of sterile males to compete with wild males to inseminate wild females. In this study, we evaluated the mating performance of Schistocerca gregaria (Försk.) males irradiated with 4 Gray. We compared reproductive traits, such as duration of precopulation time, mating duration, quantity of sperm stored by females after copulation, number of females mated successively and postmating competition of irradiated males with non-irradiated males. Irradiated males were able to mate but the resulting number of offspring was dramatically reduced compared to the average number of offspring observed during a regular mating. During a single copulation, irradiated males transferred fewer sperm than regular males but, theoretically, this quantity is enough to fertilize all the eggs produced by a female during its reproductive life. Irradiated males also had the ability to remove sperm from a previous mating with unirraditated males. This new information on the mating strategies helps explain the post-copulation guarding behaviour of S. gregaria.
Dushimirimana Severin, Hance Thierry and Damiens David
Last-male sperm precedenceIrradiationSperm managementSchistocerca gregaria.
4966
  
2012
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 142: 17–26
The success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly ormedfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), depends largely on the ability of sterile flies to spread in the target area and compete with the wild males for wild females. Our objectives in the present study were three-fold: (1) to evaluate the dispersal ability of sterile male medflies and compare their spatial dispersion patterns with that of wildmales, (2) to evaluate how different release methods affect subsequent spatial dispersal, and (3) to determine whether manipulating the prerelease diet of sterile males affects their dispersal. To achieve these objectives, we conducted three experiments in the field where we quantified and analyzed the spatial and temporal dispersal patterns of sterilemedflies and the dispersion of resident wild males. Overall, ca. 5% of the released sterile flies were recaptured 100 m from the release point, and ca. 2% were recaptured 200 m from the release point. The released flies rarely survived longer than 5–7 days. We repeatedly found that the spatial dispersion patterns of sterile males significantly correlated with those of wild males. Release methods strongly affected subsequent fly dispersal in the field as significantly more flies were recaptured following a scattered release vs. a central one. Finally, we show that enriching sterile fly pre-release diet with protein did not affect subsequent dispersal in the field.We conclude that sterile males are able to match the dispersion patterns of wild males, an outcome that is highly important for SIT success. Large releases from central points distant from each other may leave many areas uncovered. Accordingly, scattered releases, repeated twice a week, will provide better coverage of all available aggregations sites. The spatial performance of protein-fed males suggests that pre-release diet amendments may be used without detriment as a sexual stimulant in SIT programs.
Gavriel Sagi, Gazit Yoav, Leach Adrian, Mumford John & Yuval1 Boaz.
Ceratitis capitata, sterile insect technique, dispersion, mark–release–recapture, nutritional ecology, Diptera, Tephritidae, medfly, SIT
4963
  
2012
Biological Control Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 247-254
Long-term separation of a host from its native parasitoids may result in divergent thermal adaptation between host and parasitoid. The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), most likely originated from Sub-Saharan Africa, but has since had a long invasion history in cultivated olives that spans geographical barriers and continents. This study compared three major thermal performance profiles (development, survival, and reproduction) across a wide range of temperatures (10–34 °C) among a Californian population of the olive fruit fly and two African parasitoids, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) and Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), believed to have co-adapted with the fruit fly in its native range. Temperature ranges for the development and survival were 10–30 °C for the fly, 10–28 °C for P. lounsburyi, and 14–32 °C for P. humilis. There was no difference in any thermal performance measured between two P. humilis populations (Kenya and Namibia) tested. The most suitable temperature ranges for reproduction were 22–30 °C for the fly, 18–32 °C for P. humilis, and 18–26 °C for P. lounsburyi. The results showed slight differences in the thermal profiles among olive fruit fly and both parasitoids species, with P. humilis being more heat tolerant whereas P. lounsburyi was less heat tolerant than the fruit fly. The results are discussed with respect to thermal co-adaptation and classical biological control of the olive fruit fly.
Wang Xin-geng, Levy Karmit, Son Youngsoo, Johnson Marshall W., Daane Kent M.
Bactrocera oleae; Psyttalia; Biological control; Co-adaptation; Host–parasitoid interaction; Temperature development; Thermal adaptation
4960
  
2012
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY (IJSEM), vol. 62, no. 1, 179-187
The close association between the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and bacteria has been known for more than a century. Recently, the presence of a host-specific, hereditary, unculturable symbiotic bacterium, designated ‘Candidatus Erwinia dacicola’, has been described inside the cephalic organ of the fly, called the oesophageal bulb. In the present study, the 16S rRNA gene sequence variability of ‘Ca. E. dacicola’ was examined within and between 26 Italian olive fly populations sampled across areas where olive trees occur in the wild and areas where cultivated olive trees have been introduced through history. The bacterial contents of the oesophageal bulbs of 314 olive flies were analysed and a minimum of 781 bp of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. The corresponding host fly genotype was assessed by sequencing a 776 bp portion of the mitochondrial genome. Two ‘Ca. E. dacicola’ haplotypes were found (htA and htB), one being slightly more prevalent than the other (57 %). The two haplotypes did not co-exist in the same individuals, as confirmed by cloning. Interestingly, the olive fly populations of the two main Italian islands, Sicily and Sardinia, appeared to be represented exclusively by the htB and htA haplotypes, respectively, while peninsular populations showed both bacterial haplotypes in different proportions. No significant correlation emerged between the two symbiont haplotypes and the 16 host fly haplotypes observed, suggesting evidence for a mixed model of vertical and horizontal transmission of the symbiont during the fly life cycle.
Savio Claudia, Luca Mazzon , Martinez-Sañudo Isabel , Simonato Mauro, Squartini Andrea and Girolami Vincenzo
Tephritidae symbiont evolution phylogeny biodiversity bacteria
4947
  
2012
Paper accepted for oral presentation, 2nd Annual International Conference on Advances in Biotechnology (BIOTECH 2012), Bangkok, Thailand, 12-13 March, 2012.
The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major agricultural pest in Malaysia which causes serious economical damage in the fleshy fruits and vegetables. The electrophoretic banding patterns of nonspecific esterase isozymes were observed for the first time on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) during the developmental stages of B. carambolae. Three esterase isozymes, EST-1, EST-2 and EST-3 were observed and their relative mobility values were measured. EST-10.61 was highest mobility and close to the anode. EST-30.15 was lowest mobility and close to the cathode. EST-10.61 and EST-20.46 were present in larvae and EST-20.46 and EST-30.15 were observed in adults whereas EST-30.15 was found in pupae. The activity of EST-30.15 was highest in case of adult flies compare to pupae and EST-20.46 showed highest activity in adults than larvae. There was no activity in eggs. Esterase isozymes are involved in the various physiological processes of insects. Data presented here will be helpful for developing novel control methods of this pest and also for comparison to other Bactrocera species.
Hasanuzzaman, M. and Idris, A. B.
electrophoresis; carambola fruit fly; ontogeny; polyacrylamide gel; tephritidae
4895
  
2011
J. Econ. Entomol. 104(6): 1840-1850; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC11154
The fruit ßy, Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops. In this study, host preference of B. tau females and the effects of host species and larval density on larval survival, pupal weight, adult emergence, and developmental duration were investigated on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrical L. (Roem)), bitter gourd [Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) L.], guava [Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) L.], and tangerine [Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae) (Blanco)]. The results showed that females preferred to cucumber over other host species. Larval feeding experience affected subsequent host oviposition preference of adult females. Host species and initial larval density affected certain aspects of the biology of B. tau. Larval density negatively affected insect performance. Survival rates at low densities were signiÞcantly higher than that at high densities. Total developmental duration reduced at high larval densities. Cucumber was more suitable to larval growth. Larvae on cucumber grew faster and the puparia were heavier than that on other host species. Larval survival, pupation rate and adult emergence were higher on cucumber compared with those in other host species. Oviposition preference of adult females was correlated with performance of their offspring.
WU BAOFENG, SHEN KE, AN KUNPENG, HUANG JIE, AND ZHANG RUNJIE
Bactrocera tau, larval density, host species, development, intraspeciÞc competition
4965
  
2011
Environ. Entomol. 40(6): 1353-1362; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EN11128
 The western cherry fruit ßy, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, infests introduced, domesticated sweet [Prunus avium (L.) L.], and tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) as well as native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas) Eaton. Bitter cherries are smaller than sweet and tart cherries and this could affect various life history traits of ßies. The objectives of the current study were to determine 1) if body size and egg loads of ßies infesting sweet, tart, and bitter cherries differ from one another; and 2) if any observed body size differences are genetically based or caused by the host fruit environment. Pupae and adults of both sexes reared from larval-infested sweet and tart cherries collected in Washington and Montana were larger than those reared from bitter cherries. In addition, ßies of both sexes caught on traps in sweet and tart cherry trees were larger than those caught in bitter cherry trees and females trapped from sweet and tart cherry trees had 54.0Ð98.8% more eggs. The progeny of ßies from naturally-infested sweet and bitter cherries reared for one generation in the laboratory on sweet cherry did not differ in size. The same also was true for progeny of sweet and bitter cherry ßies reared in the Þeld on bitter cherry. The results suggest that the larger body sizes of ßies from sweet and tart cherries than bitter cherries in the Þeld are caused by host fruit and not genetic factors.
YEE WEE L., GOUGHNOUR ROBERT B., AND JFEDER EFFREY L.
Western cherry fruit ßy, Prunus avium, Prunus emarginata, head width, wing length
4964
  
2011
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 142: 45–52, 2012
In this study, we investigated the attraction of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to volatiles of three mango [Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae)] cultivars in field cage tests. The number of flies captured with Multilure traps baited with Amate mature green mangoes was significantly higher than that captured in traps baited with Coche and Ataulfo fruits. There was no significant difference between the number of flies captured in traps baited with Coche or Ataulfo mangoes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis ofmango fruit volatiles identified 24, 22, and 19 compounds forAmate, Ataulfo, and Coche mango cultivars, respectively. A principal component analysis of the volatiles revealed that the Amate mango was more distant from the Ataulfo mango, and the latter cultivar was closer to the Coche mango. The compounds myrcene, a-pinene, b-selinene, and trans-b-ocimene were the most abundant in Amate mangoes, whereas 3- carene, b-selinene, terpinolene, and a-pinene were the predominant compounds of Ataulfo cultivars. In the Coche mango, the predominant compounds were 3-carene, b-selinene, terpinolene, and limonene. Traps baitedwith a blend ofmyrcene, a-pinene, and trans-b-ocimene capturedmore A. obliqua females and males than control traps. Flies were more attracted to the Super Q volatile extracts of Amate mango than to the three-component blend formulated in a ratio of 1:1:1. However, there was no significant difference between the number of flies caught by traps baited with Amate mango extracts and that caught by traps baited with the three-blend component when this was formulated according to the relative proportions in the mango extracts. Traps baited with myrcene, the major component, caught fewer flies than traps baited with Amate mango extracts.
Malo Edi A., Gallegos-Torres Itanegüi, Toledo Jorge, Valle-Mora Javier & Rojas Julio C.
Mangifera indica, Anastrepha obliqua, host plant recognition ⁄ discrimination, field cage tests, GC-MS, Diptera, Tephritidae, Anacardiaceae
4962
  
2011
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 142: 78–86, 2012
The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires production of large quantities of sterile males able to successfully compete with wild males for wild females. During eradication of a pest population, the release of fertile insects or capture of non-marked released flies can have deleterious effects and trigger costly control measures. These perceived risks encourage program managers to apply high radiation doses and high doses of marking dye. In addition,mass rearing factories are strategically located away from release areas to prevent escape of fertile individuals within eradicated areas, raising the need for lengthy transport. Such is the case for Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) released in mango producing areas of Mexico under an SIT-based eradication campaign. Here, we examined several standard quality-control parameters for mass-reared A. obliqua subjected to various time periods under hypoxia during transport,marked with different doses of fluorescent dye, and subjected to different radiation doses. Such factors were evaluated in isolation and in conjunction. Overall, long periods of hypoxia, high marking doses, and high radiation doses reduced the number of flying adults and increased the number of non-emerged pupae. Some quality-control parameters such as number of deformed adults, part-emerged pupae, and non-flying adults provided less informative guidance or redundant information of fly performance. Some tests such as mortality under stress and mating propensity in small cages were useless in detecting differences in quality among treatments for parameters evaluated during experiments. We discuss the quantity ⁄ safety-quality ⁄ performance conflict during eradication using SIT, propose different strategies according to different stages during eradication (management, suppression, eradication, outbreaks in free areas), where males irradiated at low doses and marked with low doses of dye can be released during early suppression, and examine the pertinence of carrying out different quality-control tests.
Rull J., Birke A., Ortega R., Montoya P. & López L.
Anastrepha obliqua, Diptera, Tephritidae, SIT, marking dye, radiation dose, hypoxia, quality control,mating propensity
4961
  
2011
J. Econ. Entomol. 104(6): 1999-2008; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC11049
The radiation biology of two geographically isolated populations of the light brown apple moth [Epiphyas postvittana (Walker)] was studied in Australia and New Zealand as an initiation of a SIT/F1 sterility program. Pharate and inf ou equal2 d pre-emergence pupae were exposed to increasing radiation doses up to a maximum dose of 300 Gy. Fertility and other life history parameters were measured in emerging adults (parental) and their progeny (F1-F3 adults). Parental fecundity was signiÞcantly affected by increasing irradiation dose in pharate pupae only. For both populations, parental egg fertility declined with increasing radiation. This was most pronounced for the irradiated parental females whose fertility declined at a higher rate than of irradiated males. At 250 Gy, females less than or equal 2 d preemergence pupae produced few larvae and no adults at F1. No larvae hatched from 250 Gy-irradiated female pharate pupae. At 300 Gy, males still had residual fertility of 2Ð5.5%, with pharate pupae being the more radio-sensitive. Radiation-induced deleterious inherited effects in offspring from irradiated males were expressed as increased developmental time in F1 larvae, a reduction in percent F1 female survival, decreased adult emergence and increased cumulative mortality over subsequent generations. Males irradiated at 150 Gy or above produced few but highly sterile offspring at F1 and mortality was sup 99% by F2 egg.
SOOPAYA RAJENDRA, STRINGER LLOYD D. , WOODS BILL , STEPHENS ANDREA E. A., BUTLER RUTH C., LACEY IAN, KAUR AMANDIP, AND SUCKLING DAVID M.
Epiphyas postvittana, irradiation, sterile insect technique, inherited sterility, eradication
4959
  
2011
J. Econ. Entomol. 104(6): 1851Ð1855 (2011); DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC11185.
Agromyzid leafminers are economic and quarantine pests of a variety of vegetables, ßowers, and ornamental foliage. Methyl bromide fumigation is often used as a phytosanitary treatment when quarantined agromyzids are found in shipped commodities; alternative treatments are sought. Ionizing radiation is a viable alternative that is increasing in use worldwide. A dose of 400 Gy is accepted by USDA-APHIS for all insects (except Lepidoptera pupae and adults) on all commodities. Efforts to lower this dose and make it acceptable to other countries involve determining radiotolerance of families of major quarantine pests. Agromyzidae is one such family for which no useful information on radiotolerance exists. This research sought to determine the dose required to control a major agromyzid pest, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and was performed on L. trifolii collected in Weslaco, TX, reared on Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Capsicum annuum L. and irradiated in the late puparial stage. The measure of efÞcacy was prevention of F1 mine formation. Puparia collected from Gossypium hirsutum L. and reared on P. vulgaris were more radiotolerant than those collected and reared on C. annuum. A dose of 214 Gy may prevent F1 mine formation of L. trifolii. This research used a variation of probit analysis where the direct response of the treated individual is not measured, but the response of the F1 generation is. This type of analysis is useful in phytosanitary irradiation research where the measure of efÞcacy often involves a response of the F1 generation.
HALLMAN GUY J., GUO KUN , AND LIU TONG-XIAN
quarantine treatment, phytosanitary treatment, American serpentine leafminer, ionizing radiation
4956
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(4):1026-1035
Fruit flies that belong to the genus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) are major invasive pests of agricultural crops in Asia and Australia. Increased transboundary movement of agricultural produce has resulted in the chance introduction of many invasive species that include Bactrocera mainly as immature stages. Therefore quick and accurate species diagnosis is important at the port of entry, where morphological identification has a limited role, as it requires the presence of adult specimens and the availability of a specialist. Unfortunately when only immature stages are present, a lacunae in their taxonomy impedes accurate species diagnosis. At this juncture, molecular species diagnostics based on COX-I have become handy, because diagnosis is not limited by developmental stages. Yet another method of quick and accurate species diagnosis for Bactrocera spp. is based on the development of species-specific markers. This study evaluated the utility of COX-I for the quick and accurate species diagnosis of eggs, larvae, pupae and adults of B. zonata Saunders, B. tau Walker, and B. dorsalis Hendel. Furthermore the utility of species-specific markers in differentiating B. zonata (500bp) and B. tau (220bp) was shown. Phylogenetic relationships among five subgenera, viz., Austrodacus, Bactrocera, Daculus, Notodacus and Zeugodacus have been resolved employing the 5′ region of COX-I (1490-2198); where COX-I sequences for B. dorsalis Hendel, B. tau Walker, B. correcta Bezzi and B. zonata Saunders from India were compared with other NCBI-GenBank accessions. Phylogenetic analysis employing Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Bayesian phylogenetic approach (BP) showed that the subgenus Bactrocera is monophyletic. <a href="http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1653/024.094.0441">pdf</a>
R. Asokan, K. B. Rebijith, Shakti K. Singh, A. S. Sidhu, S. Siddharthan, Praveen. K. Karanth, R. Ellango and V. V. Ramamurthy
Bactrocera, COX-I, species-specific marker, Bayesian phylogeny, monophyletic.
4955
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(4):1042-1050.
Sterile insect technique programs continue to use high radiation doses to sterilize Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), without always considering the relationship between sterility and competitiveness. The aims of the present work were to verify, under laboratory conditions, the assumptions made by Parker and Mehta (2007) regarding the relationships between the level of residual fertility, competitiveness and sperm transfer ratio of mass-reared C. capitata males, and radiation dose. The males were irradiated in the pupal stage at doses ranging from 50 to 145 Gy. Our results show that radiation dose has a linear relationship with both competitiveness and fertility after suitable transformation. We could show that there is a clear optimum radiation dose at a dose dependent on the over-flooding ratio achieved. (<a href="http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1653/024.094.0443">pdf</a>)
M'saad Guerfali Meriem, Parker Andrew, Fadhl Salma, Hemdane Heitham , Raies Aly and Claude Chevrier.
Ceratitis capitata, medfly, Diptera,Tephritidae, Sterility, Competitiveness, Radiation dose, SIT, Sterile Insect Technique, Optimization.
4954
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(4):956-963.
A change in temperature may be responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in organisms, which are often associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative damage. In the present study, the lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), were measured under thermal stress conditions of the relatively low (-5, -2.5, 0, and 5 °C) or high (35, 37.5, and 40 °C) temperatures. Subsequently, the time-related effect of thermal stress on activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were systematically determined. The results showed that LPO levels increased significantly in a time-dependent manner under thermal stress. The activities of CAT, GSTs, and SOD were significantly enhanced and likely provided a defense mechanism against oxidative damage due to the accumulation of ROS. POX and T-AOC levels were not significantly modified. These results suggest that thermal stress induces oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzymes likely play an important role in reducing oxidative damage in B. dorsalis.
Jia Fu-Xian, Dou Wei, Hu Fei and Wang Jin-Jun
Bactrocera dorsalis, thermal stress, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes.
4953
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(4):916-922.
Aromatherapy treatment using ginger oil has been shown to be effective in increasing the sexual competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratits capitata (Wiedemann) and can partially remedy the detrimental effects associated with the mass-rearing and irradiation processes that are used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ginger oil treatment on the sexual performance of males of 3 Anastrepha fruit fly species of economic importance (A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart), and A. serpentina (Wiedemann)) when they were at 6, 9, and 12 d old. The experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, and the number and duration of copulations achieved by each type of male were determined. Our results indicate that the male response to ginger oil exposure was different for each of the evaluated species. For A. ludens, we observed a detrimental effect on the number of copulations obtained by 6 d-old males but not by 9 or 12 d-old males. For A. obliqua, treatment with ginger oil did not significantly affect the evaluated parameters at any age. For treated A. serpentina males, 9 and 12 d-old males showed greater sexual performance when compared to untreated males. Copula duration was not affected by ginger oil treatment in any of the species. We determined that aromatherapy using ginger oil does not have the same beneficial effect in A. ludens and A. obliqua as it does in C. capitata, but in A. serpentina, the use of this product offers a great potential and might render important benefits in SIT applications.
Flores Salvador, Rivera J. Pedro, Hernandez Emilio and Montoya Pablo
tropical fruit flies, sexual behavior, aromatherapy, mating competitiveness
4952
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(4):874-881.
The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), is considered one of the most important pests of mango (Mangifera indica L.) and hog plums (Spondias spp.) in Latin America. A better understanding of the role of chemical compounds during the sexual behavior of A. obliqua may be useful to improve the monitoring of this tephritid fruit fly pest. The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the attraction of females and males to live calling males and to Super Q extracts of calling males; (2) to measure the female and males antennal responses to extracts from live calling males; (3) and to identify the compounds emitted by A. obliqua males during calling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both sexes were attracted to live males and to male extracts. Extracts from males elicited significant antennal responses from both sexes compared to those evoked by the control. GC-MS analyses of the volatile extracts showed that calling A. obliqua males consistently emitted 9 compounds, 6 of which are reported for the first time for this fruit fly species. Preliminary bioassays showed that females and males were attracted to (Z)-3-nonenol and (Z)-3-nonenol + β-farnesene. Further identification of the unknown compounds and their synthesis remain to be performed in order to evaluate their biological activity.
López-Guillén Guillermo , Leopoldo Cruz López, Edi A. Malo and Julio C. Rojas
West Indian fruit fly, sexual behavior, male volatiles, sexual/aggregation attraction.
4951
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(4):863-868.
The aim of this study was to determine the optimal larval age for exposing Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) to Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) females to maximize parasitoid female offspring production under laboratory conditions in order to develop an efficient mass-rearing process for this biocontrol agent. Five age ranges of A. fraterculus larvae were assessed: 1–3 d-old (first instar), 4–6 d-old (second instar), 7–8 d-old (early third instar), 9–10 d-old (middle third instar), and 11–12 d-old (late third instar). The number of D. longicaudata initiating ovipositor probing on a device with third instars of A. fraterculus was significantly higher than with others containing younger instars. Although female biased parasitoid offspring was recorded in all treatments using third instars as hosts, significantly more D. longicaudata females emerged from A. fraterculus pupae originated from middle and late third instars. However, the percentage of unemerged host puparia also increased significantly in both those host instar groups. Superparasitism, recorded as the number of first instar parasitoid head capsules per host, increased significantly as A. fraterculus larvae matured from second instars to late third instars. Nevertheless, the maximum average yield of parasitoid progeny was achieved using 9–12 d-old A. fraterculus larvae as hosts.
Van Nieuwenhove Guido A. and Ovruski Sergio M.
fruit flies, parasitoids, sex ratio, superparasitism, biological control, Argentina
4950
  
2011
Florida Entomologist, 94(4):809-816. 2011.
The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the opiine braconid parasitoids Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) and Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti). Largely sympatric, the two species co-exist through microhabitat specializations based on different ovipositor lengths and asymmetries in larval competitive abilities during multiparasitism. Utetes anastrephae, but not D. areolatus, is apparently native to the Dominican Republic. Since the two parasitoids share an evolutionary history over a substantial portion of their distributions it was proposed that 1) D. areolatus would find the Dominican environment suitable, as does U. anastrephae; and 2) that there would be no negative interactions when the two species were reunited and overall parasitism would increase. Immediately following releases, D. areolatus averaged 9% of adult insects recovered and two years after releases were concluded constituted a mean of 13%. By then the parasitoid had spread up to 50 km from release sites. There was no evidence of competitive exclusion of U. anastrephae by D. areolatus. Another opiine biological control candidate, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), could be considered for release and establishment. Parasitoids alone are unlikely to provide economic levels of control, but can serve as components of an integrated pest management program established to maintain “fly-free” or “low prevalence” fruit export zones.
Serra Colmar A., Ferreira Mileida, García Socorro, Santana Loeny, Castillo Maira, Nolasco Caridad, Morales Paula, Holler Timothy, Roda Amy,Aluja Martin and Sivinski John
Anastrepha obliqua, mango, biological control, invasive pest
4949
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(4):787-794.
The knowledge of the status of the different fruit fly species and their hosts is essential to manage these insects. This work reports the associations of tephritoid fly species (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) with fruits collected from 67 municipalities in Sã;o Paulo State, Brazil. From Mar 1997 to Sep 2003, a total of 536 fruit samples was collected from 63 plant species in 28 botanical families. From overall collections, the average infestation index ranged from 0.01 to 22.98 pupae per fruit. The highest infestation was observed in Cucurbita moschata (Dusc.) Poir, followed by Mangifera indica Linnaeus and Passiflora alata Curtis, with 107.14, 59.00, and 38.50 pupae/ fruit, respectively. The pupae/kg of fruit index ranged from 0.01 in Manihot esculenta Crantz to 277.91 in Citharexylum myrianthum Cham. In total 43,104 pupae and 26,368 adults of Tephritoidea were recovered from all collections. The following Tephritoidea adults were observed: Anastrepha amita Zucchi, Anastrepha bahiensis Lima, Anastrepha distincta Greene, Anastrepha. fraterculus (Wied.), Anastrepha grandis (Macquart), Anastrepha leptozona Hendel, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha pseudoparallela (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wied.), Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and Lonchaeidae. All host species infested by C. capitata or Anastrepha spp. also were infested by Lonchaeidae.
Raga Adalton, De Souza-Filho Miguel F., Machado Rogerio A. , Sato Mário E. and Siloto Romildo C.
Tephritoidea, Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha, host plant, ecology
4948
  
2011
Journal of Applied Entomology. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2011.01695.x
The juvenile hormone analogue, methoprene, has been documented to accelerate the development of reproductive competence and sexual signalling of Caribbean (Anastrepha suspensa), the Mexican (Anastrepha ludens), the South American (Anastrepha fraterculus) and West Indian (Anastrepha obliqua) tephritid fruit flies. The incorporation of methoprene into sterile fly release protocols at fly emergence and handling facilities is a key step required for large-scale application of the technology to field release strategies. The goal of our study was to develop a method to supply, in large scale, methoprene to sterile Mexican fruit flies for release in the current Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme in Mexico. In field cage tests, the isolation index of sterile males after treatment with methoprene was reduced, increasing the percentage of mating between laboratory sterile males and wild females. In laboratory trials, males fed a diet containing 0.05% or 0.1% methoprene mated 4-day earlier than untreated control males. In a pilot area tested in 3500 ha to measure the impact of the sterile releases when methoprene was supplied, no adult wild flies were detected and no larvae were found after sampling more than 330 kg of fruit both in the treated and untreated blocks. Based on the results obtained in this study, we recommend the incorporation of the methoprene on adult diet to improve the Mexican fruit fly male sexual performance when release in the field, contributing to the increase in the cost-effectiveness of the SIT programme.
Gómez, Y., Teal, P. E. A. and Pereira, R.
adult diet;Anasptrepha ludens;juvenile hormone;sexual maturation;sexual performance
4943
  
2011
Crop Protection
Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is a major pest of fruit crops due to its wide host range and distribution. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of Surround WP, a kaolin-based particle film, as an alternative to synthetic insecticides to control medfly infestations and postharvest decay in citrus and stone fruit. No-choice, choice and half-choice laboratory experiments with citrus fruit,
 nectarines and peaches showed a significant reduction of medfly punctures and landings on kaolin-treated fruit. The total loss at harvest in satsumas sprayed with Surround WP (17%) was significantly lower than in those untreated (57%) or treated with trichlorfon (68%). In 2004, the yield loss at harvest in peaches and nectarines treated with Surround WP was not different compared to fruit sprayed with fenthion and trichlorfon, while in 2005 Surround WP was significantly more effective than insecticides in reducing the incidence of damaged fruit. Citrus and stone fruit treated with Surround WP showed a lower incidence of postharvest decay than control and insecticide-treated fruit. The present study shows for the first time the lower incidence of postharvest decay in fruit protected with Surround WP, which represents a suitable alternative to conventional insecticides in integrated and traditionally managed orchards
S. D’Aquino, A. Cocco, S. Ortu, M. Schirra
Medfly, citrus fruit, stone fruit, Surround WS, storage, decay
4941
  
2011
Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104(6):1367-1372. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/AN11035.
When holometabolous insect larvae are exposed to a radiation treatment, morbidity or mortality are typically manifested during a major developmental transition, usually a transition involving ecdysis. Thus, early instars fail to develop into later instars or the later instars fail to pupate or pupariate. Over a range of sublethal doses of gamma radiation (increments of 0, 15, 20, 25, and 30 Gy) applied to third-instar Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infesting or implanted in grapefruits, Citrus paradisi Macfayden, survival decreased with increasing dose. At all radiation doses, the majority of treated larvae arrested development at pupal ecdysis, the transformation from a cryptocephalic to a phanerocephalic pupa. More than 96% of treated larvae died at, or before, reaching this transition at the highest dose tested (30 Gy). Contrary to expectations, the radiation treatment did not cause atrophy of the imaginai tissues, a result that we attribute to apoptosis.
Thomas Donald B. and Hallman Guy J.
irradiation, Anastrepha ludens, phytosanitation, apoptosis
4940
  
2011
Journal of Insect Science 11:30 available online: insectscience.org/11.30
Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) populations. Establishment of preferred roosting hosts as crop borders may help to improve suppression of both fruit fly species by providing sites for bait spray applications. In an area-wide B. cucurbitae suppression trial, the question was raised as to whether cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), could be used as a B. cucurbitae roosting host. M. esculenta was of interest as a roosting host because, in contrast to many other identified preferred roosting hosts, it would also be a crop potentially increasing the productivity of the crop production system overall. As a short-lived and shrubby perennial, M. esculenta potentially constitutes a crop with more persistent roosting foliage than an annual crop such as corn, Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae), that has often been planted as a roosting host for B. cucurbitae control. Using protein-baited traps set amidst potted plants placed adjacent to a papaya Carica papaya L. (Violales: Caricaceae) orchard known to have established populations of B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, the effectiveness of M. esculenta as a roosting host was assessed by comparing its attractiveness to that of castor bean, Ricinus communis L (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), previously identified as one of the most attractive roosting hosts for B. cucurbitae, and to corn, a crop which has been planted as a roosting host for help in B. cucurbitae control. The results showed that use of M. esculenta as a roosting host is comparable to use of R. communis by both B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis. These results provide encouragement to incorporate M. esculenta on a farm as a trap crop (i.e. site for bait spray application). This has the advantage of having the trap crop be a crop on its own (as opposed to castor bean) and, among prospective crops that could be used as a trap crop, has foliage more persistent than an annual trap crop such as corn.
McQuate GT.
bait spray, crop borders, Manihot esculenta, Ricinus communis, suppression
4933
  
2011
Journal of Insect Science 11:151 available online: insectscience.org/11.151
The state of Rio Grande do Norte is an important fruit–producing and exporting area in northeastern Brazil. The success of this industry depends on fruit fly population control, especially in fly–free exporting zones. However, many fruits are not exported because of quarantine restrictions imposed by importing countries. A survey in the state has detected a considerable increase of the fruit fly, Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (Diptera: Tephritidae), probably a result of the introduction of irrigated guava orchards that make fruit available all year. Knowledge of the sexual behavior of Tephritidae has great importance to pest control programs, particularly those that employ the Sterile Insect Technique. In order to characterize the reproductive behavior of A. zenildae, 32 individuals (16 males; 16 females) in each of six generations were submitted to an artificial 12:12 L:D cycle (750: < 1 lux, lights on 07:00-19:00) and observed over their lifetimes. The courtship and copulation occurred in leks and the episodes varied with the time of day, courtship being most frequent between zeitgeber time (ZT) 3 and ZT 7, peaking at ZT 5-6. Copulations occurred between ZT 2 and ZT 8, with a higher frequency between ZT 5-7 and a peak at ZT 6. Mean duration was 0.28 ± 0.03 min/male (range: 5-163 min). Males in the leks attempted to copulate mainly between ZT 3 and ZT 7 with a peak at ZT 6, and males outside leks peaked at ZT 7. The different timing of sexual behaviors among related sympatric species, including A. zenildae, may contribute to species isolation.
De Almeida LM, Araújo A, Mendes NHD, de Souza JMGA, Menezes AAL.
copulation, courtship, reproductive isolation, temporal isolation
4932
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(3): 379-388
Several members of the Tephritidae (Diptera) are destructive pests of fruits and vegetables. This study used scanning electron microscopy to analyze the external morphology, typology, size, and distribution of maxillary palpus sensilla of both female and male adults of 6 fruit fly species, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), B. diaphora (Hendel), B. dorsalis (Hendel), B. minax (Enderlein), B. scutellata (Hendel), and B. tau (Walker). The palpus is equipped with sensilla chaetica , sensilla basiconica , and microtrichia. In addition, the possible functions of the sensillum types are discussed. Probable functions include the mechanoreception of sensilla chaetica and microtrichia, and olfaction of sensilla basiconica . Future functional morphology and electrophysiological studies are needed to confirm these proposed functions.
HANG GUO-NAZ, HULL-SANDERS HELEN , HU FEI , DOU WEI , NIU JIN-ZHI AND WANG JIN-JUN.
Bactrocera, mouthparts, ultrastructure, scanning electron microscopy, sensilla
4931
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(3): 407-419
The frugivorous larvae of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae are key pests of fruit trees and vegetable crops in Brazil and in many other South American countries. Their most important natural enemies are parasitoids of the families Braconidae and Figitidae (Hymenoptera). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of parasitoids in larvae of fruit flies (Tephritidae) and frugivorous Lonchaeidae that infest several species of native and exotic fruit trees in the South Pantanal Region, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Ninety-two species of fruits from 36 families and 22 orders were sampled. From 11 species of host fruits, we obtained 11,197 larvae of Tephritoidea, and in some samples there occurred Braconidae, Figitidae or Pteromalidae parasitoids. The Braconidae totaled 99.45%, represented by 3 species: Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) 92.45%, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) 6.17%, and Opius bellus (Gahan) with 0.82%. The Figitidae were represented by Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rohwer) (0.28%), and Pteromalidae by Spalangia endius (Walker) (0.28%). Lopheucoila anastrephae emerged from puparia of Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae) infesting pods of Inga laurina (Swartz) Willdenow. Doryctobracon areolatus was associated with 2 species of Anastrepha : A . rheediae Stone in Rheedia brasilensis Planchon & Triana and A . zenildae Zucchi in Sorocea sprucei saxicola (Hassler) C. C. Berg. In Ximenia americana L. 14% of the larvae of Anastrepha spp. were parasitized and D . areolatus reached more than 96% of total parasitism in this host fruit. The braconids were specific to Tephritidae, and the Figitidae species collected in this work were associated only with larvae of Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae).
NICÁCIO JOSÉ N., UCHÔA MANOEL A., FACCENDA ODIVAL , GUIMARÃES JORGE A., AND MARINHO CLAUDIA F.
Braconidae, fruit flies, Figitidae, frugivory, Lonchaeidae, tritrophic interactions
4930
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(3):443-466
Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae (Tephritoidea) are major pests of horticultural crops worldwide. Knowledge of the interactions between these flies and their host plants is needed for rational methods of population control. In the South Pantanal and adjacent areas in Brazil we sampled fruits from 92 plant species (22 orders and 36 families) in natural environments. Fifty-three species of plants were infested, and 39 not infested. Some aspects of the biology and patterns of species diversity, abundance, frequency, pupation period for males and conspecific females, and the interactions among species of frugivorous flies and their host plants were quantified. Twenty-six species of flies from 4 genera and 2 families were reared from the fruits: 17 species of Tephritidae (16 Anastreph a spp. and Ceratitis capitata ), and 9 species of Lonchaeidae, comprising 8 species of Neosilba McAlpine, and 1 species of Lonchaea Fallén (Lonchaeidae). The lonchaeids infested 48 species of fruits, and the tephritids 30 species. The most polyphagous species were Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal (36 hosts), Neosilba pendula (Bezzi) (18 hosts), and Neosilba inesperata Strikis & Prado (14 hosts) (Lonchaeidae); and Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (10 hosts), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (10 hosts), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (7 hosts), and Anastrepha zenildae (6 hosts) (Tephritidae). All the males of Tephritidae (16 Anastrepha spp. and C . capitata ) emerged before their conspecific females. Conversely, all females of the 8 species of Neosilba emerged in advance of their conspecific males.
NICACIO JOSE and UCHOA MANOEL A.
biodiversity, Cerrado, frugivory, fruit infestation, Neotropics, taxonomy
4929
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(3): 510-516
Performance of solid male lure (cuelure (C-L)/raspberry ketone (RK) against Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), and methyl eugenol (ME) against oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel)) both formulated with insecticide, were evaluated in Tahiti Island (French Polynesia), as alternatives to current monitoring and control systems using liquid formulations of attractant and organophosphate insecticides. Captures of B. tryoni in traps with BactroMAT CL stations, Mallet C-L, Mallet MC wafers (containing both ME and RK), and Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT) C-L were as high as with the standard liquid C-L formulation until 8 weeks, but thereafter the effectiveness of Mallet C-L baited traps declined. Captures of B. dorsalis with Mallet ME wafers outperformed any other ME formulation. Traps baited with ME and RK combined in a single Mallet MC wafer captured as many B. tryoni and B. dorsalis as traps baited with a single liquid lure. This suggested that solid Mallet dispensers with RK are longer lasting than those with CL. For control applications, the weathered SPLAT-MAT-ME-spinosad lure and kill formulation was equal to fresh material for up to 4 weeks. SPLAT C-L was more persistent than weathered SPLAT-MAT-ME under Tahitian climatic conditions, which suggested that SPLAT-MAT-ME may need to be reapplied at shorter intervals and in greater amounts for suppression of B. dorsalis than is required to suppress B. tryoni with SPLAT-MAT-C-L. Mallet ME and MC wafers and SPLAT-MAT-ME/C-L were more convenient and safer to handle than standard liquid insecticide formulations, and should be considered for monitoring and control programs in Pacific island nations. The Mallet MC wafer could be used in a single trap in place of two separate traps for detection of both ME and C-L responding fruit fly species, and thereby reduce trap and labor costs. In addition to the SPLAT-MATME or C-L for control, the Mallet MC wafer in a single trap should be tested further in Florida fruit fly programs.
LEBLANC LUC , ROGER I. VARGAS, BRUCE MACKEY, RUDOLPH PUTOA, AND JAIME C. PIÑERO
Integrated Pest Management, oriental fruit fly, Queensland fruit fly, malathion
4928
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(3): 719-720
Pouteria oblanceolata, the true natural host of Anastrepha pulchra, is reported in the state of Amazon, Brazil. Parasitoids attacking A. pulchra are also reported. Comments on a previous erroneous identification of the host plant of A. pulchra are also included.
RONCHI-TELES BEATRIZ, DUTRA VIVIAN SIQUEIRA AND SILVA JANISETE GOMES
Anastrepha pulchra tephritidae diptera host
4927
  
2011
Biological Control Volume 59, Issue 3, Pages 366-372  
Last-instar larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, were exposed to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates in sterile soil under controlled conditions. A multiple logistic regression model for mycosis was applied, and different temperature and moisture patterns for each of the four isolates were observed (Bb-1333, EABb 01/33-Su, EAMa 01/58-Su, EAMa 01/158-Su). In general, B. bassiana isolates were less virulent than M. anisopliae isolates. For all of the fungal isolates, lower mycosis values were observed under extreme moisture conditions (1% and 17% wt.:wt.). For the most virulent isolate, M. anisopliae EAMa 01/58-Su, higher mycosis values were observed at intermediate temperatures. Conversely a direct relationship between temperature and puparia mortality was observed for M. anisopliae isolate EAMa 01/158-Su. Both B. bassiana isolates displayed a parabolic relationship with moisture, and mycosis was observed at low temperatures (15–20.1 °C). This work provides additional evidence on the fact that for each fungal species, each isolate is an independent biological entity with different responses to environmental conditions; therefore, entomopathogenic fungal isolates for pest control should have a range of temperatures and humidities that can be matched to the desired environment.
Garrido-Jurado I. , P. Valverde-García, E. Quesada-Moraga
Beauveria bassiana; Biocontrol; Soil; Habitat; Metarhizium anisopliae; Temperature; Moisture; Puparia; Soil dwelling pests.
4926
  
2011
Biochemistry and Physiology, 78: 177–189. doi: 10.1002/arch.20446.
p70 S6 kinase (S6K), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is a downstream target of target of rapamycin (TOR) gene and an important regulator of protein synthesis responsible for cell growth and reproduction. In this study, a S6K gene, named BdS6K (GenBank Accession No. GQ203802), was isolated from the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Quantitative RT-PCR showed that BdS6K mRNA is expressed at a higher level in egg than in other developmental stages, as well as in ovary than in fat body. Downregulation of BdS6K activity by rapamycin treatment in larval stage resulted in the developmental defects of larvae, pupae, and adults, with a reduced yolk protein (YP) expression in the fat body throughout the first reproductive cycle with a substantial reduction in ovary size, and also repressed the egg development in female fruit fly. Knockdown of BdS6K gene by RNA interference in the adult significantly decreased the YP expression. These observations support the involvement of BdS6K signaling in the regulation of the YP synthesis and egg development in B. dorsalis. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Suganya, R., Chen, S.-L. and Lu, K.-H.
S6K;yolk protein;TOR;rapamycin;RNAi;Bactrocera dorsalis
4925
  
2011
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 78: 201–215. doi: 10.1002/arch.20453
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a group of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the nucleophilic addition of glutathione to a wide variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In this study, GSTs were purified from four field populations of Bactrocera dorsalis with different insecticide susceptibilities by glutathione–agarose affinity chromatography. The populations were collected from Dongguan (DG) and Guangzhou (GZ) of the Guangdong Province, Haikou of the Hainan province (HN), and Kunming of the Yunnan province (YN), China. Differences in GST characteristics among the four populations were studied using purified enzyme samples through comparative SDS-PAGE, kinetic, and inhibition experiments. The specific activities of the purified enzymes were similar, but the purification yield of the GZ population (31.54%) was the lowest. SDS-PAGE analysis showed only one band at approximately 23 kDa for these four populations. Kinetic analyses showed that the affinities of the purified GSTs from the GZ and YN populations for 1-chloro-2.4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) were much higher than those of GSTs from the other two populations, whereas the HN population had the highest catalytic capability in terms of Vmax value. The optimum temperature for CDNB conjugation was 37°C and the optimum pH was 7.5 in all four populations. Inhibition kinetics showed that ethacrynic acid, diethyl maleate, tetraethylthiuram disulfide, curcumin, bromosulfalein, and β-cypermethrin had excellent inhibitory effects on GSTs in the four populations of B. dorsalis, but the low inhibitory effects of malathion and avermectin did not differ between populations. These results suggest that GSTs may have a role in detoxification of β-cypermethrin in B. dorsalis.
Hu, F., Dou, W., Wang, J.-J., Jia, F.-X. and Wang, J.-J.
rocera dorsalis;glutathione S-transferases;purification;inhibition
4924
  
2011
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 141: 129–137,
The sterile insect technique (SIT), based on the principles of population and behavioral ecology, is widely used to suppress or eradicate target pest insect populations. The effectiveness of SIT depends on the ability of released sterile males to mate with and inseminate wild females; however, the use of gamma radiation to induce sterility negatively affects both somatic cells as well as reproductive cells. Consequently, sterilization by irradiation drastically diminishes mating performance over time. It is well known that fractionated-dose irradiation, in which a sterilizing dose is delivered via a series of smaller irradiations, reduces radiation damage. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of fractionated- dose irradiation on fertility, longevity, and mating propensity in Cylas formicarius (Summers) (Coleoptera: Brentidae) for 16 days after irradiation. Fractionated-dose irradiation with 200 Gy induced full sterility regardless of the number of radiation doses. Although the mating propensity of males sterilized by a single 200 Gy dose (the current standard of the Okinawa Prefecture SIT program) was equal to that of non-irradiated weevils for the first 6 days, the mating propensity of males sterilized by a series of three doses wasmaintained for at least the first 12 days. These results demonstrated that fractionated-dose irradiation can be highly advantageous in C. formicarius eradication programs.
Kumano Norikuni , Kuriwada Takashi , Shiromoto Keiko , Haraguchi Dai & Kohama Tsuguo
gamma radiation,mating behavior, sterile insect technique, dose rate, Coleopera, Brentidae, fertility, SIT
4921
  
2011
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 141: 103–113,
Post-teneral dietary supplements have been found to improve mating performance of male Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Q-fly) and show considerable promise for enhancement of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes even when applied within the current 48 h pre-release holding period. However, Q-flies are released as a bisexual strain, and the positive effects of a diet including yeast hydrolysate for males may also boost reproductive development and sexual performance of females. Increased prevalence of mature sterile females can substantially dilute SIT efficacy as mating capacity of sterile males is largely depleted by sterile females rather than the relatively rare wild females. Here, we demonstrate that providing yeast hydrolysate for 48 h after adult emergence, emulating the current pre-release holding period of Q-fly SIT, leads to a significant increase in reproductive development and sexual performance inmale Q-flies. In contrast, female Qflies with access to yeast hydrolysate for 48 h had ovaries that were poorly developed and, particularly at younger ages, were less likely to mate and remate than females with continuous, ad libitum access to yeast hydrolysate. Our findings suggest that addition of yeast hydrolysate into the pre-release diet of Q-flies could be a cost-effective means of releasing a bisexual strain with competitive males but with sexually immature females, thereby rendering it operationallymore similar to a unisexual strain.
Pérez-Staples Diana,  Weldon Christopher W., & Taylor Phillip W.
sexual development, mating, testes, accessory glands, diet, pre-release feeding, Tephritidae,Q-fly, Diptera, Bactrocera tryoni, SIT, sterile insect technique
4920
  
2011
Journal of Thermal Biology 36: 479-485.
Acclimation in the thermal tolerance range of insects occurs when they are exposed to novel temperatures in the laboratory. In contrast to the large number of studies that have tested for the ability of insects to acclimate, relatively few have sought to determine the time-course for attainment and reversal of thermal acclimation. In this study the time required for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, and the Natal fruit fly, C. rosa Karsch, to acclimate to a range of constant temperatures was tested by determining the chill-coma recovery time and heat knock-down time of flies that had been exposed to novel benign temperatures for different durations. The time required for reversal of acclimation for both Ceratitis species was also determined after flies had been returned to the control temperature. Acclimation to 31˚C for only one day significantly improved the heat knock-down time of C. capitata, but also led to slower recovery from chill-coma. Heat knock-down time indicated that acclimation was achieved after only one day in C. rosa, but it took three days for C. rosa to exhibit a significant acclimation response to a novel temperature of 33˚C when measured using chill-coma recovery time. Reversal of acclimation after return to initial temperature conditions was achieved after only one day in both C. capitata and C. rosa. Adult C. capitata held at 31.5˚C initially exhibited improved heat knock-down times but after 9 days the heat knock-down time of these flies had declined to levels not significantly different from that of control flies held at the baseline temperature of 24˚C. In both Ceratitis species, heat knock-down time declined with age whereas chill-coma recovery time increased with age, indicating an increased susceptibility to high and low temperatures, respectively.
Weldon, C. W., Terblanche, J. S. and Chown, S. L.
Chill-coma recovery time; Heat knock-down time; Thermal tolerance; Ceratitis capitata; Ceratitis rosa; Tephritidae
4917
  
2011
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 139: 17-24.
Diet has a profound influence on the fitness of adult tephritid flies. Mass-reared flies are provided yeast hydrolysate as a rich source of nutrition that supports rapid sexual development and mating success. In contrast, wild tephritid flies often live in environments where food may be hard to find and it is these conditions that sexually immature mass-reared sterile males encounter when released into the field during sterile insect technique campaigns. The effect of natural food sources (bat guano, bird droppings, citrus pollen, and wheat pollen) on the sexual development of adult mass-reared fertile, mass-reared sterile, and wild male Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was determined by measuring ejaculatory apodeme size. Inclusion of yeast hydrolysate in the adult diet was associated with faster growth of the ejaculatory apodeme in comparison with all other diets. Effects of diet were far less pronounced in mass-reared males, which may indicate reduced nutritional requirements; whereas the ejaculatory apodeme of wild males fed on natural sources of food or sucrose alone did not increase in size over the first 20 days of adult life.
Weldon, C. W. and Taylor, P. W.
4916
  
2011
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 141: 103-113.
Post-teneral dietary supplements have been found to improve mating performance of male Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Q-fly) and show considerable promise for enhancement of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes even when applied within the current 48 h pre-release holding period. However, Q-flies are released as a bisexual strain, and the positive effects of a diet including yeast hydrolysate for males may also boost reproductive development and sexual performance of females. Increased prevalence of mature sterile females can substantially dilute SIT efficacy as mating capacity of sterile males is largely depleted by sterile females rather than the relatively rare wild females. Here, we demonstrate that providing yeast hydrolysate for 48 h after adult emergence, emulating the current pre-release holding period of Q-fly SIT, leads to a significant increase in reproductive development and sexual performance inmale Q-flies. In contrast, female Q-flies with access to yeast hydrolysate for 48 h had ovaries that were poorly developed and, particularly at younger ages, were less likely to mate and remate than females with continuous, ad libitum access to yeast hydrolysate. Our findings suggest that addition of yeast hydrolysate into the pre-release diet of Q-flies could be a cost-effective means of releasing a bisexual strain with competitive males but with sexually immature females, thereby rendering it operationallymore similar to a unisexual strain.
Pérez-Staples, D, Weldon, C. W. and Taylor, P. W.
Sexual development, mating, testes, accessory glands, diet, pre-release feeding, Tephritidae, Q-fly, Diptera, Bactrocera tryoni, SIT, sterile insect technique
4915
  
2011
Annals of Applied Biology 158: 26-54.
The distribution, systematics and ecology of Bactrocera tryoni, the Queensland fruit fly, are reviewed. Bactrocera tryoni is a member of the B. tryoni complex of species, which currently includes four named species, viz. B. tryoni ssp., B. neohumeralis, B. melas and B. aquilonis. The species status of B. melas and B. aquilonis is unclear (they may be junior synonyms of B. tryoni) and their validity, or otherwise, needs to be confirmed as a matter of urgency. While Queensland fruit fly is regarded as a tropical species, it cannot be assumed that its distribution will spread further south under climate change scenarios. Increasing aridity and hot dry summers, as well as more complex, indirect interactions resulting from elevated CO2, make predicting the future distribution and abundance of B. tryoni difficult. The ecology of B. tryoni is reviewed with respect to current control approaches (with the exception of sterile insect technique (SIT) which is covered in a companion paper). We conclude that there are major gaps in the knowledge required to implement most noninsecticide-based management approaches. Priority areas for future research include host–plant interactions, protein and cue-lure foraging and use, spatial dynamics, development of new monitoring tools, investigating the use of natural enemies and better integration of fruit flies into general horticultural IPM systems.
Clarke, A. R., Powell, K. S., Weldon, C. W. and Taylor, P. W.
Applied ecology; area-wide management; Dacinae; tropical fruit fly.
4914
  
2011
Bulletin of Entomological Research
The effect of four temperatures (18, 20, 25 and 30°C) on pupa development and sexual maturity of Anastrepha obliqua adults was investigated under laboratory
 conditions. The results showed that the duration of the pupal stage decreased with an increase in temperature (29, 25, 13 and 12 days, respectively), and maintaining the pupae at 18°C and 20°C results in a low percentage of pupation, pupa weight loss and lesser flying ability. However, it significantly favored sexual behavior, a higher proportion of sexual calls and matings. While enhanced pupa development was observed at a temperature of 30°C, adults had low sexual efficiency, as well as a lower proportion of calls and matings. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of male volatiles showed that the amount of (Z,E)-α-farnesene did not vary among males from pupae reared at different temperatures; however, less (E,E)-α-farnesene was emitted by males obtain from pupa reared at 30°C. Male flies kept at 30°C during their larval stage had more (Z)-3-nonenol and, also, an unknown compound was detected. The fecundity of the females was higher at low temperatures. Regarding fertility, no significant differences were found between temperatures. The optimal temperature on pupa development was 25°C when males displayed ideal attributes for rearing purposes
R. Telles-Romero, J. Toledo1, E. Hernández, J.L. Quintero-Fong and L. Cruz-López
Anastrepha obliqua, mass-rearing, pupae, SIT, temperature
4913
  
2011
Revista de Biología Tropical
Complex genitalia occur in many arthropods and in some species extreme female morphologies lead to serious mechanical difficulties for males. Tephritid flies offer examples of such complex genitalia. Because of their economic importance and the extensive use of sterile male releases for tephritid control in Texas and Mexico, studies have been done on various aspects of their basic reproductive biology, but the process of intromission has received little attention. The distiphallus of the male of Anastrepha ludens is complex. One membranous sac on the distiphallus is capable of rhythmic cycles of inflation and deflation. Inflations of the sac near the base of the distiphallus probably help propel the aedeagus deeper into the female along with stiffening of the basiphallus and may drive the genital rod (which does not transfer sperm) into the ventral receptacle. We were unable to establish an association between some of the behaviours displayed by males during mating and intromission process.
R.D. Briceño, Dina Orozco, J. Luis Quintero, Paul Hanson & Ma. del Refugio Hernández
genitalia, penetration process, copulatory behavior, Anastrepha ludens, fruit flies.
4912
  
2011
Acta Zoológica Mexicana
Standard quality control tests were carried out to evaluate the sexual performance of laboratory sterile Anastrepha obliqua males acclimated under field conditions. Laboratory sterile males were maintained in a mango orchard in wooden cages for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days before competing with wild males for matings with wild females in sexual performance tests. Laboratory males were evaluated at 8 days of age while wild males were 15 days old. This study was conducted to confirm whether insects kept as close as possible to natural conditions, obtain an advantage in their sexual performance with respect to males maintained under artificial conditions. The results of the study indicated that the mating proportion in the test was within SIT quality control standards and the relative sterility index values didn´t show significant differences between the different treatments. In conclusion the data indicates that the pre-conditioning of A. obliqua males to field conditions doesn’t give an advantage over non-conditioned males in sexual performance with wild females in field cages.
José Luis Quintero Fong, María del Refugio Hernández Ibarra y Dina Orozco Dávila
A. obliqua, rearing-mass, acclimation, sexual performance
4910
  
2011
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 57:(11) 969-973,  10.1139/w11-057
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are a highly successful, widespread group of insects that cause economic damage in agriculture. Data available so far on the composition of the bacterial community associated with their digestive tract indicate that members of Enterobacteriaceae are the species most often isolated. Bacteria naturally occurring in insect guts may be engineered and used to study the spatial and functional interactions of microbes within the insect system and offer one route to meet the demand for novel insect pest management strategies. With this aim we introduced by conjugation the gfp gene carried by the suicide plasmid pTn5gfpmut1 into Klebsiella oxytoca and Raoultella (formerly Klebsiella) spp. strains isolated from the oesophageal bulb of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Rhagoletis completa Cresson, respectively. The GFP-encoding gene was stably maintained in two tested transgenic strains, both originally isolated from R. completa. In one case, GFP-labeled bacterial cells were used to feed larvae and adults of the original host. Genetically modified bacteria were able to colonize the gut of larvae and persisted through all larval instars to pupal stage.
I. Martinez-Sañudo, C. Savio, L. Mazzon, V. Girolami, S. Ciolfi, L. Marri
green fluorescent protein, conjugation, Enterobacteriaceae, Tephritidae
4909
  
2011
J Exp Biol 214, 3948-3960.
The timing of dormancy is a rapidly evolving life-history trait playing a crucial role in the synchronization of seasonal life cycles and adaptation to environmental change. But the physiological mechanisms regulating dormancy in animals remain poorly understood. In insects, dormancy (diapause) is a developmentally dynamic state, and the mechanisms that control diapause transitions affect seasonal timing. Here we used microarrays to examine patterns of gene expression during dormancy termination: a crucial life-history transition in the apple maggot fly Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). This species is a model system for host race formation and ecological speciation via changes in diapause regulation of seasonality. Our goal was to pinpoint the timing of the transition from diapause to post-diapause development and to identify candidate genes and pathways for regulation of diapause termination. Samples were taken at six metabolically defined developmental landmarks, and time-series analysis suggests that release from metabolic depression coincides with preparation for or resumption of active cell cycling and morphogenesis, defining the ‘end’ of diapause. However, marked changes in expression, including members of pathways such as Wnt and TOR signaling, also occur prior to the metabolic rate increase, electing these pathways as candidates for early regulation of diapause termination. We discuss these results with respect to generalities in insect diapause physiology and to our long-term goal of identifying mechanisms of diapause adaptation in the Rhagoletis system.
Ragland Gregory J., Scott P. Egan, Jeffrey L. Feder, Stewart H. Berlocher and Daniel A. Hahn
diapause, speciation, life history, microarray, Rhagoletis, physiology
4908
  
2011
Nuclear Science and Applications, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission(in press).
F. Yesmin and G. Nahar.
4896
  
2011
Proceedings of the MAPPS (Malaysian Plant Protection Society) National Seminar, Palm Garden Hotel IOI Resort, Putrajaya, Malaysia, 08 Dec, 2011, pp. 39-41.
Introduction: Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock and carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hackock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are the major agricultural pests, especially fruits and vegetables in Malaysia. Its presence can cause severe damage of the agricultural produce as well as limitations to the import/export of these products. Esterase comprises a multi-functional and heterogeneous group of enzymes which have as a shared characteristic participation in ester hydrolysis. In insects, they are related to several metabolic processes, such as food digestion, degradation of insecticides/insecticide resistance, pheromones and juvenile hormone hydrolysis (Campbell et al., 2003). Esterase patterns are important tool for analysis of genetic differentiation and evolutionary relationship of insects (Nascimento and de Campos Bicudo, 2002). They are also stage-specific and tissue-specific in insects (Lima-Catelani et al., 2004) and are closely associated with morphological, physiological, or biochemical ontogenetic alterations (Cohen et al., 1977). A polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic technique was used to study the esterase isozyme patterns in the adult flies of these two Bactrocera species. The results prove that different species have different esterase bands on gel.  This technique can be used to distinguish the adults of the two species.
Hasanuzzaman, M. and Idris, A. B.
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Tephritidae, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, agricultural pests
4894
  
2011
Journal of Applied Entomology. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2011.01684.x<br> other author Information:  K. D. Mathiopoulos, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Thessaly, Ploutonos 26, Larissa 41221, Greece. E-mail: kmathiop@bio.uth.gr
The medfly Ceratitis capitata and the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae belong to the Tephritidae family of Diptera, a family whose members cause severe damages in agriculture worldwide. For such insect pests, the utmost concern is their population control. The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been used in the Tephritidae family with varying degrees of success. Its efficient use usually depends on the development of genetic sexing strains and the release of only male flies. However, such advances are based on modern genetic, molecular and genomic tools. The medfly is clearly the prototype of the family, since such tools have advanced considerably, which has resulted in effective SIT efforts around the world. A whole-genome sequencing project of this insect is already underway. In contrast, similar tools in the olive fly lag behind, even though the insect is considered a promising candidate for a next SIT target. An accurate estimate of genome size provides a preliminary view of genome complexity and indicates possible difficulties in genome assembly in whole-genome projects. Taking advantage of a quantitative real-time PCR approach, we determined the genome size of these two species C. capitata and B. oleae as 591 Mb (CI range: 577–605 Mb) and 322 Mb (CI range: 310–334 Mb) respectively.
Tsoumani K. T. and K.  D. Mathiopoulos
Bactrocera oleae;Ceratitis capitata;Diptera;genome size;quantitative real-time PCR
4893
  
2011
Journal of Insect Physiology Volume 57, Issue 12, Pages 1622-1630
This work tested if carbohydrates and proteins ingestion is regulated in the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, to optimize survival and reproduction. Adult food treatments were established by providing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast in various combinations either alone or mixed at a standard 3:1 ratio (sugar:hydrolyzed yeast). Individual food consumption was assessed and related to survival patterns. The effects of adult feeding on fecundity and fertility patterns were investigated in groups of flies. Sugar consumption was the lowest in the treatment where it was provided with hydrolyzed yeast at a fixed 3:1 ratio. Consumption of hydrolyzed yeast did not differ between this treatment and the one in which this solution was complemented with one solution of sugar. It seems that a mixture of sugar and hydrolyzed yeast at a fixed ratio of 3:1, respectively, restricts extra ingestion of sugar; most probably because of negative response of the fly to overconsumption of protein. Survival was affected by the treatments, being lower in those cases where protein was at the fixed ratio. Group experiments revealed that protein restriction expanded longevity and decreased egg production. In contrast, egg production was enhanced when flies were kept continuously with a mixture of yeast and sugar plus an extra source of sugar, and this was not in detriment of survival. Our results suggest that fixed sugar-protein ratios in which protein is in excess affects fitness components such as longevity and reproduction. These findings are discussed from a theoretical and applied perspective in the context of pest control by means of the sterile insect technique.
Oviedo A., D. Nestel, N.T. Papadopoulos, M.J. Ruiz, S.C. Prieto, d, E. Willink, M.T. Vera
South American fruit fly; Protein consumption; Nutritional balance; Compensatory feeding; Individual intake; Survival; Fecundity
4892
  
2011
Journal of Insect Physiology Volume 57, Issue 12, Pages 1592-1601
The way energy resources are used under variable environmental conditions lies at the heart of our understanding of resource management and opportunism in many organisms. Here we sought to determine how a time-limited, synovigenic and polyphagous insect with a high reproductive-potential (Anastrephaludens), copes behaviourally and metabolically with environmental unpredictability represented by constant and variable regimes of host availability and variation in food quality. We hypothesized that an adaptive response to a windfall of nutritious food would be the rapid accumulation of energy metabolites (whole body lipids, glycogen and proteins) in the female. We also studied patterns of oogenesis as an indicator of egg-reabsorption under stressful environmental conditions. As predicted, patterns of energy metabolites were mainly driven by the quality and temporal pattern of food availability. In contrast, patterns of host availability had a lower impact upon metabolites. When given constant access to high quality nutrients, after an initial increase early in life, whole body lipids and glycogen were regulated downward to a steady-state level and somatic protein levels did not vary. In contrast, when food uncertainty was introduced, whole body lipid, glycogen and protein oscillated sharply with peaks associated with pulses of high-quality food. Production of eggs was highest when offered continuous access to hosts and high quality food. Importantly, females fully recovered their reproductive capacity when fruit became available following a period of host deprivation. With no evidence of egg resorption and high levels of egg dumping, it appears that egg dumping may favour the continuous production of eggs such that the female’s reproductive tissues are ready to respond to rapid changes in the availability of hosts. Our results exemplify the capacity of insects to maximize reproduction under variable and stressful environmental conditions.
Aluja Martín, Andrea Birke, Larissa Guillén, Francisco Díaz-Fleischer, David Nestel
Life history; Stochastic environment; Oviposition; Egg-dumping; Energy metabolites
4891
  
2011
Journal of Insect Physiology Volume 57, Issue 11, Pages 1501-1509
Male physiological condition can affect his ability to modulate female sexual receptivity. Thus, studying this aspect can have biological and practical implications. Here, we examine how male nutritional status affected the amount of sperm stored, remating rate and refractory period of the tephritid fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) females. Both wild and laboratory flies were evaluated. We also examine female sperm storage patterns. Experiments were carried out by manipulating male adult diet and exposing these males to virgin females. Females mated with differently treated males were either dissected to count the amount of sperm stored or exposed to virgin males to determine remating rate and the length of the refractory period. We found that male nutritional status affected the amount of the sperm stored and the renewal of sexual receptivity in wild flies. For laboratory flies, male nutritional status affected the length of the refractory period but not the amount of sperm stored by females. In addition, we report that the ventral receptacle is not an important organ of sperm storage in this species. We conclude that male nutritional condition influences the ability to modulate female sexual receptivity, possibly through a combination of the quantity and quality of the ejaculate. From an applied perspective, providing males with an enriched diet will likely result in increased efficacy of the sterile insect technique.
Abraham Solana, Goane Lucia, Cladera Jorge, Vera M. Teresa
Diet; Sperm storage; Remating; Refractory period; Tephritidae
4890
  
2011
Journal of Insect Physiology Volume 57, Issue 11, Pages 1471-1479
Life history theory predicts that individuals will allocate resources to different traits so as to maximize overall fitness. Because conditions experienced during early development can have strong downstream effects on adult phenotype and fitness, we investigated how four species of synovigenic, larval-pupal parasitoids that vary sharply in their degree of specialization (niche breadth) and life history (Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Opius hirtus and Utetes anastrephae), allocate resources acquired during the larval stage towards adult reproduction. Parasitoid larvae developed in a single host species reared on four different substrates that differed in quality. We measured parasitoid egg load at the moment of emergence and at 24 h, egg numbers over time, egg size, and also adult size. We predicted that across species the most specialized would have a lower capacity to respond to changes in host substrate quality than wasps with a broad host range, and that within species, females that emerged from hosts that developed in better quality substrates would have the most resources to invest in reproduction. Consistent with our predictions, the more specialized parasitoids were less plastic in some responses to host diet than the more generalist. However, patterns of egg load and size were variable across species. In general, there was a remarkable degree of reproductive effort-allocation constancy within parasitoid species. This may reflect more “time-limited” rather than “egg-limited” foraging strategies where the most expensive component of reproductive success is to locate and handle patchily-distributed and fruit-sequestered hosts. If so, egg costs, independent of degree of specialization, are relatively trivial and sufficient resources are available in fly larvae stemming from all of the substrates tested.
Cicero Lizette, Sivinski John , Rull Juan , Aluja Martin
Reproductive investment; Egg-load dynamics; Tephritidae; Braconidae; Anastrepha ludens
4889
  
2011
Journal of Insect Physiology Volume 57, Issue 11, Pages 1463-1470
While adult parasitic Hymenoptera in general feed on floral and extrafloral nectars, hemipteran-honeydews and fluids from punctured hosts, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), an Old World opiine braconid introduced to tropical/subtropical America for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. (Tephritidae), can survive on fruit juices as they seep from injured fruit. An ability to exploit fruit juice would allow such a parasitoid to efficiently forage for hosts and food sources simultaneously. Two New World opiines, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), are also prominent Anastrepha parasitoids and are roughly sympatric. All three species were provided with: (1) pulp and juice diets derived from a highly domesticated Old World fruit (orange, Citrus sinensis L.) that is only recently sympatric with the Mexican flies and parasitoids and so offered little opportunity for the evolution of feeding-adaptations and (2) a less-domesticated New World fruit (guava, Psidium guajava L.), sympatric over evolutionary time with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. Both sexes of D. longicaudata died when provided guava pulp or juice at a rate similar to a water-only control. D. areolatus and U. anastrephae, presumably adapted to the nutrient/chemical constituents of guava, also died at a similar rate. Survival of all three species on orange pulp and juice was greater than on water, and often equaled that obtained on a honey and water solution. In confirmatory experiments in Mexico, D. areolatus and U. anastrephae, as well as other tephritid parasitoids Doryctobracon crawfordi (Viereck) and Opius hirtus (Fisher), all died at a significantly higher rates when provided guava in comparison to a honey and water diet. Such a result is likely due to guavas being repellent, innutritious or toxic. D. longicaudata clearly consumed guava juice tagged with a colored dye. Dilutions of orange and guava juice resulted in shorter lifespans than dilutions of orange juice and water demonstrating that there while diluted orange juice provided nutrition the addition of guava created toxicity. Given the differences in fruit-food quality, adult opiine food sources would not be obtainable at all oviposition sites and in the case of guava, more additional sites and foraging for food than previously postulated may be required.
Stuhl Charles, Cicero Lizette , John Sivinski, Peter Teal, Stephen Lapointe, Beatriz Jordão Paranhos, Martín Aluja
Utetes anastrephae; Doryctobracon areolatus; Doryctobracon crawfordi; Diachasmimorpha longicaudata; Opius hirtus; Psidium guajava
4888
  
2011
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.65287-0
A close association between the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and bacteria has been known for more than a century. Recently, the presence of an host specific, hereditary, unculturable symbiotic bacterium, designated as "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola", has been described inside a cephalic organ of the fly, called oesophageal bulb. In the present work we analyzed the 16s rRNA variability of "Ca. E. dacicola" within and among 26 Italian olive flies populations sampled across areas where olive trees occur in the wild, and areas where cultivated olive trees were introduced in historical times.The bacterial content of the oesophageal bulbs of 314 olive flies was analyzed and a minimum of 781bp of 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. The corresponding host fly genotype was assessed by sequencing a 776 bp portion of its mitochondrial genome. Two "Ca. E. dacicola" haplotypes were found (htA and htB), one being slightly more prevalent than the other (57%). The two haplotypes do not co-exist in the same fly individual, as confirmed by cloning. Interestingly the olive fly populations of the two main Italian islands, Sicily and Sardinia, appeared exclusively represented respectively by htB and htA while peninsular populations showed both bacterial haplotypes in different proportions. No significant correlation emerged between the two symbiont haplotypes and the 16 host fly haplotypes observed, suggesting evidences for a mixed model of vertical and horizontal transmission of the symbiont during the fly life cycle.
Savio C, Mazzon L, Martinez-Sañudo I, Simonato M, Squartini A, Girolami V.
4887
  
2011
Abstract, International Symposium on Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 19-22 December 2011, pp. 101.
Farzana Yesmin and Mahani Mansor Clyde
4883
  
2011
Abstract. Full paper presented in the International Symposium on Women in Science and Engineering (WISE 2011), 29-30 Sep. 2011, PWTC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. 42.
The Tephritidae fruit fly pest Bactrocera papaya is a sibling species of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex with significant economical importance in Malaysia. It is a destructive polyphagous pest species and major pest that has been recorded from 193 host plant species in 114 genera and 50 families in Asia. This species cause serious financial damage in edible fruits and fleshy vegetables in Malaysia. Females lay eggs in green papaya, citrus, carambola, sweet gourd, cashew, pomelo, mango, guava and bananas. Because of their widespread agricultural impact and rapid range expansions, tephritid fruit flies are the subject of quarantine and control efforts worldwide. The efforts for controlling of these pests are based mainly on chemical insecticides which are harmful for environment as well as for the human beings. However, there are some genetic control techniques, such as sterile insect technique (SIT), sterile male technique and other autocidal methods, for example, pheromone traps, endotoxins, etc. But, the precise knowledge of genetic and cytogenetic information is fundamental for the development of strategies oriented to control or eradicate/suppress these pests, since these methods are species-specific. This study was aimed to investigate the mitotic metaphase chromosomes of B. papaya and the photographic metaphase karyotype from larval brain ganglia of the species is presented. The species has six pairs of mitotic chromosomes. Heteromorphism of the sex chromosomes is present which has a XY/XX sex chromosome system. The largest two pairs 2 and 3 are sub metacentric, while number 4 is metacentric. These 3 pairs are easily identified by their chromosome length and arm ratio. The two smallest pairs are acrocentric and are almost similar to each other in size and centromere position. It is very difficult to distinguish them clearly.  The sex chromosomes are the smallest of the set. The X chromosome is metacentric and long while the Y is a dot like chromosome and totally heterochromatic. One arm of the metacentric X chromosome is also heterochromatic.  The information will be helpful for developing novel control methods for this important pest species.
Farzana Yesmin and Mahani Mansor Clyde
Tephritidae, Bactrocera papayae, metaphase chromosomes, sterile insect technique, genetic sexing strain
4882
  
2011
Abstract and Poster. ESA Annual Meetings Online Program. ESA 59th Annual Meeting, Nov. 13-16, Reno, NV, USA. (http://esa.confex.com/esa/2011/webprogram/Session15908.html)
The true fruit flies (family Tephritidae) comprise over 4,000 species distributed over most of the world, and include several of the greatest potential threats to agriculture. The New World genus Anastrepha, the primarily African genus Ceratitis, and the genus Bactrocera contain most of the world's most serious fruit fly pests. Genus Bactrocera is known to be a major tropical fruit pest causing heavy losses in fruit and vegetable cultivation. Forty-three species have been described under the genus Bactrocera from Asia, Africa, and Australia. Amongst these, a small number of polyphagous pests have international significance including Bactrocera cucurbitae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae. Because of their widespread agricultural impact and rapid range expansions, these fruit flies are the subject of quarantine and control efforts worldwide. The efforts for controlling of these pests are based mainly on chemical insecticides. The insecticides create widespread environmental pollution and leave pesticide residues in food and water, and this has implications for human welfare and health. However, there are some environment-friendly genetic control techniques, such as sterile insect technique (SIT), sterile male technique and other autocidal methods. Genetic and cytogenetic information is an essential basis for understanding the biology of insect pests, as well as for designing modern novel control strategies. In this study, the mitotic metaphase chromosomes from larval brain ganglia of these important pests species were observed and their standard karyotypes were presented. All of them have six pairs of mitotic chromosomes including a XY/XX sex chromosome pair. The significance of studying the mitotic metaphase characteristics of these species is obvious. They can be used as reference material for future studies dealing with the population structure of these pests and their control.
Farzana Yesmin and Mahani Mansor Clyde
4881
  
2011
Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 104 (2): 306-318.
We report here a cytogenetic analysis of the melon ßy, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), a species of signiÞcant agricultural  importance. The mitotic karyotype and detailed photographic maps of the larval salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the species are presented. The mitotic karyotype consists of six pairs of chromosomes including one pair of heteromorphic sex (XX/XY) chromosomes. The heterogametic sex is ascribed to the male. The analysis of polytene chromosomes has shown a total number of Þve long polytene elements (10 polytene arms)that correspond to the Þve autosomes. The characteristic features and the most prominent landmarks of each polytene chromosome are presented. The proposed chromosomal homology between B. cucurbitae and Mediterranean fruit ßy, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was determined by comparing chromosome banding patterns. The detection of heterozygous chromosome inversions in two strains is shown and discussed. The current study provides workable polytene chromosome maps of the species and compares our results with previous reports. We show that these maps can be used for cytogenetic studies in the species and for comparative studies among the tephritid species. They also can support the development of control methods and clarify the taxonomic status of B. cucurbitae.
Antigone Zacharopoulou, Waheed AA Sayed, Antonios A Augustinos, Farzana Yesmin, Alan S Robinson, Gerald Franz.
Bactrocera cucurbitae, melon ßy, polytene chromosomes, chromosome inversions, Tephritidae
4880
  
2011
Abstract, International Symposium on Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 19- 22 Dec, 2011, pp. 38.
The Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the major agricultural pests, especially fruits and vegetables in Malaysia. Its presence cause severe damage to the agricultural produce as well as halted/hindering the export/import of these products. In this study, the electrophoretic banding patterns of esterase isozymes were observed on 10% PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) during different life stages of this pest. Four esterase isozymes, EST-1, EST-2, EST-3 and EST-4 were observed. There was EST-1 with high mobility and close to the anode. Whilst, EST-4 showed lowest mobility, close to the cathode. These esterase isozymes were designated from the anodal end of the gel, i.e., the highest to lowest relative mobility. Esterase activity was not detected in eggs. EST-4 band was observed in all developmental stages except eggs. The activity was high in case of third instar larvae and adult flies whereas the activity showed low intensity during the pupal period. This large number of variation of individual bands indicate that the variability for esterase isozymes occur in this pest species during ontogenesis. The present study of the esterase isozyme patterns during ontogenesis can be used to develop an environment friendly control method for this pest. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for the study on the esterase isozyme polymorphism in natural population and also the phylogenetic relationships of the pest.
Hasanuzzaman, M. and Idris, A. B.
Papaya fruit fly, Ontogeny, Electrophoresis, Tephritidae, Polyacrylamide gel, horticultural crop pest
4870
  
2011
Proceedings of the Postgraduate Conference-11, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia, 6-7 July 2011, pp. 582-585.
INTRODUCTION  The Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the major agricultural pests, especially fruits and vegetables in Malaysia. Its presence can cause severe damage of the agricultural produce as well as limitations to the export/import of these products. Isozymes are useful genetic markers in the study of gene expression as well as in studies on population genetics and evolution in plants and animals (Markert 1975). Esterase comprises a multi-functional and heterogeneous group of enzymes that have as a shared characteristic participation in ester hydrolysis. In insects, they are related to several metabolic processes, such as food digestion, degradation of insecticides/ insecticide resistance, pheromones and juvenile hormone hydrolysis (Campbell et al. 2003; Nascimento & de Campos Bicudo 2002). Changes in isozyme pattern may be tissue or cell specific and indicate regulatory events at the genetic and epigenetic levels. These events are probably closely associated with morphological, physiological, or biochemical ontogenetic alterations. Of all enzyme groups detected by gel electrophoresis, esterases are good markers for changes in gene expression because they are polymorphic in many organisms, stable under ordinary handling procedures, and easily detected. Insects are suitable material for studies of ontogenetic changes in gene expression because of their well-defined developmental stages. To visualize maximum bands by gel electrophoresis, nonspecific substrates are used. The electrophoretic techniques have been extensively used to study enzymatic variations in numerous organisms for various purposes (Cohen et al. 1977). In this study, the electrophoretic banding patterns of esterase isozymes were observed on 10% PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) in reference to the developmental changes during the life cycle of this pest species.
Hasanuzzaman, M. and Idris, A. B.
Esterase isozymes, electrophoresis, Bactrocera papayae, PAGE gel
4869
  
2011
Abstract (BMS03), WISE 2011, PWTC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 29-30 September 2011, pp. 40-41.
The Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the major agricultural pests, especially fruits and vegetables in Malaysia. Its presence cause severe damage to the agricultural produce as well as halted/hindering the export of these products. In this study, the electrophoretic banding patterns of esterase isozymes were observed on 10% PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) during different life stages of this pest. Four esterase isozymes, EST-1, EST-2, EST-3 and EST-4 were observed. There was EST-1 with high mobility and close to the anode. Whilst, EST-4 showed lowest mobility, close to the cathode. These esterase isozymes were designated from the anodal end of the gel, i.e., the highest to lowest relative mobility. Esterase activity was not detected in eggs. EST-4 band was observed in all developmental stages except eggs. The activity was high in case of third instar larvae and adult flies whereas the activity showed low intensity during the pupal period. This large number of variation of individual bands indicate that the variability for esterase isozymes occur in this pest species during ontogenesis. The present study of the esterase isozyme patterns during ontogenesis can be used to develop an environment friendly control method for this pest. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for the study on the esterase isozyme polymorphism in natural population; the phylogenetic relationships of the pest; and also in determination of insecticide resistant and non-resistant pest species in the population.
Hasanuzzaman, M. and Idris, A. B.
Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae, esterase isozymes, electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide gels
4868
  
2011
Insect Science, 18: 575–582. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2010.01402.x
Apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is a major pest causing considerable economic losses of fruits in North America. During the development of international trade, apple maggot fly has become a threat to Chinese agriculture. In this study, CLIMEX and ArcGIS were used to predict the potential geographical distribution of apple maggot fly in China. The parameters used in CLIMEX for apple maggot fly were derived from ecological data and the present geographical distribution of apple maggot fly in North America. Then the potential distribution map in China was presented based on the adjusted values of these parameters. The results showed that apple maggot fly has a wide potential distribution area in China; 47.5% of 748 meteorological stations presented high or medium suitability of pest establishment. These high suitable stations are mainly located in northeast, southwest and northwest of China, such as Liaoning, Shandong, Gansu and Shaanxi Provinces. These areas are also the central regions of apple, pear and peach production in China. Two hundred and twenty-five stations (30.1%) in western and southern China, such as Tibet, Qinghai, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Taiwan, were unsuitable for establishment of apple maggot fly populations. In order to prevent the introduction of apple maggot fly in China, the present plant quarantine measures should be enhanced, especially in the areas with high suitability for the presence of apple maggot fly.
Geng, J., Li, Z.-H., Rajotte, E. G., Wan, F.-H., Lu, X.-Y. and Wang, Z.-L.,  
apple maggot fly;ArcGIS;CLIMEX;potential geographical distribution;Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh).
4867
  
2011
Journal of Applied Entomology DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2011.01672.x (early view).
The brown sugar flotation and hot water methods are accepted procedures for detecting larval western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in sweet cherry [Prunus avium (L.) L.] and could be included in a systems approach, a combination of all steps involved in cherry production, for showing the absence of larvae in fruit. The methods require crushing cherries and then submerging them in brown sugar solution or hot water to extract the larvae. Larvae are visually detected when they float to the surface of the brown sugar solution or sink in the hot water. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of these two methods. Both methods detected at least one larva in all 288 moderately to heavily infested cherry samples. The brown sugar flotation and hot water methods detected 89.6–94.7% and 83.0–85.9% of total larvae, respectively, from cherry samples on each of three dates. Significantly higher percentages of 1st instars were detected using the brown sugar than hot water method on two dates, of 3rd instars on one date and of total larvae on two dates. Percent detection of 3rd instars was higher than that of 1st instars using both methods. For both methods, greater percentages of split whole cherries with seeds and non-split cherries had larvae than split whole cherries with no seeds and halved cherries. Results show that both methods were equally efficacious in detecting the presence of R. indifferens larvae in cherry samples, but brown sugar flotation was more efficacious than the hot water method in detecting a higher percentage of total larvae present and could be integrated into a systems approach for R. indifferens.
Yee W. L.
brown sugar flotation;hot water method;Rhagoletis indifferens;sweet cherry; systems approach
4866
  
2011
J. Appl. Entomol. 135: 554–563
Wolbachia pipientis is a widespread endosymbiont of insects and other arthropods exerting a wide range of biological effects on their hosts. A growing number of recent studies document the influence of Wolbachia on reproduction and lifespan of insect host species. However, little is known regarding effects of Wolbachia on the demographic traits of different host populations. Moreover, whether different Wolbachia strains exert different effects on fitness components of their hosts remains largely unknown. We studied the effects of (a) the Wolbachia strain wCer2 on fitness components of two laboratory lines of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and (b) two different Wolbachia strains (wCer2 and wCer4) on one of the Mediterranean fruit fly lines. Wolbachia infection (wCer2) shortens the egg-to-adult developmental duration of both C. capitata lines, although it prolongs embryonic development. In one of the two lines, egg-to-adult mortality increased. Wolbachia infection shortens adult lifespan (to a different extent in males and females) and reduces female fecundity. The different Wolbachia strains differentially affect both immature mortality and developmental duration, and adult longevity and female fecundity. Our findings demonstrate both differential response of two C. capitata lines to Wolbachia infection and differential effects of two Wolbachia strains on the same Mediterranean fruit fly line. Practical and theoretical implications of our findings are discussed.  
Sarakatsanou A., A. D. Diamantidis, S. A. Papanastasiou, K. Bourtzis and N. T. Papadopoulos
Ceratitis capitata, Wolbachia pipientis, demography, fitness cost, incompatible insect technique, life tables
4865
  
2011
J. Appl. Entomol. 135: 564–573
The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), (medfly) is a polyphagous and cosmopolitan agricultural pest, targeted in many areas for control by the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Our objective in the present study was to test the hypothesis that a bacterially enriched diet provided to sterile males will improve their sexual performance in competitive settings that emulate natural conditions. Specifically we determined how feeding on diets enriched with Klebsiella oxytoca affected the ability of sterile males to compete for wild females against wild males, their ability to inhibit female receptivity, and their survival. We found that enriching the sterile male diet with K.oxytoca significantly improved mating competitiveness in the laboratory and in field cages. In addition, bacterially enriched sterile males inhibited female receptivity more efficiently than sugar fed males and survived longer duration of starvation. We conclude that inoculating mass reared sterile flies with bacteria prior to their release is a valid approach to improve the efficacy of SIT.  
Gavriel S., E. Jurkevitch, Y. Gazit & B. Yuval
Ceratitis capitata, Klebsiella oxytoca, mating competitiveness, probiotics, remating, Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), survival
4864
  
2011
J. Appl. Entomol. 135: 546–553
The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is responsible for worldwide economic damage. In this report, we describe the first B. oleae lines transinfected with the Wolbachia strain wCer2, an endosymbiont of the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi. Immunostaining followed by confocal microscopy, detects high numbers of Wolbachia in embryos as well as in ovarioles and sperm from individuals of both transinfected lines. wCer2 was uniformly distributed in B. oleae egg chambers and the cortex of preblastoderm embryos. Wolbachia is known to manipulate host reproduction with several strategies, one of which is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), resulting in embryonic mortality in incompatible crosses. Wolbachia was found to induce complete CI in the novel host, suggesting that symbiont- based approaches can be used as novel environmentally friendly tools for the control of natural olive fruit fly populations.  
Apostolaki A. , I. Livadaras, A. Saridaki, A. Chrysargyris, C. Savakis & K. Bourtzis
Bactrocera oleae, Wolbachia, cytoplasmic incompatibility, incompatible insect technique, Tephritidae
4863
  
2011
J. Appl. Entomol. 135: 479–486
Wolbachia bacteria are common cytoplasmic symbionts of insects, mites and filarial nematodes. They can alter the reproduction of their hosts. The symbiont could be eliminated, transferred or used through genetic alteration to take advantage or remove their possible influences on pests and/or natural enemies. Their extensive effects on reproduction and host fitness have made Wolbachia the subject of growing attention as a potential biocontrol agent. Here, we summarize the relations of Wolbachia in the control of disease vectors and pests. Furthermore, the drawbacks of these bacteria are also discussed.  
Ahantarig A. and P. Kittayapong
cytoplasmic incompatibility, mosquito population replacement, Wolbachia
4862
  
2011
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 104(1): 16-24; DOI: 10.1603/AN10105
We describe detailed scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations of eggs of six Anastrepha species in the fraterculus group: Anastrepha antunesi Lima, Anastrepha bahiensis Lima, Anastrepha coronilli Carrejo & Gonza´ lez, Anastrepha distincta Greene, Anastrepha turpiniae Stone, and Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi, for the Þrst time. Eggs were dissected from females captured in McPhail traps in Cariri in the state of Tocantins; Itacoatiara, Manaus, and Presidente Figueiredo in the state of Amazonas; and Porto Velho in the state of Rondoˆ nia, in the Brazilian Amazon. Eggs were examined using both scanning electron and optical microscopes. At least 10 eggs were examined for each species by using SEM, and 20Ð35 eggs per female of at least three females of each species were prepared for light microscopy. The eggs of all six species are similar in gross morphology. They are tapered at both ends, have a papilla at the anterior pole, and the micropyle is located on the dorsal side near the anterior pole. Diagnostic characters to differentiate among these six species include the chorion ornamentation, location of aeropyles, and a pronounced rim of the chorion with a woolly appearance surrounding the micropyle. None of the eggs of the studied species had a conspicuous respiratory appendage.
DUTRA VIVIAN S., BEATRIZ RONCHI-TELES, GARY J. STECK, AND JANISETE G. SILVA
fruit flies, chorion ornamentation, micropyle, aeropyle
4861
  
2011
Environ. Entomol. 40(4): 844Ð854; DOI: 10.1603/EN11017
In 2003, the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Drew et al. 2005), of possible Sri Lankan origin, has been detected in the East and about 1 yr later in West Africa. In regular surveys in Benin and Cameroon covering 4 yr, samples from 117 plant species across 43 families have been obtained. Incubation of field-collected fruits demonstrate that in West and Central Africa(WCA) B. invadens is highly polyphagous, infesting wild and cultivated fruits of at least 46 species from 23 plant families with guava (Psidium spp.), mango (Mangifera spp.), and citrus (spp.), and the wild hosts tropical almond (Terminalia catappa L.), African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte) Baill.), and sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn.) showing the highest infestation index. B. invadens occurs in 22 countries of WCA with new records for Angola, Central African Republic, the Congo, DR Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Sierra Leone. Overall, the pest has spread across a North-South distance of_5,000 km representing a contiguous area of >8.3 million km2 within WCA. B. invadens has adapted to a wide range of ecological and climatic conditions extending from low land rainforest to dry savanna. Because of its highly destructive and invasive potential, B. invadens poses a serious threat to horticulture in Africa if left uncontrolled. Moreover, the presence of this quarantine pest causes considerable restrictions on international trade of affected crops.
GOERGEN GEORG, JEAN-FRANCOIS VAYSSIERES, DESIRE GNANVOSSOU, AND MAURICE TINDO.
Tephritidae, invasive fruit ßy, polyphagous, quarantine pest, Bactrocera dorsalis complex
4860
  
2011
Environ. Entomol. 40(4): 931Ð938; DOI: 10.1603/EN10302
The adult body size of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), varies in natural conditions. Body size is an important fitness indicator in the Mediterranean fruit fly; larger individuals are more competitive at mating and have a greater dispersion capacity and fertility. Both temperature during larval development and host fruit quality have been cited as possible causes for this variation.  We studied the influence of host fruit and temperature during larval development on adult body size (wing area) in the laboratory, and determined body size variation in field populations of the Mediterannean fruit fly in eastern Spain. Field flies measured had two origins: 1) flies periodically collected throughout the year in Þeld traps from 32 citrus groves, during the period 2003Ð2007; and 2) flies evolved from different fruit species collected between June and December in 2003 and 2004. In the lab, wing area of male and female adults varied significantly with temperature during larval development, being larger at the lowest temperature. Adult size also was significantly different depending on the host fruit in which larvae developed. The size of the flies captured at the field, either from traps or from fruits, varied seasonally showing a gradual pattern of change along the year. The largest individuals were obtained during winter and early spring and the smallest during late summer. In field conditions, the size of the adult Mediterannean fruit fly seems apparently more related with air temperature than with host fruit. The implications of this adult size pattern on the biology of C. capitata and on the application of the sterile insect technique are discussed.
NAVARRO-CAMPOS C. , M. T. MARTINEZ-FERRER, J. M. CAMPOS, J. M. FIBLA, J. ALCAIDE, L. BARGUES, C. MARZAL, AND F. GARCIA-MARI
Mediterranean fruit fly, body size, host, temperature, sterile insect technique
4859
  
2011
J. Econ. Entomol. 104(4): 1180-1188; DOI: 10.1603/EC10435
To develop a cold disinfestation treatment for the fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) that is rapidly spreading across Africa, research was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, using ßies from a laboratory culture and "Valencia" orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) as the host. The developmental rate of B. invadens in Valencia oranges was determined at 28 degree C, and the third instar was found to be the least susceptible of the egg and larval life stages to cold treatment at 1.1 degree C in oranges. When 22,449 B. invadens third instars were exposed in oranges to a cold treatment with an approximate midpoint of 1.1 +/- 0.5 degree C, the results suggested that a period of 16 d would be worthwhile verifying on a larger scale in oranges. Results from the first replicate of 16,617 larvae showed no survivors, but the second replicate of 23,536 larvae had three survivors. Because a longer cold treatment based on a mean temperature of 1.1 degree C would create logistical difficulties for some export markets, further replicates were conducted at an approximate midpoint of 0.5 degree C and at mean hourly maximum of 0.9 +/- 0.5 degree C, for 16 d. After three replicates, in which 65,752 B. invadens third instars in total were treated with no survivors, the Japanese requirement of 99.99% mortality at the 95% confidence level was surpassed. The following treatment protocol for B. invadens larvae in oranges can therefore be recommended: fruit pulp to be maintained at temperatures of 0.9 degree C or lower for 16 consecutive days.
GROUT T. G. , J. H. DANEEL, S. A. MOHAMED, S. EKESI, P. W. NDERITU, P. R. STEPHEN, AND V. HATTINGH
Bactrocera invadens, cold disinfestation, quarantine, commodity treatment, phytosanitary
4858
  
2011
J. Econ. Entomol. 104(4): 1174Ð1179; DOI: 10.1603/EC10434
South Africa currently exports fresh citrus (Citrus spp.) fruit to Japan using an in-transit cold treatment protocol of 14 d or 12 d at temperatures < 0 C for treatment of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in "Clementine" mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and other citrus types, respectively. To reduce the risk of chilling injury with this treatment, research was conducted with temperatures >0 C. Earlier South African research had shown that young (6-d-old) larvae were slightly more tolerant of cold treatment and that there were no significant differences between cold tolerance of these larvae in different citrus types [oranges, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck; grapefruits, Citrus paradisi Macfad.; lemons, Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f.; and mandarins). Due to their ready availability, "Valencia" oranges were used in this study. When 62,492 larvae in total were treated in three replicates at a mean temperature of 1.5 degrees C for 16 d, there were three larval survivors. The trial was therefore repeated with oranges using a 16-d period at a mean temperature of 1.0 degree C and a mean of 1.4 degree C for the hourly maximum probe readings. Three replicates were again conducted and the resultant mean mortality in the control was 8.1% of 21,801 larvae, whereas the cold treatment mortality was 100% of 71,756 larvae. This treatment at a mean temperature of 1 degree C exceeded the Japanese confidence level requirement and also exceeded the Probit-9 mortality level, but not at a confidence level of 95%. These data support the establishment of a treatment protocol of 16 d at temperatures <1.4 degree C, commencing once all fruit pulp probes reach a temperature of 1 degreee C or lower.
GROUT TIM G., PETER R. STEPHEN, JOHN HENRY DANEEL, AND VAUGHAN HATTINGH
Ceratitis capitata, cold disinfestation, quarantine, phytosanitary regulation, commodity treatment
4857
  
2011
J. Econ. Entomol. 104(4): 1195-1203; DOI: 10.1603/EC10220
An attractant for Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was developed from a commercial product called Sabor Uva containing processed Concord grape juice. The principal volatile components of Sabor Uva aroma were identified and an aqueous mixture of 15 components that was gas chromatographically similar to Sabor Uva was prepared. This mixture was equivalent to Sabor Uva in attractiveness by using wind-tunnel bioassays. After deleting chemicals that did not contribute to attractiveness, and increasing the concentrations of the remaining chemicals, the final attractant contained propylene glycol (90,000 ppm, vol/vol), acetic acid (4,500), methyl anthranilate (1,800), ethyl 2-methylpropionate (670), and one or both of the esters ethyl 3-methylbutyrate (44) and 2-methylbutyl propionate (44), in aqueous solution. This mixture was _1.8_ as attractive as Sabor Uva by indirect comparison. Deletion of propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, or ethyl 2-methylpropionate from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. Deletion of either of the other two esters seemed to diminish attractiveness although effects were not statistically significant. Deletion of water from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. We conclude that propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, water, and at least one or as many as all three of the methyl-branched esters are essential for complete attractiveness.
ROBACKER DAVID C., MICHELLE J. MASSA, PATRIZIA SACCHETTI, AND ROBERT J. BARTELT
Mexican fruit fly, grape juice, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, propylene glycol
4856
  
2011
J. Econ. Entomol. 104(4): 1204-1211; DOI: 10.1603/EC11042
This study examined whether economically important fruit ßy species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis La Llave and Lex.; sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.); sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L.; and wild plum, Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L.] along an altitudinal gradient over a 4-yr period (2006Ð2009). Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, Me´ xico. The guava samples yielded 20,341 Anastrepha spp. pupae in total (overall mean, 5.88 pupae per kg of fruit). ConÞrming previous reports, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) were found heavily infesting guavas in Veracruz. Importantly, although we did not Þnd evidence that A. ludens and A. serpentina are able to attack this valuable commodity, we document for the Þrst time in the agriculturally important state of Veracruz that P. guajava is an alternative natural host plant of A. obliqua. We recovered two fruit in the mango-growing locality of la Võ´bora, Tlalixcoyan, that harbored larvae of A. striata and A. obliqua. This Þnding has important practical implications for management of A. obliqua. Over the entire altitudinal gradient, when individual fruit infestation was examined, a dynamic pattern of species dominance was unveiled with guavas growing below 800mabove sea level mainly attacked by A. striata and a progressive replacement with increasing altitude by A. fraterculus. Interestingly, most individual fruit examined (97%) harbored a single species of fruit ßy, a Þnding that may be taken as evidence of competitive displacement among sympatric species of fruit ßies. Based on this study and previously published work by us on this topic, we conclude that literature reports indicating that A. ludens and A. serpentina infest guavas under Þeld conditions should be questioned.
BIRKE ANDREA AND ALUJA MARTIN
Anastrepha, Psidium guajava, competitive displacement, infestation patterns, host status.
4855
  
2011
J. Econ. Entomol. 104(4): 1236-1244; DOI: 10.1603/EC11012
<i>Neotephritis finalis</i> (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, <i>Suleima helianthana</i> (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (<i>Helianthus annuus</i> L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N. finalis and S. helianthana in several production regions of North Dakota during 2009 and 2010. Results of the nine site-year study revealed that late planting date (early to mid-June) reduced damage ratings and percentage of damaged heads for N. finalis compared with early planting dates (mid- to late May). Visual observations of adult N. finalis found that the majority of flies were found in the early planted sunflower (78.2%) compared with the late planted sunflower (21.8%). Late planting date also reduced the percentage of S. helianthana damaged heads compared with early planting dates. Yield losses were reduced with late planting date when populations of N. finalis and S. helianthana were high enough to cause damage. Results of this study showed that delayed planting is an effective integrated pest management strategy that can reduce head damage caused by N. finalis and S. helianthana and mitigate yield losses.   
KNODEL JANET J., GANEHIARACHCHI G.A.S.M., BEAUZAY PATRICK B., CHIRUMAMILLA ANITHA, AND CHARLET LAURENCE D.
sunflower, Neotephritis finalis, sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana, planting date.
4854
  
2011
J. Econ. Entomol. 104(4): 1349-1356; DOI: 10.1603/EC11082
Resistance to malathion has been reported in field populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in areas of Spain where an intensive use of this insecticide was maintained for several years. The main goal of this study was to determine whether resistance to malathion confers cross-resistance to different types of insecticides. Susceptibility bioassays showed that the malathion-resistant W-4Km strain (176-fold more resistant to malathion than the susceptible C strain) has moderate levels of cross-resistance (three- to 16-fold) to other organophosphates (trichlorphon, diazinon, phosmet and methyl-chlorpyrifos), the carbamate carbaryl, the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin, and the benzoylphenylurea derivative lufenuron, whereas cross-resistance to spinosad was below two-fold. The W-4Km strain was selected with lambda-cyhalothrin to establish the lambda-cyhalothrin-resistant W-1K_ strain (35-fold resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin). The synergistic activity of the esterase inhibitor DEF with lambda-cyhalothrin and the increase in esterase activity in the W-1K_ strain suggests that esterases may be involved in the development of resistance to this insecticide. Our results showed that resistance to malathion may confer some degree of cross-resistance to insecticides currently approved for the control of Mediterranean fruit ßy in citrus crops (lambda-cyhalothrin, lufenuron, and methyl-chlorpyrifos). Especially relevant is the case of lambda-cyhalothrin, because we have shown that resistance to this insecticide can rapidly evolve to levels that may compromise its effectiveness in the Þeld.
COUSO-FERRER FRANCISCO, RABEH AROURI, BEATRIZ BEROIZ, NATHALIA PERERA, AMELIA CERVERA, VICENTE NAVARRO-LLOPIS, PEDRO CASTANERA, PEDRO HERNANDEZ-CRESPO, AND FELIX ORTEGO.
Mediterranean fruit ßy, chemical control, synergist, esterases, resistance management  
4853
  
2011
Insect Science. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2011.01424.x
Age-stage, two-sex life tables of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), reared on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica Roem) and a carrot medium (mashed Daucus carota L. mixed with sucrose and yeast hydrolysate) were constructed under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1°C, 65%± 0.5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod 12 : 12 h (L : D). The intrinsic rates of increase of B. cucurbitae were 0.144 6, 0.141 2 and 0.068 8 days on cucumber, sponge gourd, and carrot medium, respectively. The highest net reproduction rate was 172 offspring per fly reared on sponge gourd. The mean generation times of B. cucurbitae ranged from 34 days reared on cucumber to 56 days reared on carrot medium. The life history raw data was analyzed using the traditional female age-specific life table and compared to results obtained using the age-stage, two-sex life table. When the age-specific female life table is applied to an age-stage-structured two-sex population, survival and fecundity curves will be improperly manipulated due to an inability to include variation in preadult development time. We discussed different interpretations of the relationship between the net reproductive rate and the intrinsic rate of increase to clarify possible misunderstanding in the literature.
Huang, Y.-B. and Chi, H.
Bactrocera cucurbitae;Cucumis sativus;Daucus carota;life table;Luffa cylindrica
4852
  
2011
Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 104(5):857-862.
We provide detailed scanning electron microscopy observations of eggs of three Anastrepha species in the spatulata group: Anastrepha manihoti Lima, Anastrepha montei Lima, and Anastrepha pickeli Lima, for the first time. Eggs were dissected from females captured in McPhail traps and examined using both scanning electron and optical microscopes. The eggs are tapered at both ends, have a papilla at the anterior pole, and the micropyle is located on the dorsal side near the anterior pole. Diagnostic characters for differentiating among these three species include the location of aeropyles, presence of a respiratory horn in A. manihoti and A. pickeli, and a pronounced rim of the chorion with a smooth surface surrounding the micropyle. Eggs of A. montei have a narrow patch of seemingly porous surface on the ventral side of the anterior pole. Such a character has not been reported previously for eggs of Tephritidae.
Dutra Vivian Siqueira, Beatriz Ronchi-Teles,Gary J. Steck, and Janisete Gomes Silva
fruit flies, micropyle, aeropyle, respiratory horn.
4851
  
2011
 Agricultural and Forest Entomology. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2011.00528.x
1-The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used to suppress or eradicate target pest insect populations. 2-The effectiveness of SIT depends on the ability of released sterile males to mate with and inseminate wild females. The use of gamma radiation to induce sterility, however, negatively affects both somatic cells as well as reproductive cells. Consequently, mating performance of sterilized individuals decreases drastically over time. The mating propensity of sterilized Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire) males irradiated with a single dose of 150 Gy (the current standard of the Okinawa Prefecture SIT programme) is equal to that of non-irradiated weevils for the first 6 days.
 3-Fractionated irradiation, in which a sterilizing dose is delivered over time in a series of smaller irradiations, reduces the damage of irradiation in insects. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of fractionated irradiation on male fertilization ability, longevity and mating propensity of E. postfasciatus for a period of 16 days after irradiation.
 4-Although fractionated irradiation totalling 150 Gy was found to induce full sterility regardless of the number of individual doses, the mating propensity of male weevils sterilized by fractionated irradiation was maintained for the first 12 days. These results demonstrate that fractionated irradiation can be highly advantageous in programmes aimed at eradication of E. postfasciatus.
Kumano Norikuni, Takashi Kuriwada, Keiko Shiromoto, Dai Haraguchi, Tsuguo Kohama
Dose rate;gamma radiation;mating behaviour;sterile insect technique (SIT)
4850
  
2011
CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 100, NO. 2:246-249
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a favoured host of the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), on which the females oviposit. Detailed laboratory studies were carried out to study the role of host biomass (= weight) on the oviposition decision of the tephritid fruit fly, B. dorsalis. The hypothesis that the biomass of mango fruit influences the decision of the mother (= gravid) fruit fly was tested on three varieties, Alphonso, Totapuri and Banganpalli, in three different but identical experiments. The results clearly showed that the number of oviposition punctures by a female fruit fly did not show significant differences among the different weight groups within a variety. The correlation coefficients between fruit weight and number of oviposition punctures were also not significant, i.e. the weight of the fruit did not influence the number of ovipositional punctures by the female fruit flies. This was true in all the three varieties. Further, the fruit weight did not influence the number of pupae that metamorphosed, number of adults that emerged and sex ratio in all the three experiments. The implications of these results on oviposition selection strategy of the female fruit fly are discussed. The study clearly indicated that after selecting a host (mango) the female fruit fly does not show non-random selection for a mango fruit with more quantum of pulp, as is expected if it were to maximize its survival and fitness.
Verghese Abraham, M. S. Uma, P. D. Kamala Jayanthi, Ranju Mouly and Mahiba Helen
Bactrocera dorsalis, host biomass, mango, oviposition strategy.
4848
  
2011
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (in press) doi:10.1016/j.aspen.2011.07.006
Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are important agricultural pests of the Pacific region. Detection and control of these species rely largely on traps baited with male-specific attractants (parapheromones), namely methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis and cue lure for B. cucurbitae. Presently, these lures (plus naled, an insecticide) are applied in liquid form, although this procedure is time-consuming, and naled as well as methyl eugenol may pose human health risks. Recently, a solid formulation (termed a wafer) has been developed that contains both male lures (plus DDVP, an insecticide), and here we present data from field tests in California and Hawaii that compare the effectiveness of liquid versus solid formulations of the lures in capturing marked, released males of these two Bactrocera species. For both species and in both California and Hawaii, traps baited with the solid formulation of the male lure captured similar or significantly more released flies than the liquid formulation for both fresh and aged baits. Traps in Hawaii also captured wild (unmarked) males of both B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae, and the results obtained for wild flies were similar to those recorded for released flies for both species. Collectively, the results presented suggest that the solid dispenser of the male lures constitutes a reliable substitute for the liquid formulation in detecting incipient Bactrocera outbreaks.
Shelly Todd E., Rick Kurashima, Jon Nishimoto, A. Diaz, J. Leathers, M. Warc and D. Joseph
Bactrocera dorsalis; Bactrocera cucurbitae; detection; invasive pests; trapping
4846
  
2011
Journal of Insect Physiology (in press) doi:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2011.07.015
While adult parasitic Hymenoptera in general feed on floral and extrafloral nectars, hemipteran-honeydews and fluids from punctured hosts, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), an Old World opiine braconid introduced to tropical/subtropical America for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. (Tephritidae), can survive on fruit juices as they seep from injured fruit. An ability to exploit fruit juice would allow such a parasitoid to efficiently forage for hosts and food sources simultaneously. Two New World opiines, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), are also prominent Anastrepha parasitoids and are roughly sympatric. All three species were provided with: 1) pulp and juice diets derived from a highly domesticated Old World fruit (orange, Citrus sinensis L.) that is only recently sympatric with the Mexican flies and parasitoids and so offered little opportunity for the evolution of feeding-adaptations and 2) a less-domesticated New World fruit (guava, Psidium guajava L.), sympatric over evolutionary time with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. Both sexes of D. longicaudata died when provided guava pulp or juice at a rate similar to a water-only control. Doryctobracon areolatus and U. anastrephae, presumably adapted to the nutrient/chemical constituents of guava, also died at a similar rate. Survival of all three species on orange pulp and juice was greater than on water, and often equaled that obtained on a honey and water solution. In confirmatory experiments in Mexico, D. areolatus and U. anastrephae, as well as other tephritid parasitoids Doryctobracon crawfordi (Viereck) and Opius hirtus (Fisher), all died at a significantly higher rates when provided guava in comparison to a honey and water diet. Such a result is likely due to guavas being repellent, innutritious or toxic. Diachasmimorpha longicaudata clearly consumed guava juice tagged with a colored dye. Dilutions of orange and guava juice resulted in shorter lifespans than dilutions of orange juice and water demonstrating that there while diluted orange juice provided nutrition the addition of guava created toxicity. Given the differences in fruit-food quality, adult opiine food sources would not be obtainable at all oviposition sites and in the case of guava, more additional sites and foraging for food than previously postulated may be required.
Stuhl Charles, Lizette Cicero Jurado, John Sivinski, Peter Teal, Stephen Lapointe, Beatriz Jordão Paranhos and Martín Aluja.
Utetes anastrephae; Doryctobracon areolatus; Doryctobracon crawfordi, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata; Opius hirtus; Psidium guajava.
4845
  
2011
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 140: 207–217. doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2011.01157.x
The walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), has recently invaded Switzerland, Austria, Germany, and France, probably crossing the alpine divide after its initial introduction into Italy. Here, the susceptibility of 36 walnut [Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae)] cultivars to attack by R. completa was studied in an experimental orchard in Switzerland. Walnut cultivars differed significantly in infestation rates; cultivars that produced large, heavy fruit harboured significantly more larvae than cultivars that produced smaller fruit. Pupal weight was significantly influenced by cultivar, but not by any of the physical properties that we measured. For individual fruit within a cultivar, pupal weight was weakly related to fruit weight and infestation level. Adult longevity was correlated with pupal weight and appeared to be favoured in flies that developed in large-fruit cultivars. The longevities of adults recovered from different cultivars differed significantly. The shortest longevity was recorded for flies recovered from Geisenheim 1049 (39.2 ± 2.80 days) and the longest for flies recovered from Sheinovo (68.8 ± 21.75 days). Differences in diapause length were also highly significant and varied between 167 ± 5.1 (Esterhazy III) and 257.4 ± 8.21 days (Mayette). These results suggest that (1) across and within cultivars, walnut husk flies prefer to infest (i.e., they develop better in) large, heavy fruit, and (2) offspring that develop in large fruit are likely to accrue fitness advantages over the offspring of females using smaller fruit. Our results provide the basis for subsequent studies on resource defence by males, as they enable a prediction of which type of fruit males should defend more vigorously.
Guillén, L., Aluja, M., Rull, J., Höhn, H., Schwizer, T. and Samietz, J.
Juglans regia; host-use patterns;longevity; fitness;invasive species; Switzerland; Diptera;Tephritidae; walnut husk fly; diapause
4844
  
2011
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 140: 181–188. doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2011.01154.x
Reproductive data of individual insects are extremely hard to collect under natural conditions, thus the study of research questions related to oviposition has not advanced. Patterns of oviposition are often inferred only indirectly, through monitoring of host infestation, whereas the influence of age structure and several other factors on oviposition remains unknown. Using a new approach, in this article, we live-trapped wild Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) females on the Greek island of Chios during two field seasons. For their remaining lifetime, these females were placed individually in small cages and their daily oviposition was monitored. Reproduction rates between cohorts from different collection dates were then compared. The results showed that in the different captive cohorts the average remaining lifetime and reproduction were highly variable within and between seasons. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the month of capture had a significant effect on captive life span, average daily reproduction, and patterns of egg laying. The effect of year was significant on reproduction, but not on captive life span. These differences between sampling periods probably reflect differences in the availability of hosts and other factors that vary during the season and affect age structure and reproduction. Using a non-parametric generalized additive model, we found a statistically significant correlation between the captive life span and the average daily reproduction. These findings and the experimental approach have several important implications.
Kouloussis, N. A., Papadopoulos, N. T., Katsoyannos, B. I., Müller, H.-G., Wang, J.-L., Su, Y.-R., Molleman, F. and Carey, J. R.
reproduction;age structure;captive cohort;natural population;field study;trapping;sampling;medfly;Diptera;Tephritidae;life span
4843
  
2011
Hort. Sci. (Prague) Vol. 38, No. 2: 54–62
Bactrocera zonata, a serious pest of fruits in many parts of the world, has recently been recorded in Northern Africa. Even though it has not been introduced to the European continent yet, a strong emphasis is being placed on developing effective measures to suppress this pest and to prevent it from establishing in neighbouring European countries. The sterile insect technique is widely used in integrated programmes against tephritid fruit flies and, in this paper, quality parameters of irradiated B. zonata were evaluated for possible use of sterile insect technique within the management of this pest. Pupae were irradiated (60Co) 48 h before adult emergence (in an air atmosphere) with doses of 10, 30, 50, 70 or 90 Gy. While adult emergence and egg hatch decreased with increasing dose, no significant differences in female fecundity were found among doses. Exposure of pupae to 90 Gy resulted in a total sterility of eggs laid by non-treated females crossed with treated males. Only insignificant difference in the radiation effect on female fecundity was found. Moderate effects on sex ratio and size were recorded, as they decreased gradually by increasing doses. No considerable effect on flying capability was observed, but generally, the percentage of fliers decreased with increasing radiation doses. Fried’s competitiveness values of treated males (30 and 70 Gy) suggest that irradiated males compete successfully with non-irradiated ones
Mahmoud M.F., M. Barta
gamma radiation; tephritid fruit flies; sterile insect technique; sterility; mating competitiveness
4839
  
2011
Journal of Insect Physiology (Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript) doi:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2011.07.014
Life history theory predicts that individuals will allocate resources to different traits so as to maximize overall fitness. Because conditions experienced during early development can have strong downstream effects on adult phenotype and fitness, we investigated how four species of synovigenic, larval-pupal parasitoids that vary sharply in their degree of specialization (niche breadth) and life history (Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Opius hirtus and Utetes anastrephae), allocate resources acquired during the larval stage towards adult reproduction. Parasitoid larvae developed in a single host species reared on four different substrates that differed in quality. We measured parasitoid egg load at the moment of emergence and at 24 h, egg numbers over time, egg size, and also adult size. We predicted that across species the most specialized would have a lower capacity to respond to changes in host substrate quality than wasps with a broad host range, and that within species, females that emerged from hosts that developed in better quality substrates would have the most resources to invest in reproduction. Consistent with our predictions, the more specialized parasitoids were less plastic in some responses to host diet than the more generalist. However, patterns of egg load and size were variable across species. In general, there was a remarkable degree of reproductive effort-allocation constancy within parasitoid species. This may reflect more “time-limited” rather than “egg-limited” foraging strategies where the most expensive component of reproductive success is to locate and handle patchily-distributed and fruit-sequestered hosts. If so, egg costs, independent of degree of specialization, are relatively trivial and sufficient resources are available in fly larvae stemming from all of the substrates tested.
Cicero Lizette, John Sivinski, Juan Rull and Martin Aluja
Reproductive investment; Egg-load dynamics; Tephritidae; Braconidae; Anastrepha ludens
4838
  
2011
Journal of Insect Physiology (Article in Press, Uncorrected Proof) doi:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2011.07.004
Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the mating competitiveness (mating success against younger rivals) of males. The mating probability of older males decreased significantly when competing with younger males. Aging gradually reduced the mating performance of males but older males were still accepted as mating partners in conditions lacking competition. Therefore, older males are capable of performing the complete repertoire of sexual performance but fail to be chosen by females in the presence of young rivals. Older males achieved shorter copulations than younger ones, and female readiness to mate was negatively affected by male age. Older and younger males transferred similar amount of spermatozoids to female spermathecae. Females stored spermatozoids asymmetrically in the two spermathecae regardless the age of their mating partner. Aging positively affected the amount of spermatozoids in testes of both mated and nonmated males. No significant differences were observed on the amount of spermatozoids between mated and nonmated males.
Papanastasiou Stella A., Alexandros D. Diamantidis, b, Christos T. Nakas, James R. Carey and Nikos T. Papadopoulos
Male age; Mating competitiveness; Aging; Sperm transfer; Copulation duration; Medfly; Ceratitis capitata
4837
  
2011
Bulletin of Entomological Research, Page 1 of 7 doi:10.1017/S0007485311000150
The effect of four temperatures (18, 20, 25 and 30°C) on pupa development and sexual maturity of Anastrepha obliqua adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the duration of the pupal stage decreased with an increase in temperature (29, 25, 13 and 12 days, respectively), and maintaining the pupae at 18°C and 20°C results in a low percentage of pupation, pupa weight loss and lesser flying ability. However, it significantly favored sexual behavior, a higher proportion of sexual calls and matings. While enhanced pupa development was observed at a temperature of 30°C, adults had low sexual efficiency, as well as a lower proportion of calls and matings. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of male volatiles showed that the amount of (Z,E)-α-farnesene did not vary among males from pupae reared at different temperatures; however, less (E,E)-α-farnesene was emitted by males obtain from pupa reared at 30°C. Male flies kept at 30°C during their larval stage had more (Z)-3-nonenol and, also, an unknown compound was detected. The fecundity of the females was higher at low temperatures. Regarding fertility, no significant differences were found between   
 temperatures. The optimal temperature on pupa development was 25°C when males    
 displayed ideal attributes for rearing purposes.
Telles-Romero R., J. Toledo, E. Hernández, J.L. Quintero-Fong and L. Cruz-López
Anastrepha obliqua, mass-rearing, pupae, SIT, temperature
4836
  
2011
Biological Control Volume 58, Issue 3, Pages 277-285
The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major tephritid pest in the Mediterranean region. This insect may overwinter as pupae inside fruits or in soil. Therefore, infection with entomopathogenic fungi is a potentially useful control technique during the insect’s soil-dwelling stage. Entomopathogenic fungi have an important role in Integrated Pest Management programs as an alternative to conventional chemical control, but they have been usually selected on the basis of laboratory results with little regard to fungal ecology. In this work, we designed several experiments to study the availability and movement of the EF Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) conidia in 16 soils differing widely in pH, texture, organic matter, and carbonate contents. Experiments of adsorption and drag of conidia by soil particles suspended in CaCl2 solutions of different ionic strength showed B. bassiana conidia to be retained by clay particles, and this effect disappeared with increasing ionic strength. The availability of M. anisopliae conidia in the suspension tended to be lower for sandy than for clayey soils and was not influenced by ionic strength. Regardless of soil properties, over 90% of the added fungal propagules were recovered from the surface layer of columns of packed soils representing model combinations of texture (sandy or clayey) and pH values (acid or alkaline). However, retention of B. bassiana conidia in the surface layer was higher in clayey than in sandy soils, and the retention of M. anisopliae conidia in the surface layer was higher in sandy than in clayey soils. Finally, neither soil texture nor ionic strength affected the infectivity of conidia of both fungal strains to C. capitata puparia.
Garrido-Jurado I., J. Torrent, V. Barrón, A. Corpas and E. Quesada-Moraga
influence of soil type, Effect of the electrolyte concentration, Movement of conidia in soil, Infectivity of fruit fly puparia
4835
  
2011
Biological Control Volume 58, Issue 3, Pages 208-214
Flowering plants in agricultural landscapes can provide ecological services, such as nectar-provision for adult parasitic Hymenoptera. Various flowering native, introduced/established and cultivated potted plants were used to bait interception traps along the wooded margins of fields planted seasonally with either feed-corn or rye. Depending on circumstances, controls consisted of traps baited with the same species of plant without flowers, a pot/area without plants, or both. In most cases pots were rotated among trap-sites. Of the 19 plant species tested, 10 captured significantly more summed ichneumonoids and chalcidoids, seven more Braconidae, two more Ichneumonidae and six more Chalcidoidea than controls. Among Braconidae, traps baited with certain plants captured significantly more individuals of specific subfamilies. “Attractive” and “unattractive” plant species tended to cluster in a principal components vector space constructed from plant morphological characteristics (flower width, flower depth, flower density and plant height). Flower width and plant floral-area (flower width2 * flower density) were the variables that most often explained the variance in capture of the different parasitoid taxa. Our study identified particular plants that could be incorporated into regional conservation biological control programs to benefit parasitoid wasps In addition, the results indicate that morphological characteristics might help identify further suitable plant candidates for agricultural landscape modification.
John Sivinski, David Wahl, Tim Holler, Shoki Al Dobai and Robert Sivinski
Plants, Malaise traps, Insect curation, Floral measurements, Trap sites and flower, Trapping protocols
4834
  
2011
J. Verbr. Lebensm. 6 (Suppl 1):S21–S26 <p> Conference proceedings: ‘‘Decision Making and Science—The Balancing of Risk Based Decisions that Influence Sustainability of Agricultural Production’’, 7th and 8th October 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Sponsored by the OECD Co-operative Research Programme.
In cost-benefit analyses of pesticide use an area-based measure of both costs and benefits is needed for spatial analysis of net benefits. The pesticide environmental accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application of pesticide (Leach and Mumford 2008). The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method (rating human health and eco-toxicological behaviour of specific pesticides) with absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in the UK, USA and Germany. The model converts external costs of a pesticide to other countries using GDP per capita and % GDP from agriculture. For many countries, resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. Economic and policy applications include rationalising pesticide choice, estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or calculating benefits from technologies that replace pesticides [sterile insect technique (SIT) or biological pesticides such as Metarhizium]. PEA is a logical integration of diverse data and approaches. The assumptions provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. The method has been applied to cost-benefit analyses of SIT in fruit flies (two species) and pesticide choice in Desert Locust (DL) campaigns in Africa. An example of external cost calculations for sugar beet herbicides in Europe is presented. There are also planned uses in public health mosquito control.  
Leach Adrian W.; John D. Mumford
Pesticide environmental accounting Externalities, Herbicides, Sugar beet, Environmental impact
4833
  
2011
BioControl. 56: 3, 333-340. 31 ref.
Field population surveillance of a targeted insect pest species is critical in evaluating management programs such as the sterile insect technique. Fluorescent powder dyes currently used to distinguish released tephritids from the field population are not optimal in terms of reliability and human health issues. Genetically transformed tephritid species present the possibility of using fluorescent transgenes for marking. Here we studied the stability of DsRed fluorescence in transgenic flies maintained in aqueous torula yeast borax and propylene glycol. DsRed was stable in both solutions for three weeks by visual microscopic observations and could be used to unambiguously distinguish them from non-fluorescent wild type flies. To compensate for any potential ambiguity in visual identification a diagnostic PCR was developed that could specifically amplify the exotic heterologous marker gene. Therefore, the use of sterile transgenic insect strains carrying stably integrated fluorescent protein marker genes in biologically-based control programs could greatly improve released fly identification in pest management programs.
Nirmala, X.; Olson, S. R.; Holler, T. C.; Cho, K. H.; Handler, A. M.;
animal proteins. genes. genetic engineering. genetic transformation. insect pests. plant pests. polymerase chain reaction. sterile insect release. transgenic animals. traps.
4832
  
2011
Crop Protection 30: 1162-1167
The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.), is one of the principal pests of fruit crops in Brazil. While organic farms use several compounds to control fruit flies, such as oils, plant extracts and soaps, there is little scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Our main goal was to evaluate the phytosanitary products used in organic orchards on A. fraterculus under laboratory conditions. Four multiples (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2) of the manufacturer-recommended concentrations of Rotenat CE (extract of Derris spp. with rotenone 5%) (600 ml 100 l1), Pironat (pyroligneous extract) (250 ml 100 l1), Biopirol 7M (pyroligneous extract) (200 ml 100 l1), Organic neem (neem oil 80%) (500 ml 100 l1), Natuneem (neem oil e 1500 ppm of azadirachtin) (500 ml 100 l1) and lime sulfur (20% S þ 9% Ca)(5000 ml 100 l1) were tested on A. fraterculus via ingestion and direct contact, topical application and residual application. We subsequently tested deterrence effects of the same products on oviposition. Organic Neem , Natuneem , lime sulfur, Pironat , and Biopirol 7M  showed no insecticidal effect on the South American fruit fly. Only Rotenat CE  (1200 ml 100 l 1) showed an effect (71.6% mortality) following ingestion/contact. Lime sulfur, Pironat  and Biopirol 7M  did not prevent oviposition of A. fraterculus on artificial fruits.
Efrom Caio Fábio Stoffel, Luiza Rodrigues Redaelli, Rafael Narciso Meirelles, Cláudia Bernardes Ourique
Rotenone, Lime sulfur, Neem, Pyroligneous extract, Fruit fly
4831
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(2):347-349
A natural host (Mouriri collocarpa) and a parasitoid (Doryctobracon areolatus) for Anastrepha pulchra are reported for the first time in Brazil. We report new hosts for Anastrepha atrigona and Anastrepha bahiensis in the Brazilian Amazon. Parasititoids attacking A. atrigona, Anastrepha coronilli, and A. pulchra are reported.
RONCHI-ELES BEATRIZ, VIVIAN SIQUEIRA DUTRA, ALEXANDRA PRISCILLA TREGUE  COSTA, ELEN DELIMA AGUIAR ENEZES, ALINE CRISTINA ARAUJO MESQUITA, AND JANISETE GOMES SILVA
braconids, Anastrepha, figitids, host.
4830
  
2011
BioControl. 56: 3, 333-340. 31 ref.
Field population surveillance of a targeted insect pest species is critical in evaluating management programs such as the sterile insect technique. Fluorescent powder dyes currently used to distinguish released tephritids from the field population are not optimal in terms of reliability and human health issues. Genetically transformed tephritid species present the possibility of using fluorescent transgenes for marking. Here we studied the stability of DsRed fluorescence in transgenic flies maintained in aqueous torula yeast borax and propylene glycol. DsRed was stable in both solutions for three weeks by visual microscopic observations and could be used to unambiguously distinguish them from non-fluorescent wild type flies. To compensate for any potential ambiguity in visual identification a diagnostic PCR was developed that could specifically amplify the exotic heterologous marker gene. Therefore, the use of sterile transgenic insect strains carrying stably integrated fluorescent protein marker genes in biologically-based control programs could greatly improve released fly identification in pest management programs.
Nirmala, X.; Olson, S. R.; Holler, T. C.; Cho, K. H.; Handler, A. M.;
animal proteins. genes. genetic engineering. genetic transformation. insect pests. plant pests. polymerase chain reaction. sterile insect release. transgenic animals. traps.
4828
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(2):195-200
The preferences of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) for larvae of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were evaluated under laboratory conditions in no-choice and dual-choice tests, based on percent parasitism, proportion of emerged parasitoids, proportion of female offspring, and number of parasitoid female visits to and ovipositor probes on the artificial oviposition device as different measures of host preference. In no-choice tests D. longicaudata females did not demonstrate a significant preference between C. capitata and A. fraterculus larvae. Nevertheless, D. longicaudata females showed a strong preference for A. fraterculus larvae in dual-choice test. Although female biased parasitoid progeny resulted in all assays, significantly more D. longicaudata female offspring emerged from A. fraterculus pupae than from C. capitata pupae. Thus, this study confirmed that both C. capitata and A. fraterculus are appropriate host for rearing D. longicaudata , but also provided evidence that female parasitoid progeny yield can be substantially improved by using A. fraterculus larvae as the host instead of C. capitata larvae.
OVRUSKI SERGIO M., LAURA P. BEZDJIAN, GUIDO A. VAN NIEUWENHOVE, PATRICIA ALBORNOZ-MEDINA AND PABLO SCHLISERMAN.
fruit flies, parasitoids, host preference, biological control, Argentina.
4821
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(2):186-194.
Lures based on odors released by hydrolyzed protein were assessed for their attractiveness to Anastrepha obliqua and A. suspensa at 3 locations in Puerto Rico in Aug through Oct 2009. Lures compared included ammonium acetate combined with putrescine, hydrolyzed corn protein (Nulure) with borax, freeze-dried Nulure, freeze-dried Nulure in combination with ammonium acetate, freeze-dried Nulure in combination with ammonium acetate and putrescine, and the Unipak lure, a single lure containing ammonium acetate and putrescine. Where the distribution of trapped flies departed significantly from what would be expected given an equal attraction of the baits, Nulure and freeze-dried Nulure always attracted fewer flies than the other baits tested, regardless of species, sex, or location. Although all of the baits or bait combinations containing ammonium acetate attracted more flies than the Nulure or freeze-dried Nulure baits, there was a distinct trend of ammonium acetate and putrescine and the Unipak lures to attract more flies after the 4th week of the study and for the freeze-dried Nulure with ammonium acetate or in combination with ammonium acetate and putrescine to attract more flies in the 1st 4 weeks of the study. This trial is unique in that it was conducted in orchards of carambola, Averrrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae), a poor host for both fly species. Our results are compared with other studies on lures of A. obliqua and A. suspensa and the implications for monitoring/detecting pest Tephritidae are discussed.
JENKINS DAVID A., NANCY D. EPSKY, PAUL E. KENDRA, ROBERT R. HEATH AND RICARDO GOENAGA.
ammonium acetate, putrescine, Nulure, McPhail trap.
4820
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(2):180-185
Field tests were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), in Multilure traps baited with either of the liquid protein baits torula yeast/borax or Nulure/borax, or with food-based synthetic lures including two-component Biolure (ammonium acetate, putrescine) and three-component Biolure (ammonium acetate, putrescine, trimethylamine). The highest relative proportion of females captured was in traps baited with the two-component Biolure (44-61%), intermediate capture was in traps baited with the three-component Biolure (14-24%) or torula yeast/borax (8-25%), and the lowest capture tended to be in traps baited with Nulure/borax (0-19%). Similar results were obtained for capture of males. Tests of the unipak two-component Biolure, which has a reduced ammonium acetate release rate and is a single package with both ammonium acetate and putrescine sections, captured similar numbers of both females and males as Biolure formulated in 2 individual packages. Traps baited with unipak Biolure combined with the addition of a trimethylamine lure captured fewer females than the unipak alone, but this was greater than capture in traps baited with torula yeast/borax. Our studies confirmed that the best lure for A. suspensa is ammonium acetate and putrescine. However, C. capitata -targeted traps baited with three-component Biolure should be as effective for A. suspensa detection and monitoring as traps baited with torula yeast/borax. The unipak two-component Biolure will provide the improved handling that has been requested by users.
EPSKY NANCY D., PAUL E. KENDRA, JORGE PENA AND ROBERT R. HEATH.
Caribbean fruit fly, Biolure, ammonium acetate, unipak, torula yeast.
4819
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(2):151-157
A total of 12,540 ripe fruits belonging to 46 species in 25 plant families were sampled from either the trees or the ground in 6 municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil between 2002 and 2006 to determine which fruit fly species developed on various host plants. Each fruit was weighed and placed into a plastic flask filled with sterilized sand 7 cm deep, and the opening of the flask was covered with sheer fabric. The flasks were kept under controlled conditions (25 ± 3°C, 70 ± 10% RH and 12h photophase). After 7 d, the pupae were sifted from the sand and transferred to Petri dishes lined with filter paper. Twenty-one species of Tephritoidea were recovered consisting of 13 species of Tephritidae, 6 of Lonchaeidae, and 2 of Ulidiidae. We present new host records for some species of fruit flies.
FLAVIO R. M. GARCIA, ALLEN L. NORRBOM
Tephritidae, Lonchaeidae, Ulidiidae, fruit pests, new host records.
4818
  
2011
Florida Entomologist 94(2):137-144
Because both the application of a juvenile hormone analog, methoprene, and the addition of protein to the adult diet increased the sexual success of male Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), it was hypothesized that both might also impact male nutritional status. Total content of lipid and of protein in A. suspensa males were measured to discover if there was an effect of these treatments alone or in combination on the content of each of these subtstances. In the first 24 hours following adult emergence, 6 different treatments were applied (all possible combinations of methoprene in acetone solution or acetone alone, and protein-diet enrichment). Adult weight was determined for all treatments at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 d post-emergence. Dietary protein had a positive effect on the weight and total lipid and protein contents during the first 35 d of adult male life. There were minimal negative impacts from methoprene applications. Even though males were more active sexually, there was no significant change in weight or protein content during the study period. However, total lipid content decreased with age. The usefulness of methoprene to enhance the sexual performance of mass-reared tephritids destined for sterile release appears to outweigh any physiological costs/limitations that such treatment might confer
RUI PEREIRA, JOHN SIVINSKI, JEFFREY P. SHAPIRO, AND PETER E. A. TEAL,
adult age, adult weight, Caribbean fruit fly, hydrolyzed yeast, juvenile hormone, sexual maturation.
4817
  
2011
Journal of Insect Science 11:79 available online: insectscience.org/11.79.
The sterile insect technique has been successfully used to eliminate tsetse populations in a number of programs. Program monitoring in the field relies on the ability to accurately differentiate released sterile insects from wild insects so that estimates can be made of the ratio of sterile males to wild males. Typically, released flies are marked with a dye, which is not always reliable. The difference in isotopic signatures between wild and factory–reared populations could be a reliable and intrinsic secondary marker to complement existing marking methods. Isotopic signatures are natural differences in stable isotope composition of organisms due to discrimination against the heavier isotopes during some biological processes. As the isotopic signature of an organism is mainly dependent on what it eats; by feeding factory–reared flies isotopically different diets to those of the wild population it is possible to intrinsically mark the flies. To test this approach unlabeled samples of Glossina pallidipes (Austen) (Diptera: Glossinidae) from a mass rearing facility and wild populations were analyzed to determine whether there were any natural differences in signatures that could be used as markers. In addition experiments were conducted in which the blood diet was supplemented with isotopically enriched compounds and the persistence of the marker in the offspring determined. There were distinct natural isotopic differences between factory reared and wild tsetse populations that could be reliably used as population markers. It was also possible to rear artificially isotopically labeled flies using simple technology and these flies were clearly distinguishable from wild populations with greater than 95% certainty after 85 days of “release”. These techniques could be readily adopted for use in SIT programs as complimentary marking techniques.
Hood-Nowotny R, Watzka M, Mayr L, Mekonnen S, Kapitano B, Parker A.
Glossina pallidipes, Glossinidae, mass rearing, SIT, sterile insect technique
4816
  
2011
PL
Fruit flies are a major pest of fruit crops worldwide. To avoid or minimize the losses caused by these insect pests, phytosanitary programs have been implemented in various parts of the world.<p> The Working Group on Fruit Flies of the Western Hemisphere has its origins in the 80's when it was proposed to bring together researchers and technical staff in
 charge of the programs against the Mediterranean fruit fly in Guatemala, Mexico
 and the United States. The aim was to analyze and discuss research needs and
 priorities in order to confront more effectively the problems facing these programs.<p>
 Later, a similar group was formed to meet the research needs of programs against
 fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha on the American continent. In 1990, following the agreement to unite these two groups, the Working Group on Fruit Flies of the
 Western Hemisphere was established.<p>
 In the past three decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of
 programs implemented against fruit flies in the Western Hemisphere. Our Working
 Group has experienced similar growth. Seven meetings have been held since its
 establishment:<p>
 · 1st – October 1992 – San José, Costa Rica<br>
 · 2nd – August 1996 – Viña del Mar, Chile<br>
 · 3rd – July 1999 – Guatemala City, Guatemala<br>
 · 4th – May 2001 – Mendoza, Argentina<br>
 · 5th – May 2004 – Fort Lauderdale, USA<br>
 · 6th – September 2006 – Salvador, Brasil<br>
 · 7th – November 2008 – Mazatlán, México<br>
 <p>
 Next meeting:<br>
 · 8th - July 30 - August 3, 2012, Panama city, Panama<br>
 <p>
 The last, held in Mazatlán, Mexico, had 243 participants coming from 20 countries.
 Under the scheme of networking, our goals are:<br>
 · To promote the exchange of information, knowledge, ideas and experiences
 that allows feedback and innovation in research, methods development and
 action programs.<br>
 · To facilitate communication and encourage collaboration among scientists,
 operational program officers and the industry.<br>
 · To serve as a platform for collaboration among countries and international
 agencies.<br>
 · To contribute to the sustainable solution of fruit flies problems in the Americas.
Liedo Pablo
About Us
4815
  
2011
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 271-276.
This paper describes a mark-release-recapture study involving males of two economically important fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and B. dorsalis (Hendel), conducted in Honolulu, Hawaii. In each of three residential neighborhoods in Honolulu, we placed two traps, one baited with cue lure and the other with methyl eugenol (male attractants for B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, respectively), in a single tree. For both species, dyed, mature males from recently established laboratory colonies were released 25, 50, 100, and 200 m from the traps along the four compass directions, and for B. dorsalis releases were also made 300 m from the traps. For both B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, the proportion of males captured varied significantly among study areas and among release distances. Averaged over the 3 sites, the percentage of released males captured varied from 14% for releases at 25 m to 0.5% for releases at 200 m for B. cucurbitae and from 21% for releases at 25 m to 3% for releases at 300 m for B. dorsalis. In general, the capture rates of B. cucurbitae males were similar between California and Hawaii, whereas the captures rates of B. dorsalis males were significantly higher in California than Hawaii for all releases distances tested. Distance-dependent capture rates were used to estimate detection sensitivities for the two species under a trapping regime utilizing 5 cue lure- and 5 methyl eugenol-baited traps per 2.59 km2 (as currently employed in California) and then compare these sensitivities between California and Hawaii.
Shelly Todd E. and Nishimoto Jon.
Fruit flies; Trapping; Detection; Hawaii; California
4813
  
2011
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 243-247
The effect of electron beam irradiation on each developmental stage of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), was examined. Eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults were irradiated at target doses of 30, 50, or 100 Gy or they were left untreated as controls in replicated experiments. When eggs and pupae were irradiated with 100 Gy, emergence rates greatly decreased and, although some adults laid eggs, they did not hatch. Egg hatching of irradiated larvae and adult decreased with increasing irradiation doses. However, electron beam irradiation did not kill P. xylostella directly. Adult longevity was not affected. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated moths demonstrated that females were more radiosensitive than males in hatchability; however, the difference was not significant. In addition, electron beam-irradiated larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner compared with cells from unirradiated larvae. Our findings suggest that electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development and reproduction of P. xylostella; therefore, it may contribute to effective disinfestation and quarantine treatments of P. xylostella.
Hyun-Na Koo, Seung-Hwan Yoon, Youn-Ho Shin, Changmann Yoon, Jong-Suk Woo and Gil-Hah Kim
Electron beam; Plutella xylostella; Irradiation; Developmental inhibition; Comet assay; DNA damage.
4812
  
2011
J. Appl. Entomol. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2011.01620.x
The olive fly (OLF), Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is an invasive tephritid fruit fly that causes extensive damage to olive crops around the world (especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America). Previous attempts to use the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) for the OLF were not successful because of the inability to rear high quality OLF in the laboratory on an artificial diet. New improvements in rearing methods and additional understanding of the basic biology of the OLF have led to a renewal of interest in using SIT for OLF. This review discusses the history, difficulties, improvements and future directions of OLF mass-rearing. Issues include: the design of cages and oviposition substrates, cost and quality of artificial diets, maintenance of endosymbiotic microbiota, control of pathogenic microbes, collection of pupae, the fitness of adults, and the competitiveness of sterilized laboratory males released to the field.
Estes A. M., D. Nestel, A. Belcari, A. Jessup, P. Rempoulakis and A. P. Economopoulos
adult diet, endosymbiotic bacteria, larval diet, mass-rearing, sterilization, symbiont, Tephritidae
4810
  
2011
J. Appl. Entomol. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2011.01623.x
The dispersal of marked, irradiated olive fruit flies originating from a hybrid laboratory strain was studied in an olive groove located in the arid regions of southern Israel. Release–recapture experiments (eight in total) were conducted throughout a period of 5 months (July–December 2008). In each experiment, ca. 5000 flies were released. Recapture of flies was conducted using a grid of 30 yellow sticky traps set in expanding semicircles from the centre of release. Service of traps was conducted 3 and 15 days after the release. Fly quality and adult food type (only sucrose and protein + sucrose) before release was also investigated. Results point at an average dispersal distance of marked, irradiated olive flies of ca. 50 m. Pre-release adult diet did not affect dispersal ability. Fly recovery averaged ca. 3.5% during summer and ca. 1.5% during autumn. Most of the recovery concentrated during the first 3 days after releases, suggesting low survival of the released flies afterwards. As inferred from circular statistics, direction of dispersal was non-random with a significant directionality to the north-west. Results are discussed in view of environmental temperatures and wind direction.
Rempoulakis P. and D. Nestel
adult diet, circular statistics, olive fruit fly,release–recapture, SIT
4809
  
2011
Malaria Journal 10:135   doi:10.1186/1475-2875-10-135
Background Separating males and females at the early adult stage did not ensure the virginity of females of Anopheles arabiensis (Dongola laboratory strain), whereas two years earlier this method had been successful. In most mosquito species, newly emerged males and females are not able to mate successfully. For anopheline species, a period of 24 h post-emergence is generally required for the completion of sexual maturation, which in males includes a 180degrees rotation of the genitalia. In this study, the possibility of an unusually shortened sexual maturity period in the laboratory-reared colony was investigated. Methods The effect of two different sex-separation methods on the virginity of females was tested: females separated as pupae or less than 16 h post-emergence were mated with males subjected to various doses of radiation. T-tests were performed to compare the two sex-separation methods. The rate of genitalia rotation was compared for laboratory-reared and wild males collected as pupae in Dongola, Sudan, and analysed by Z-tests. Spermatheca dissections were performed on females mated with laboratory-reared males to determine their insemination status. Results When the sex-separation was performed when adults were less than 16 h post-emergence, expected sterility was never reached for females mated with radio-sterilized males. Expected sterility was accomplished only when sexes were separated at the pupal stage. Observation of genitalia rotation showed that some males from the laboratory strain were able to successfully mate only 11 h after emergence: 42% of the males had already completed rotation and a small proportion of the same age females were inseminated. Wild males showed a much slower genitalia rotation rate. At 17 h post-emergence, 96% of the laboratory-reared males had completed genitalia rotation whereas none of the wild males had. Conclusion This colony has been cultured in the laboratory for over one hundred generations, and now has accelerated sexual maturation when compared with the wild strain. This outcome demonstrates the kinds of selection that can be expected during insect colonization and maintenance, particularly when generations are non-overlapping and similar-age males must compete for mates. <a href="http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-10-135.pdf">free pdf</a>
Oliva Clelia F, Mark Q Benedict, Guy Lemperiere and Jeremie Gilles
irradiuation sterility mosquito Anopheles arabiensis maturity sexual
4808
  
2011
African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(20), pp. 4259-4264,
Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner is one of the most important stored products pests in the world. In this research, the effect of gamma irradiation was studied on different developmental stages of this pest and the doses required to prevent each of these developmental stages was investigated. From the results, required dose to prevent larval emergence from irradiated 1 to 24 h eggs was 400 Gray (Gy), and 400 Gy was required to prevent pupae from 15 days old larvae. Also, the dose of radiation required to prevent adult emergence from irradiated 5 days old pupa was 650 Gy. According to the results, dose of 650 Gy is adequate to control all immature stages of this pest. In addition, the effect of gamma ray was studied on developmental stage period of each irradiated existence stage till adult eclosion. The results revealed that there was a dose-dependent increase in the developmental periods, and the growth index of the adults was significantly decreased with increasing dose of radiation administered to the eggs, larvae and pupae too. It is concluded that irradiation can be used as a safe method to control stored pests.
Hosseinzadeh Abbas, Shayesteh Nouraddin, Zolfagharieh Hamid Reza, Bernousi Iraj, Babaei Mohammad, Zareshahi Hasan, Ahari Mostafavi Hossein and Fatollahi Hadi
Gamma irradiation, prevention dose, developmental period, growth index, Plodia interpunctella.
4806
  
2011
MSc Thesis (Conservation Ecology and Entomology)--University of Stellenbosch, March 2011.
Walton, Angela Jasmin
Eldana saccharina Walker Lepidoptera Pyralidae SIT
4800
  
2011
Int J Radiation Biol 87(2):213-21.
Purpose: A tropical species of midge, Chironomus ramosus has been recently reported to be one of the radio-tolerant groups of organisms. The present study was undertaken to examine the protein profile and expression of Heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70) in gamma radiation stress, which has also been reported as a common biomarker for different type of stressors. Materials and methods: Metabolic labelling of salivary gland (SG) proteins with [(35)S]-methionine showed over-expression of a 70 kDa protein band up to 4 hours (h) of observation in the post exposure recovery period. For confirmation of the expression of Hsp70 in SG cells after gamma radiation exposure, semi-quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immuno-fluorescence detection of Hsp70 were carried out. Results: Results showed elevated levels of Hsp70 mRNA and protein in SG cells of larvae immediately after gamma radiation exposure. The levels dropped to basal values by 48 h in the recovery period. Conclusions: The present study confirmed that radio-tolerant midge, C. ramosus expressed Hsp70 upon gamma radiation exposure and Hsp70 might be one of the gamma radiation-induced stress proteins required during the early stages of radiation stress management in aquatic midge larvae. This is the first report of its kind from the juvenile stage of any aquatic insect group.
 Datkhile Kailas D, Rita Mukhopadhyaya, Tanaji K Dongre and Bimalendu B Nath  
Heat choc protein, tolerance,irradiation, midge, mRNA, stress
4798
  
2011
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety Volume 10, Issue 2, pages 143–151
Phytosanitary treatments are used to disinfest agricultural commodities of quarantine pests so that the commodities can be shipped out of quarantined areas. Ionizing irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment that is increasing in use worldwide. Almost 19000 metric tons of sweet potatoes and several fruits plus a small amount of curry leaf are irradiated each year in 6 countries, including the United States, to control a number of plant quarantine pests. Advantages over other treatments include tolerance by most fresh commodities, ability to treat in the final packaging and in pallet loads, and absence of pesticide residues. Disadvantages include lack of acceptance by the organic food industries and logistical bottlenecks resulting from current limited availability of the technology. A regulatory disadvantage is lack of an independent verification of treatment efficacy because pests may be found alive during commodity inspection, although they will not complete development or reproduce. For phytosanitary treatments besides irradiation, the pests die shortly after the treatment is concluded. This disadvantage does not hamper its use by industry, but rather makes the treatment more difficult to develop and regulate. Challenges to increase the use of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) are cost, because commercial use has not yet reached an optimum economy of scale, lack of facilities, because of their cost and current inability to feasibly locate them in packing facilities, lack of approved treatments for some quarantine pests, and concern about the process by key decision makers, such as packers, shippers, and retailers. Methods for overcoming these challenges are discussed.
Hallman Guy J.
Food irradiation disinfestation sterile quarantine pests insects radiation irradiation
4795
  
2011
J. Econ. Entomol. 104(1): 63-68
Methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (Citrus spp.), exported from Texas, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. This research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved U.S. Department of AgricultureÑAnimal and Plant Health Inspection Service treatment schedule: 40 g/m3 methyl bromide at 21Ð29.4 C for 2 h. Tolerance of A. ludens to methyl bromide in descending order when fumigated in grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) is third instar   second instar   Þrst instar   egg. Two infestation techniques were compared: insertion into fruit of third instars reared in diet and oviposition by adult A. ludens into fruit and development to the third instar. Inserted larvae were statistically more likely to survive fumigation than oviposited larvae. When fruit were held at ambient temperature, 0.23   0.12% of larvae were still observed to be moving 4 d postfumigation. Temperatures between 21.9 and 27.2 C were positively related to efficacy measured as larvae moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariation, and adult emergence. Coating grapefruit with Pearl Lustr 2Ð3 h before fumigation did not signiÞcantly affect the proportion of third instars moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariating, or emerging as adults. In conclusion, fumigation with 40 g/m3 methyl bromide for 2 h at fruit temperatures  26.7 C is not found to be inefÞcacious for A. ludens. Although a few larvae may be found moving  24 h postfumigation, they do not pupariate.
 HALLMAN GUY J. AND THOMAS DONALD B.
Anastrepha ludens, phytosanitary, quarantine, commodity treatment
4794
  
2010
Neotropical Entomology (Impresso); v. 39(4); p. 601-607; Available from http://www.scielo.br/pdf/ne/v39n4/21.pdf
We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)
Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo
ANASTREPHA, COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS, LIFE CYCLE, LIFE SPAN, PEST CONTROL, STERILE INSECT RELEASE, STERILE MALE TECHNIQUE
5009
  
2010
Journal of Insect Science 10:56, available online: insectscience.org/10.56
The morphological changes experienced during the immature stages of the solitary parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) were studied. This natural enemy of several species of tephritid fruit flies is widely used in biological control strategies. Immature stages are poorly understood in endoparasitoids because they exist within the host. In the present work, developmental processes are described for this species, reared in Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae under controlled environmental conditions. At 25º C, 85% RH, and with an 18:6 L:D photoperiod, preimaginal development takes about 16 days. Five preimaginal stages can be described: egg, three larval instars, prepupa, pupa, and pharate adult. Superparasitism was found in 20% of the host pupae, and the number of oviposition scars was positively correlated with the number of parasitoid larvae per host puparium. The results are compared and discussed with previous studies on related species.
Carabajal-Paladino LZ, Papeschi AG, Cladera JL.
Hymenoptera, developmental stages, superparasitism
4936
  
2010
Journal of Insect Science 10:131, available online: insectscience.org/10.131
Bacteria were isolated from the crop and midgut of field collected Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Two methods were used, firstly isolation onto two types of bacteriological culture media (PYEA and TSA) and identification using the API-20E diagnostic kit, and secondly, analysis of samples using the 16S rRNA gene molecular diagnostic method. Using the API-20E method, 10 genera and 17 species of bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae were identified from cultures growing on the nutrient agar. The dominant species in both the crop and midgut were Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella oxytoca. Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp ozaenae and Serratia marcescens were isolated from B. tryoni only. Using the molecular cloning technique that is based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, five bacteria classes were dignosed – Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Delta- Proteobacteria and Firmicutes – including five families, Leuconostocaceae, Enterococcaceae, Acetobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes were found mainly in the crop while the Gammaproteobacteria, especially the family Enterobacteriaceae, was dominant in the midgut. This paper presents results from the first known application of molecular cloning techniques to study bacteria within tephritid species and the first record of Firmicutes bacteria in these flies.
Thaochan N, Drew RAI, Hughes JM, Vijaysegaran S, Chinajariyawong A.
Bactrocera cacuminata; Bactrocera tryoni; PCR; 16S rRNA gene; Enterobacteriaceae; lactic acid bacteria
4935
  
2010
Journal of Insect Science 10:135, available online: insectscience.org/10.135
The United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service initiated an areawide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure® traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed.
Vargas RI, Piñero JC, Mau RFL, Jang EB, Klungness LM, Mclnnis DO, Harris EB, McQuate GT, Bautista RC, Wong L.
bait spray, Integrated Pest Management, male annihilation, monitoring, Tephritidae
4934
  
2010
Journal of Insect Physiology 56: 1755-1762.
Copula duration and sperm storage patterns can directly or indirectly affect fitness of male and female insects. Although both sexes have an interest in the outcome, research has tended to focus on males. To investigate female influences, we compared copula duration and sperm storage of Queensland fruit fly females that were intact, or had been incapacitated through decapitation or abdomen isolation. We found that copulations were far longer when females had been incapacitated, indicating that constraints imposed on copula duration by intact females had been relaxed. Repeatability of copula duration for males was very low regardless of female treatment, and this is also consistent with strong female influence. Number of sperm in the spermathecae was not influenced by female treatment, suggesting that female abdominal ganglia control the transport of sperm to these long-term storage organs. However, more sperm were found in the ventral receptacles of incapacitated females compared to intact females. Overall, results implicate cephalic ganglia in regulation of copula duration and short-term sperm storage in the ventral receptacle and abdominal ganglia in regulation of long-term sperm storage in the spermathecae.
Pérez-Staples, D., Weldon, C. W., Radhakrishnan, P., Prenter, J. and Taylor, P. W.
Mating termination;  copulation; Tephritidae; Bactrocera tryoni; ventral receptacle; spermathecae; repeatability; copula control; sperm ejection
4919
  
2010
Physiological Entomology 35: 385-390.
Desiccation resistance is important for the survival of adult insects, although this key physiological trait has rarely been studied in tephritid flies. In the present study, desiccation resistance of female and male adult Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is determined with respect to age after adult eclosion. Resistance to acute starvation is measured over the same period to disentangle the competing roles of water loss and food deprivation. Survival of adult B. tryoni subjected to conditions of low humidity and starvation is reduced considerably compared with adults that are subjected to starvation alone. Desiccation resistance of adult female B. tryoni is generally lower than that of adult males. Desiccation resistance of adult B. tryoni declines in a continuous and regular manner over the first 20 days after adult eclosion. The regular pattern of declining resistance to desiccation with age in B. tryoni indicates that this reduction is not associated with the onset of maturity and maintenance of reproductive structures, nor with sexual activity. By contrast, resistance to starvation is similar at 0 and 6 days after adult eclosion, and declines thereafter. Survival under starvation and water stress is not related to wing length, which is a standard measure of fly size.
Weldon, C. W. and Taylor, P. W.
Starvation resistance, stress, survival, Tephritidae, wing length.
4918
  
2010
Journal of Applied Entomology
The effect of post-teneral diets on the mating performance, pheromone production and longevity of sterile Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua
 fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated. Enriched prerelease
 diets improved male mating performance. Wild and sterile males fed on mango and orange fruits achieved the greatest copulatory success, followed by those fed on a 3 : 1 sugar : yeast (SY) diet. Males fed only on a sugar diet achieved the lowest number of matings. The mean numbers of copulas achieved by wild males were significantly higher than those by sterile males fed on a sugar-only diet, while there were no significant differences between wild males and sterile males fed on
 yeast diets. There was a trend of reduced mean number of copulas as the proportion of yeast was reduced in the diet, but differences were not significant. Pre-release diets had a significant effect on pheromone production. Males fed on a 3 : 1 SY diet produced the greatest amount of the three main pheromone components in A. ludens males and two major components in A. obliqua males, followed by males fed on fruits or pasteurized fruit juice. Males fed on a sugar only diet produced the lowest amounts. The longevity response to post-teneral diets was complex. The most yeast-rich diet and the poorest diet (sugar only) resulted in the lowest life expectancies. Flies fed on 24 : 1 SY diets showed the highest life expectancies for both males and females of the two species. Considering the tradeoffs between mating performance and longevity,
 the 24 : 1 SY diet would be recommended for programmes integrating the sterile insect technique, but the effects of these diets on field survival and dispersal still need to be investigated.
P. Liedo, D. Orozco, L. Cruz-López1, J. L. Quintero, C. Becerra-Pérez, M. del Refugio Hernàndez, A. Oropeza & J. Toledo
Mexican fruit fly, pre-release feeding, sterile insect technique, West Indies fruit fly
4911
  
2010
Agron. Sustain. Dev. DOI 10.1051/agro/2010009.
Despite the liberal use of broad-spectrum insecticides to keep many insect pests of agricultural and veterinary importance at bay, food losses, both pre- and post-harvest, due to these insect pests contribute significantly to the high prevalence of undernourishment in the world. New, innovative pest control tactics and strategies are therefore needed that are both effective and not detrimental to the environment. As part of the arsenal of environmentally-friendly control tactics, the sterile insect technique (SIT) has proven to be a very effective tool against selected insect pests when used as part of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approach. Likewise, the use of natural enemies for augmentative or inundative biological control is now a major component of pest control in many parts of the world. Both control tactics are complementary and even synergistic under certain circumstances, but their combined use has so far not been applied on an operational scale. Ionising radiation can be readily employed to effectively and safely induce sexual sterility in insects. Although the sterile insect technique has often been associated with an eradication strategy, major advances in rearing efficiency, and improved handling and release methods, have made the use of sterile insects economically feasible for insect pest suppression, prevention or containment. Recently, more emphasis has been placed on the quality of the sterile insect once released in the field rather than mainly assessing quality in the rearing facility. This combined with other innovations such as the development of genetic sexing strains, better understanding the impact of radiation on radio-resistant species such as Lepidoptera and the development of the F1 sterility concept, advances in monitoring the induced sterility, etc. have significantly increased the efficiency of the sterile insect technique for several insect species. The action of sterile insects is inversely dependent on the density of the target population, and sterile insects have the intrinsic capacity to actively search for and mate with the last individuals of a pest population. These two characteristics make them ideal to deal with outbreaks of invasive insect pests. The use of sterile insects presents no threat to the environment, but aspects such as diet and waste disposal in large rearing facilities or bio-security in cases where the rearing facility is located in an area that is already free of the pest require the necessary attention. Ionising radiation can also be applied to greatly improve the efficiency of mass-rearing, handling and shipment of insect parasitoids and predators. Area-wide integrated pest management programmes that use sterile insects or natural enemies are complex and management-intensive, and require a management structure that is exclusively dedicated to the programme. Past and current examples have shown the enormous benefit-cost ratios that these programmes can generate and the
Vreysen Marc J.B. and Alan S. Robinson.
natural enemies / sterile insect technique / area-wide integrated pest management / economic benefits.
4847
  
2010
Malaria World Journal 1:2.
Background. In Sudan, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being developed to suppress populations of Anopheles arabiensis. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of long-term colonisation, irradiation, and transportation on male vigour and mating competitiveness under controlled semi-field conditions. Materials and Methods. Male mosquitoes were irradiated in Khartoum as pupae and transported 400 km to the field site in Dongola. Wild males and females were collected as immature stages (larvae and pupae) from the field site and sexed immediately after adult emergence. Competition experiments were carried out to test the mating competitiveness and vigour of colonised males (nonirradiated or irradiated) against wild conspecifics in the semi-field system. Results. Mortality resulting from packaging and transportation from Khartoum to Dongola was low for adults (1.1% for irradiated and 1.3% for non-irradiated males). In contrast, all irradiated pupae died on their way to the field site. On average, 54.9% females were inseminated after one night. There were no differences between the number of females inseminated by colony males and those inseminated by wild males. Only a slightly significant difference between the numbers of females inseminated by irradiated males (14.0±1.7) or by wild males (19.7±1.7) was observed. However, the competitive index (CI) for irradiated and colony males when competed with wild males were 0.71 and 0.81 respectively. Conclusions. Packing and transportation methods for pupae need to be improved. Prolonged colonisation (68 generations), irradiation and transportation of adult males did not affect their ability to locate virgin females and compete against wild conspecifics. Irradiation, in contrast to many reports, only had a marginal effect on released males during the first night after their release. These findings support the feasibility of staging an SIT campaign against this malaria vector.
Hassan M.M., W.M. El-Motasim, R.T.Ahmed, and B.B.El-Sayed
Diptera Mosquitoes irradiation
4841
  
2010
Advances in Biological Control, One day Conference at the Olde Barn Hotel, Marston, UK, 17 November 2010. Organized by the Association of Applied Biologists (AAB Biocontrol Group).
The tomato leafminer, Liriomyza bryoniae, is an economically important pest of both the glasshouse tomato and herb industry. Infestations damage the leaves of tomato   
 plants, reducing the photosynthetic area and therefore the crop yield. The presence   
 of damage to the leaves makes the crop less saleable to buyers. Currently, release
 of the parasitoid wasp Diglyphus isaea is the main method of leafminer control in an
 organic glasshouse. However, it is not an effective control measure on its own as the
 level of control achieved is insufficient to reduce the damage to a level below that
 causing financial loss and it is still highly visible to buyers. Sterile insect technique
 (SIT) is the release of sterile males of the pest species to overflood the population
 and mate with wild females. The eggs laid by the females contain dominant lethal
 mutations and are unable to develop, thereby reducing the next generation and
 successive releases suppress the pest population. This study seeks to build on   
 successful trials to induce sterility into Liriomyza bryoniae using gamma radiation.
 Determination of the optimum radiation dose is required to produce high quality,
 sterile males that can successfully compete with wild males to mate with females
WALKER CATHERINE and JONATHAN KNIGHT.
irradiation, diptera, SIT.
4840
  
2010
IOBC/WPRS Working Group “Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops” Agadir, Morocco, 1 to 3 March 2010
The fruit fly Ceratitis capitata is one of the most damaging and difficult pest to control for citrus fruit production and other fruit crops since it is, among other factors, highly polyphagous and widely spread. The traditional control method of this pest, based mainly on insecticide treatments close to harvest time, is currently not well thought of because of its toxicological and environmental concerns. CeraTrap is an attractant formulation of natural origin, free of pesticides and based on a liquid protein obtained by an exclusive method of enzymatic hydrolysis, with a strong attraction capacity for Medfly and with a higher ratio of attraction for young females than males. Furthermore, through the field development, CeraTrap has been assayed not only against C. capitata but against other species such as Bactrocera dorsalis, B. zonata, Rhagoletis cerasi and Anastrepha sp. among others.The system functions thanks to regular emissions of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Due to this, the flies are strongly attracted to enter into the trap, and being unable to escape, drown in the liquid and die. The main compounds isolated and identified in CeraTrap were heterocyclic amines which appear to play an important role as fly attractants. Many field trials were carried out over the last four years in different countries such as Spain, Morocco, Italy, Portugal, Egypt, Malaysia, Australia, and so on, with results indicating effectiveness and successful control of the Medfly pest.Here we describe some field trials conducted in Spain and Morocco with early citrus varieties comparing the efficacy of this system against the local standard practices.
Selami El Arabi, Mohamed Miloudi, Candido Marin and Nuria Sierras
Medfly Tephritid Citrus trapping
4814
  
2010
12th Workshop of the Arthropod Mass Rearing and Quality Control Working Group of the IOBC.Blueprint for the future of arthropod rearing and quality assurance.Vienna International Centre (VIC), Vienna, Austria.October 19-22, 2010.
The Uzi fly, Exorista sorbillans Weidemann, is an endoparasitoid of the the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori L., and can impact commercial sericulture. Effects of gamma radiation (60Co) on the mass production of the hyperparasitoid Nysolynx thymus (Girault) were investigated. To assess the potential value of nuclear techniques in improving host suitability, two cohorts of early (2-4 day-old) and late (6-7 day-old) host puparia were selected for irradiation. The host pupae were irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2, 4 or 8 Gy for early pupae and 0 (control), 10, 30, 50, 70 or 90 Gy for late pupae. Gamma irradiation significantly (P<0.001) increased the progeny production of N. thymus when reared either on early or late irradiated host puparia, particularly in the parental generation, but irradiated early host pupae were more suitable for mass production of N. thymus than the irradiated late pupae. The sex ratio of parasitoids developing from gamma irradiated host pupae varied significantly. Higher proportions of females were observed for all the dose and host-age groups. The present finding leads to the conclusion that ionizing radiation offers a reliable means to achieve developmental arrest of insect hosts for use in in vivo rearing prior to mass production of the parasitoid N. thymus.
Mahbub Hasan Md., Md. Rayhan Uddin, Md. Ataur Rahman Khan, Aminuzzaman Md. Saleh Reza
4811
  
2010
J. Plant Prot.Res. 50(3): 250-255.
Hosseinzadeh A, Shayesteh N, Zolfagharieh HR, Babaei M, Zareshahi H, Ahari H, Mostafavi H, Fatollahi H.
4807
  
2010
Journal of Economic Entomology, 103(6):1950-1963.
Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments are promising measures to overcome quarantine barriers to trade and are currently used in several countries. Although PI has advantages compared with other treatments one disadvantage bedevils research, approval, and application: organisms may remain alive after importation. Although this does not preclude their use as a phytosanitary treatment, it does leave the treatment without an independent verification of efficacy and places a greater burden for assuring quarantine security on the research supporting the treatment. This article analyses several factors that have been hypothesized to affect PI efficacy: low oxygen, pest stage, host, dose rate, and temperature. Of these factors, the first is known to affect efficacy, whereas host and dose rate probably need more research. The International Plant Protection Convention considered several PI treatments for its international standard on phytosanitary treatments and did not approve some at first because of perceived problems with the research or the presence of live adults after irradiation. Based on these concerns recommendations for research and dealing with the issue of live adults postirradiation are given. Generic PI treatments are suggested.
Hallman Guy J., Nichole M. Levang-Brilz, J. Larry Zettler, and Ian C. Winborne
quarantine, commodity treatment, irradiation, disinfestation
4772
  
2010
SA Fruit Journal Deciduous Fruit August/September 2010, pp: 16-21
For more info please contact the author: <a href="mailto:barnesb@arc.agric.za";>Brian Barnes</A>
Barnes Brian
Tephritidae Ceratitis SIT mass rearing
4768
  
2010
Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences 44(5):830-836
Puanmanee K., Wongpiyasatid A., Sutantawong M., Hormchan P.
BACTROCERA TEPHRITIDAE IRRADIATION
4767
  
2010
Crop Protection Volume 29, Issue 12, Pages 1377-1380
The optimum dose of gamma radiation for sterilizing the red date palm weevil was determined using newly emerged weevils obtained from colonies established on four date palm cultivars in the laboratory. Male weevils from each date palm cultivar were treated with gamma radiation doses of 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 Gray (Gy) and then mated with similar aged females to determine egg hatchability and male lifespan. Hatchability percent was significantly reduced at 15 Gy and above, and male lifespan was decreased at 10–15 Gy and above. Date palm cultivar significantly affected average male lifespan as well as egg hatchability, and the interaction between radiation dose and date palm cultivar was significant for both parameters. These results indicate that 15 Gy of gamma radiation to be an optimum dose for sterilizing red date palm weevil.
Al-Ayedh Hassan Yahya and Rasool Khawaja Gulam
Red date palm weevil; Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.; Optimum sterilizing dose; Gamma radiation; RPW
4763
  
2010
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control. 20: 1, 71-77. 27 ref.
The sterile insect technique is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit flies. The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a serious pest of fruits in many parts of the world. The pest species has been recently recorded in Egypt. Referring to its significant yield losses, recorded on a wide range of fruits, a strong emphasis for developing effective measures to suppress/eradicate the pest population in infested areas was suggested. In the present study, effect of gamma radiation on adults' emergence, female fecundity, pupal size, flight ability, sex ratio, male sterility and male mating competitiveness was studied under laboratory conditions. Pupae were irradiated (60Co) 48 hrs before adult emergence (in an air atmosphere) with 10, 30, 50, 70 or 90 Gy. Results indicated that adults' emergence and egg hatching decreased with increasing radiation dose. Exposure of pupae to 90 Gy resulted in a total sterility of eggs laid by non-treated females crossed with treated males. Insignificant difference in the radiation effect on female fecundity was found. Moderate affects on sex ratio and pupal size were recorded, as they decreased gradually by increasing doses. No considerable effect on flying capability of adults, particularly at a lower height of tubes (5 and 10 cm) was observed. Irradiated males with 30 and 70 Gy successfully competed with non-irradiated ones. According to obtained results, taking into consideration a necessity to compromise between male sterility and competitiveness, the more suitable irradiation dose was <=70 Gy.
Mahmoud, M. F.
eclosion. fecundity. fertility. flight. gamma radiation. insect pests. mating competitiveness. plant pests. pupae. sex ratio. sterile insect release. .
4762
  
2010
Abstract (from part one of the two part poster) For high-energy photons (5-10 MeV), high powered X-ray irradiators have already been used for industrial applications, such as materials modification, food processing, and medical device sterilization. Now it seems possible to have smaller self-shielded irradiators with X radiation that can provide a very attractive alternative to self-shielded gamma ray irradiators. This has been made possible with the advent of the new technology, using 4π X-ray Emitters. The crucial characteristic of these emitters is a large distributed anode emitting photons in almost 4π geometry; this decreases the target cooling requirements, resulting in a higher power input and thus high dose rate. Of necessity, these irradiators have much smaller photon energies, maximum being 160 keV. However, the ultimate acceptance depends on the performance of these low-energy X-ray irradiators. The most important performance criteria for judging their success include dose rate, dose uniformity, throughput, reliability, safety and ease of operation. Another important requirement would be availability of dosimetry systems, reference as well as routine systems for dose measurements. Experimental data are presented here for two types of such self-shielded X-ray irradiators, both based on the 4π technology. These data include maximum dose rate achievable, dose uniformity ratio, the volumes that can be treated in one cycle and description of the dosimetry systems. The data indicate that these self-shielded X-ray irradiators are capable of replacing gamma irradiators for several applications, including sterile insect technique, small animal research, radiation resistant microorganism research, medical device terminal sterilization and viral inactivation.
Mehta Kishor
X-rays; X-radiation; Dosimetry; Radiation processing; SIT; RS 2400
4760
  
2010
For high-energy photons (5-10 MeV), high powered X-ray irradiators have already been used for industrial applications, such as materials modification, food processing, and medical device sterilization. Now it seems possible to have smaller self-shielded irradiators with X radiation that can provide a very attractive alternative to self-shielded gamma ray irradiators. This has been made possible with the advent of the new technology, using 4π X-ray Emitters. The crucial characteristic of these emitters is a large distributed anode emitting photons in almost 4π geometry; this decreases the target cooling requirements, resulting in a higher power input and thus high dose rate. Of necessity, these irradiators have much smaller photon energies, maximum being 160 keV. However, the ultimate acceptance depends on the performance of these low-energy X-ray irradiators. The most important performance criteria for judging their success include dose rate, dose uniformity, throughput, reliability, safety and ease of operation. Another important requirement would be availability of dosimetry systems, reference as well as routine systems for dose measurements. Experimental data are presented here for two types of such self-shielded X-ray irradiators, both based on the 4π technology. These data include maximum dose rate achievable, dose uniformity ratio, the volumes that can be treated in one cycle and description of the dosimetry systems. The data indicate that these self-shielded X-ray irradiators are capable of replacing gamma irradiators for several applications, including sterile insect technique, small animal research, radiation resistant microorganism research, medical device terminal sterilization and viral inactivation.
Mehta Kishor
X-rays; X-radiation; Dosimetry; Radiation processing; SIT; RS 2400
4759
  
2010
Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences 44(5):830-836
Puanmanee K., Wongpiyasatid A., Sutantawong M., Hormchan P.
BACTROCERA TEPHRITIDAE IRRADIATION
4758
  
2010
SA Fruit Journal Deciduous Fruit  August/September 2010, pp: 16-21
For more info please contact the author: <a href="mailto:barnesb@arc.agric.za";>Brian Barnes</A>
Barnes Brian
Tephritidae Ceratitis SIT mass rearing
4752
  
2010
Crop Protection Volume 29, Issue 12, Pages 1377-1380
The optimum dose of gamma radiation for sterilizing the red date palm weevil was determined using newly emerged weevils obtained from colonies established on four date palm cultivars in the laboratory. Male weevils from each date palm cultivar were treated with gamma radiation doses of 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 Gray (Gy) and then mated with similar aged females to determine egg hatchability and male lifespan. Hatchability percent was significantly reduced at 15 Gy and above, and male lifespan was decreased at 10–15 Gy and above. Date palm cultivar significantly affected average male lifespan as well as egg hatchability, and the interaction between radiation dose and date palm cultivar was significant for both parameters. These results indicate that 15 Gy of gamma radiation to be an optimum dose for sterilizing red date palm weevil.
Al-Ayedh Hassan Yahya and Rasool Khawaja Gulam
Red date palm weevil; Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.; Optimum sterilizing dose; Gamma radiation; RPW
4748
  
2010
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control. 20: 1, 71-77. 27 ref.
The sterile insect technique is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit flies. The peach fruit fly, <i>Bactrocera zonata</i> (Saunders) is a serious pest of fruits in many parts of the world. The pest species has been recently recorded in Egypt. Referring to its significant yield losses, recorded on a wide range of fruits, a strong emphasis for developing effective measures to suppress/eradicate the pest population in infested areas was suggested. In the present study, effect of gamma radiation on adults' emergence, female fecundity, pupal size, flight ability, sex ratio, male sterility and male mating competitiveness was studied under laboratory conditions. Pupae were irradiated (<sup>60</sup>Co) 48 hrs before adult emergence (in an air atmosphere) with 10, 30, 50, 70 or 90 Gy. Results indicated that adults' emergence and egg hatching decreased with increasing radiation dose. Exposure of pupae to 90 Gy resulted in a total sterility of eggs laid by non-treated females crossed with treated males. Insignificant difference in the radiation effect on female fecundity was found. Moderate affects on sex ratio and pupal size were recorded, as they decreased gradually by increasing doses. No considerable effect on flying capability of adults, particularly at a lower height of tubes (5 and 10 cm) was observed. Irradiated males with 30 and 70 Gy successfully competed with non-irradiated ones. According to obtained results, taking into consideration a necessity to compromise between male sterility and competitiveness, the more suitable irradiation dose was <=70 Gy.
Mahmoud, M. F.
eclosion. fecundity. fertility. flight. gamma radiation. insect pests. mating competitiveness. plant pests. pupae. sex ratio. sterile insect release. .
4745
  
2010
Radiat.Phys.Chem.(2010),doi:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2010.08.011
The Insect Pest Control Laboratory of the Joint FAO/IAEA  Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture recently purchased an X-ray irradiator as part of their programme to develop the sterile insect technique (SIT). It is a self-contained type with a maximum X-ray beam energy of 150 keV using a newly developed 4p X-ray tube to provide a very uniform dose to the product.  This paper describes the results of our characterization study, which includes determination of dose rate in the centre of a canister as well as establishing absorbed dose distribution in the canister. The irradiation geometry consists of five canisters rotating around an X-ray tube-the volume of each canister being 3.5l.  The dose rate at the maximum allowed power of the tube (about 6.75kW) in the centre of a canister filled with insects (or a simulated product) is a bout 14 Gymin-1. The dose uniformity ratio is about 1.3.  The dose rate was measured using a Farmer type 0.18-cm3 ionization chamber calibrated at the relevant low photon energies. Routine absorbed dose measurement and   absorbed dose mapping can be performed using a Gafchromic film dosimetry system.  The radiation response of Gafchromic film is almost independent of X-ray energy in the range 100–150 keV, but is very sensitive to the surrounding material with which it is in immediate contact.  It is important, therefore, to ensure that all absorbed dose measurements are performed under identical conditions to those used for the calibration of the dosimetry system.  Our study indicates that this X-ray irradiator provides a practical alternative to self-shielded gamma irradiators for SIT programmes.
Mehta Kishor, Andrew Parker
X-rays X-radiation Dosimetry Radiation processing SIT RS 2400
4743
  
2010
J. Econ. Entomol. 103(4): 1129-1134
Some phytosanitary irradiation treatment research against tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) has used artificially infested fruit with the unstated and untested assumption that the method adequately simulated a natural situation. We compare grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfayden, naturally infested by Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), via oviposition until larvae reached the late third instar versus insertion of diet-reared third instars into holes made in grapefruits 24 h before irradiation; the latter technique has been used in other studies. Both infestation techniques resulted in statistically indistinguishable results, indicating that insertion of diet-reared third instar Mexican fruit fly into holes bored into grapefruit and subsequently sealed 24 h before irradiation would adequately represent natural infestation and could be used to develop a radiation phytosanitary treatment of the insect in grapefruit when prevention of adult emergence is used as the measure of ef?cacy. Nevertheless, it may not be advisable to extend this conclusion to other fruit fly/fruit combinations without doing appropriate comparison studies. Dissection of puparia from nonirradiated control insects that failed to emerge as adults showed a relatively even distribution of mortality among the developmental stages within the puparium. In contrast, dissection of puparia from irradiated third instars that did not emerge as adults revealed a sharp attenuation in development from cryptocephalic to phanerocephalic pupae demonstrating this transition to be the developmental step most affected by radiation.
HALLMAN GUY J. AND THOMAS DONALD B.
Anastrepha ludens, quarantine, commodity treatment, radiation, disinfestation
4742
  
2010
Applied Entomology and Zoology Vol. 45, pp.303-311
In estimating the population abundance by the mark-recapture method using male-attractant pheromone traps, the release of sterile males is preferable, because they do not increase the reproductive rate of wild females by increasing the mating rate. We estimated the influence of gamma radiation on males of the sugarcane click beetle Melanotus okinawensis Ôhira (Coleoptera: Elateridae) to determine an appropriate dose of gamma radiation in laboratory and field experiments. The hatchability of eggs was examined for 0, 50, 70, 90, and 150 Gy. No hatchings were observed in eggs laid by females which mated with males treated with doses of 70, 90 and 150 Gy. The longevity of adults in the laboratory was estimated with 0, 30, 50, 70, 90, 150, and 200 Gy. Analysis by the proportional hazard model indicated that irradiation significantly reduces the survival rate in the laboratory even if the dose is 30 Gy. Mean dispersal distance in the field was estimated with 0, 50, 90, and 150 Gy. Three hundred marked beetles for each dose were released at the center of Ikei Island on 1 and 3 April 2003. The estimates were 274, 219, 192, and 289 m, respectively, and we could not detect a significant influence of irradiation on the mean dispersal distance. Field survival rates were estimated using Jolly-Seber, Yamamura, and Yamamura B methods at Okinawa Prefectural Experiment Station in Naha for two doses of irradiation, 0 and 90 Gy; we could not detect significant differences between the two survival rates. The mortality added in the field was estimated to be much greater than the mortality caused by irradiation when we focus on the experiment within 12 days after release, if the dose of irradiation is lower than 90 Gy. It was therefore concluded that 90 Gy will be an appropriate dose for preparing sterile males to estimate population abundance and survival rate in the field within 12 days after release.  Article:http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/aez/45/2/303/_pdf
Norio Arakaki, Atsushi Nagayama, Mitsunobu Kishita, Yutaka Nakamoto, Yoshitaka Sokei and Kohji Yamamura
Sterile insect, gamma radiation, mark-recapture
4741
  
2010
J Insect Physiol, August 2, 2010; .
The application of methoprene, and providing access to diet including hydrolyzed yeast, are treatments known to enhance mating success in the male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their use in mass rearing protocols for sterile males in the context of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. The objective of the present laboratory study was to investigate the effect of methoprene application and diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast (protein) on the turn-over of body lipids and protein to confirm the feasibility of their application in melon fly SIT mass-rearing programmes. While females had access to a diet that included hydrolyzed yeast (protein), males were exposed to one of the following treatments: 1) topical application of methoprene and access to diet including protein (M+P+); 2) only diet including protein (M-P+); 3) only methoprene (M+P-) and 4) untreated, only sugar-fed, control males (M-P-). Total body carbon (TBC) and total body nitrogen (TBN) of flies were measured at regular intervals from emergence to 35 days of age for each of the different treatments. Nitrogen assimilation and turnover in the flies were measured using stable isotope ((15)N) dilution techniques. Hydrolyzed yeast incorporation into the diet significantly increased male body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to sugar-fed males. Females had significantly higher body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to all males. TBC and TBN showed age-dependent changes, increasing until the age of sexual maturity and decreasing afterwards in both sexes. Methoprene treatment did not significantly affect TBC or TBN. The progressive increase with age of TBC suggests that lipogenesis occurs in adult male B. cucurbitae, as is the case in other tephritids. Stable isotope dilution was shown to be an effective method for determining N uptake in B. cucurbitae. This technique was used to show that sugar-fed males rely solely on larval N reserves and that the N uptake rate in males with access to diet including hydrolyzed yeast was higher shortly after emergence and then stabilized. The implications of the results for SIT applications are discussed.
Haq IU, L Mayr, PE Teal, J Hendrichs, AS Robinson, C Stauffer, and R Hood-Nowotny
Tephritid;SIT;Bactrocera;mating;methoprene
4740
  
2010
Physiological Entomology 35:
Desiccation resistance is important for the survival of adult insects, although this key physiological trait has rarely been studied in tephritid flies. In the present study, desiccation resistance of female and male adult Queensland fruit flies Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is determined with respect to age after adult eclosion. Resistance to acute starvation is measured over the same period to disentangle the competing roles of water loss and food deprivation. Survival of adult B. tryoni subjected to conditions of low humidity and starvation is reduced considerably compared with adults that are subjected to starvation alone. Desiccation resistance of adult female B. tryoni is generally lower than that of adult males. Desiccation resistance of adult B. tryoni declines in a continuous and regular manner over the first 20 days after adult eclosion. The regular pattern of declining resistance to desiccation with age in B. tryoni indicates that this reduction is not associated with the onset of maturity and maintenance of reproductive structures, nor with sexual activity. By contrast, resistance to starvation is similar at 0 and 6 days after adult eclosion, and declines thereafter. Survival under starvation and water stress is not related to wing length, which is a standard measure of fly size.
Weldon, C. W.;Taylor, P. W.
Tephritidae;survival;Starvation resistance;stress;wing length
4738
  
2010
Journal of Medical Entomology. 47: 4, 581-591. 29 ref.
In Italy, <i>Aedes albopictus</i> Skuse is currently recognized as the most dangerous mosquito, and as currently applied conventional control methods gave unsatisfactory results, we are developing alternative strategies such as the sterile insect technique. To find the optimal sterilizing dose, male pupae were exposed to different doses of gamma rays in the range 20-80 Gy, generated by a Cesium-137 source. The effects of male pupal age at irradiation and gamma ray dose on adult male emergence, sterility level, longevity, and mating capacity were evaluated, and dose-response curves of residual fertility were calculated. Radiation tests were also performed on female pupae to observe their reproductive capacity in case of accidental release. Results confirmed that the age at which the male pupa is irradiated is an important factor that affects the longevity of the adult, whereas the effect of age on the induced sterility level is less pronounced. When male pupae older than 30 h were irradiated, the longevity of the adults was not affected by doses up to 40 Gy. The 40-Gy dose appeared sufficient to induce high level of sterility (>99%) at any male pupal age for all the strains tested. The duration of coupling and the number of mated females per male appeared to be affected by the radiation received by male pupae only at doses higher than 40 Gy. The female pupae were more sensitive to radiation than male pupae, with strong reduction in fecundity and fertility at 20 Gy and complete suppression of oviposition at higher doses.
Balestrino, F.; Medici, A.; Candini, G.; Carrieri, M.; Maccagnani, B.; Calvitti, M.; Maini, S.; Bellini, R.;
Mosquitoes Sterile insect technique Aedes albopictus male longevity residual fertility
4729
  
2010
Archives Of Phytopathology And Plant Protection, Volume 43, Issue 7 , pages 647 - 659
Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and the peach fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) were monitored with lure trap collections in three provinces in the New Valley oases, Western Desert, Egypt. Results showed marked temporal differences in peak trap catches of the two flies in the selected sites all over the entire studied areas. One annual peak of C. capitata was recorded during both October 2005 and February 2006 and coincided with the ripening period of citrus trees in Kharga oases. However, two annual peaks were recorded during June and September 2005 in Bodkholow province and coincided with the ripening period of apple and mango. On the other hand, two annual peaks of B. zonata were recorded in Kharga oases throughout May and September and coincided with the ripening periods of apricot, mango and guava. One annual peak only was recorded in the round up of September and/or October in both Moot and Bodkholow in Dakhla oases and coincided with the ripening period of mango, guava and citrus. The occurrence of C. capitata was very limited in comparison with B. zonata. Population fluctuations of the two pests in the studied sites were significantly different. The ability of the traps used in capturing both C. capitata and B. zonata indicated that the yellow sticky trap was more effective in capturing C. capitata. However, the Abdel-Kawi trap was significantly efficient at trapping B. zonata. The occurrence of B. zonata in high numbers all over the study period compared to C. capitata is considered as good proof that this invading fly may be considered as a vigorous competitive tephritid fly to the native fly C. capitata.
Abdel-Galil F. A. ; M. A. Amro; A. S. H. Abdel-Moniem; Ola O. El-Fandary
population fluctuations; interspecific competition; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); lure traps, yeast
4728
  
2010
Journal of Insect Science 10:8, available online: insectscience.org/10.8
The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound, which they ingest and use in the synthesis of the sex pheromone. Previous studies conducted in the laboratory and small field-cages have shown that males given methyl eugenol produce a more attractive pheromone for females and have a higher mating success rate than males denied methyl eugenol. Here, levels of egg sterility were compared following the release of wild-like flies and either methyl eugenol-fed (treated) or methyl eugenol-deprived (control) sterile males in large field enclosures at four over flooding ratios ranging from 5:1 to 60:1 (sterile: wild-like males). Treated sterile males were fed methyl eugenol for 1-4 h (depending on the over flooding ratio tested) 3 d prior to release. Eggs were dissected from introduced fruits (apples), incubated in the laboratory, and scored for hatch rate. The effect of methyl eugenol was most pronounced at lower over flooding ratios. At the 5:1 and 10:1 over flooding ratios, the level of egg sterility observed for treated, sterile males was significantly greater than that observed for control, sterile males. In addition, the incidence of egg sterility reported for treated sterile males at these lower over flooding ratios was similar to that noted for treated or control sterile males at the 30:1 or 60:1 over flooding ratios. This latter result, in particular, suggests that pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol allows for a reduction in the number of sterile flies that are produced and released, thus increasing the cost-effectiveness of the sterile insect technique. <a href="http://www.insectscience.org/10.8/i1536-2442-10-8.pdf">free pdf</a>
Shelly Todd E., James Edu and Donald McInnis
Diptera, Tephritidae, sterile insect technique, male lure, egg sterility, Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Malus domestic
4726
  
2010
Journal of Insect Science 10:51, available online: insectscience.org/10.51
Rhagoletis fruit flies are important both as major agricultural pests and as model organisms for the study of adaptation to new host plants and host race formation. Response to fruit odor plays a critical role in such adaptation. To better understand olfaction in Rhagoletis, an expressed sequence tag (EST) study was carried out on the antennae and maxillary palps of Rhagoletis suavis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), a common pest of walnuts in eastern United States. After cDNA cloning and sequencing, 544 ESTs were annotated. Of these, 66% had an open reading frame and could be matched to a previously sequenced gene. Based on BLAST sequence homology, 9% (49 of 544 sequences) were nuclear genes potentially involved in olfaction. The most significant finding is a putative odorant receptor (OR), RSOr1, that is homologous to Drosophila melanogaster Or49a and Or85f. This is the first tephritid OR discovered that might recognize a specific odorant. Other olfactory genes recovered included odorant binding proteins, chemosensory proteins, and putative odorant degrading enzymes. <a href="http://www.insectscience.org/10.51/i1536-2442-10-51.pdf">free pdf</a>
Ramsdell Karlene M. M., Sheila A. Lyons-Sobaski, Hugh M. Robertson, Kimberly K. O. Walden, Jeffrey L. Feder, Kevin Wanner, and S
host race, Juglans nigra, olfaction, odorant receptor, Rhagoletis, Tephritidae, speciation
4725
  
2010
Journal of Insect Science 10:56, available online: insectscience.org/10.56
The morphological changes experienced during the immature stages of the solitary parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) were studied. This natural enemy of several species of tephritid fruit flies is widely used in biological control strategies. Immature stages are poorly understood in endoparasitoids because they exist within the host. In the present work, developmental processes are described for this species, reared in Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae under controlled environmental conditions. At 25? C, 85% RH, and with an 18:6 L:D photoperiod, preimaginal development takes about 16 days. Five preimaginal stages can be described: egg, three larval instars, prepupa, pupa, and pharate adult. Superparasitism was found in 20% of the host pupae, and the number of oviposition scars was positively correlated with the number of parasitoid larvae per host puparium. The results are compared and discussed with previous studies on related species. free pdf
Carabajal Paladino Leonela Zusel , Alba Graciela Papeschi, Jorge Luis Cladera
Hymenoptera, developmental stages, superparasitism
4724
  
2010
Biological Control Volume 54, Issue 2, Pages 90-99.
Adult Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri) were produced from irradiated larvae of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and shipped to the USDA-ARS, SJVASC, Parlier, from September 2008 to January 2009 for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in California. In total, 230,908 individuals were shipped to California and 202,328 were released in the field, a 12.4% mortality rate from shipment to release. Thirteen sample sites were located in nine counties; 11 sites received parasitoids from September 2008 to January 2009 (range: 3114?55,826 per site). Olive fruit fly population density, as measured by adult traps, varied greatly among sites and sample dates - ranging from <1 fly per day (sites in San Joaquin Valley and Sacramento Valley) to 29 individuals per day in (San Jose, CA). Adult emergence of olive fruit fly and P. humilis from >10,000 fruit collected, across all sites and sample dates, showed parasitism ranging from 0-17%. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the fitness of P. humilis reared on irradiated and fertile C. capitata. Results showed no difference in parental size, progeny produced during a 48 h period, or the number female: male offspring produced; there were significantly fewer eggs in the dissected ovaries of irradiated than fertile female P. humilis. Continuous flight in different air temperatures and air speeds for female and male parasitoids showed no difference in female or male P. humilis reared on irradiated C. capitata or female P. humilis reared on fertile olive fruit fly. Results are discussed with respect to the establishment and effective use of P. humilis for control of olive fruit fly in California?s varying climatic regions where olives are grown.
Yokoyama Victoria Y., Carlos E. Caceres, L.P.S. Kuenen, Xin-Geng Wang, Pedro A. Rendon, Marshall W. Johnson and Kent M. Daane
Psyttalia concolor; Psyttalia humilis; Ceratitis capitata; Bactrocera oleae; Olea europaea; Biological control; Parasitoid reari
4723
  
2010
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Volume 136 Issue 1, Pages 53 - 65
DNA size polymorphisms were utilized in a study of 24 natural populations of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina. The first intron of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 gene (Adh1) was amplified using exon priming intron crossing-polymerase chain reaction. Three size variants were detected among the 307 samples analyzed. To better differentiate the size variants, further digestion of PCR products with the EcoRI restriction enzyme was carried out. Complete nucleotide sequences of the three-allele variants were obtained and single changes, insertions, deletions, and EcoRI recognition sites were located. Population allele frequencies were analyzed and a global mean heterozygosity (He) of 0.33 was obtained. In most populations, observed allelic frequencies conformed to Hardy?Weinberg expectations. Significant differences between provinces and sampling sites within these provinces, and among some populations were found. The average number of insects exchanged among populations (Nm) was estimated and high values were observed between Argentina and populations from two African countries (Morocco and Kenya), Australia, and Hawaii (Kauai). Pest introduction sources and dispersion patterns in Argentina are discussed based on these results as well as on available bibliographical data.
Lanzavecchia SB, MI Remis, JL Cladera & RO Zandomeni
population genetics *exon priming intron crossing* polymerase chain reaction * medfly * molecular markers * migration patterns *
4722
  
2010
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Volume 136 Issue 1, Pages 45 - 52
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on population and behavioral ecology and is widely used to suppress or eradicate target pest insect populations. The effectiveness of SIT depends on the ability of the released sterile males to mate with and inseminate wild females. The use of gamma-radiation to induce sterility is, however, associated with negative impacts not only on reproductive cells but also on somatic cells. Consequently, irradiation for sterilization diminishes mating performance over time. In this study, we evaluated the balance between the irradiation dose and both fertility and mating propensity in Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for 22 days following irradiation. The mating propensity of males irradiated with a 150-Gy dose, as currently used to induce complete sterility of E. postfasciatus in the SIT program in Okinawa Prefecture, was equal to that of non-irradiated weevils for up to 6 days, and the mating propensity of males irradiated with a dose of 125 Gy was equal to that of non-irradiated weevils for twice this period (12 days). The fertilization ability of weevils irradiated with a dose of 125 Gy was reduced by 4.6% in males and 0.6% in females, compared to the potential fertilization ability. We also discuss the possibility of the application of partially sterilized insects in eradication programs.
Kumano Norikuni, Takashi Kuriwada, Keiko Shiromoto, Dai Haraguchi & Tsuguo Kohama
irradiation * sterile insect technique * substerilization * Coleoptera * Curculionidae * eradication * Ipomoea batatus * SIT
4721
  
2010
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Volume 136 Issue 1, Pages 21 - 30
The effect of access to dietary protein (P) (hydrolyzed yeast) and/or treatment with a juvenile hormone analogue, methoprene (M), (in addition to sugar and water) on male aggregation (lekking) behaviour and mating success was studied in a laboratory strain of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Six-day-old males were treated with (1) protein and methoprene (M+P+), (2) only protein (M-P+), or (3) only methoprene (M+P-), and compared with 14-day-old sexually mature untreated males (M-P-). The lekking behaviour of the four groups of males when competing for virgin sexually mature females (14 -16 days old) was observed in field cages. The following parameters were measured at male aggregations: lek initiation, lek participation, males calling, male-male interaction, female acceptance index, and mating success. For all these parameters, the M+P+ males significantly outperformed the other males. Moreover, for all parameters, there was a similar trend with M+P+ > M-P+ > M-P- > M+P-. More M+P+ males called and initiated and participated in lek activities than all other types of male, which resulted in higher mating success. They had also fewer unsuccessful copulation attempts than their counterparts. Whereas treatment with methoprene alone had a negative effect in young males with only access to sugar, access to dietary protein alone significantly improved young male sexual performance; moreover, the provision of methoprene together with protein had a synergistic effect, improving further male performance at leks. The results are of great relevance for enhancing the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest species. The fact that access to dietary protein and treatment of sterile males with methoprene improves mating success means that SIT cost-effectiveness is increased, as more released males survive to sexual maturity.
Ihsan ul Haq, C. Caceres, J. Hendrichs, P. E. A. Tea, C. Stauffer & A. S. Robinson
juvenile hormone analogue - lek behaviour- mate choice - dietary protein - sterile insect technique - Diptera -Tephritidae - SIT
4720
  
2010
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Volume 136 Issue 1, Pages 31 - 44
The recent shift of Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae) from its ancestral host hawthorn to apple is a model for incipient sympatric speciation in action. Previous studies have shown that changes in the over-wintering pupal diapause are critical for differentially adapting R. pomonella flies to a difference in the fruiting times of apples vs. hawthorns, generating ecologically based reproductive isolation. Here, we exposed pupae of the hawthorn race to various combinations of pre- and over-wintering rearing conditions and analyzed their effects on eclosion time and genetics. We report certain unexpected results in regards to a combination of brief pre-winter and over-wintering periods indicative of gene*environment interactions requiring a reassessment of our current understanding of R. pomonella diapause. We present a hypothesis that involves physiological factors related to stored energy reserves in pupae that influences the depth and duration of Rhagoletis diapause. This ''''pupal energy reserve'''' hypothesis can account for our findings and help clarify the role host plant-related life history adaptation plays in phytophage biodiversity.
Feder Jeffrey L., Thomas H.Q. Powell, Ken Filchak, Brian Leung
apple maggot fly - sympatric host race formation - sympatric speciation - ecological reproductive isolation - epistasis - counte
4719
  
2010
Journal of Insect Physiology, Volume 56, Issue 11, November 2010, Pages 1503-1509
The effect of access to dietary protein (P) and the topical application of a juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application increased the mating success and influenced the mating behaviour. Treatment with methoprene (M+) to protein-deprived (P-) males had only a modest effect on the acceleration of sexual maturity, but application of methoprene (M+) to protein-fed (P+) males greatly accelerated sexual maturity. Protein diet (P+) increased mating success of males in comparison to protein-deprived (P-) males. Protein and methoprene have a synergistic effect on mating behaviour, since M + P+ treated males exhibit reduced mating latency and achieved higher mating in younger ages than methoprene and/or protein-deprived males. Copulation duration was correlated with nutritional status and M + P+ males copulated longer at the age of advanced sexual maturity than M - P+ males. Our results suggest that in this species with a lek mating system, females discriminate between the males based on their sexual signals, which were influenced by protein in the adult diet, methoprene application and age. The results are discussed in the light of mating competitiveness of precocious treated young males and their relevance to Sterile Insect Technique application against this pest species.
Haq Ihsan ul, Carlos Caceres, Jorge Hendrichs, Peter Teal, Viwat Wornoayporn, Christian Stauffer and Alan S. Robinson
Bactrocera cucurbitae; Dietary protein; Mate choice; Mating competitiveness; Methoprene; SIT
4718
  
2010
Biophysical; Biochemical; Antixenosis; Antibiosis; Resistance; Cucurbitaceae; Fruit fly
Plant resistance is an important component of integrated management of the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) owing to difficulties associated with its chemical control. Various biophysical traits including fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit toughness, number of the longitudinal ribs, height of the longitudinal ribs, number of small ridges, depth of small ridges and pericarp thickness, and biochemical traits including total chlorophyll, pH, tannin, flavanol, phenol, ash and silica contents of fruit were studied on six genotypes of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) in relation to resistance against B. cucurbitae under field conditions in Pakistan. Faisalabad-long and Col-II were the most resistant whereas Chaman and Col-Vehari were the most susceptible among the tested genotypes. Fruit length, fruit diameter, number of the longitudinal ribs and number of small ridges had significant positive correlations whereas fruit toughness, depth of small ridges, height of the longitudinal ribs and pericarp thickness had significant negative correlations with the percent fruit infestation and larval density. Maximum variation in fruit infestation and larval density was explained by fruit toughness (63.4 and 49.2% respectively) followed by fruit diameter (23.2 and 22.4% respectively) and number of the longitudinal ribs (8.2 and 11.6% respectively) whereas the remainder of the physical traits explained <2.0% variation in fruit infestation. Total chlorophyll and pH were lowest in resistant and highest in susceptible genotypes whereas tannin, flavanol, phenol, ash and silica contents were highest in resistant and lowest in susceptible genotypes. Tannin and flavanol contents explained 96.5% of the total variation in fruit infestation and 97.7% of the total variation in larval density whereas rest of the biochemical traits explained <0.2% variation in fruit infestation.
Gogi M.D., M. Ashfaq, M.J. Arif, R.M. Sarfraz and N.N. Nawab
Crop Protection, Volume 29, Issue 8, August 2010, Pages 884-890
4717
  
2010
Journal of Insect Physiology Volume 56, Issue 11, Pages 1552-1557
While defending lek-territories, male Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) produce chemical, acoustic and visual courtship signals. In the laboratory and under semi-natural conditions, topical application of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene doubles pheromone production and subsequently doubles sexual success. However, sexual signals and interactions are likely to be physiologically expensive and so result in higher male mortality. Comparison of males kept in isolation for 35 days, but provided daily with a potential mate or a rival male, revealed that both male- and female-interactors shortened focal-male lifespan. In addition, focal males were either treated with methoprene or not, then either provided with protein in their sucrose-based diet or not. Protein proved to similarly double sexual success and also resulted in longer male life spans in all of the interactor-categories. However, there was no evidence that methoprene induced hypersexuality resulted in higher rates of mortality, i.e., the longevity of males treated with methoprene did not significantly differ from untreated males in the same interactor/diet categories. This apparent lack of costs to a putatively sexually selected signal is unexpected but presents an opportunity to increase the sexual competence of sterile flies with few consequences to their survival following mass-release
Pereira Rui, John Sivinski, Peter Teal and Jane Brockmann
Tephritidae; Lek; Sexual selection; Anastrepha suspensa
4716
  
2010
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(5): e692. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000692
Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes to humans (sleeping sickness) and animals (nagana). Controlling these vectors is a very efficient way to contain these diseases. There are several strategies and methods that can be used for control, each being more or less efficient depending on several factors. The Government of Senegal wants to sustainably eliminate trypanosomosis from the Niayes region by controlling the tsetse vector, Glossina palpalis gambiensis. To reach this objective, two different strategies may be used: suppression (decrease in tsetse densities) or eradication (remove all the tsetse in the region until last one). For eradication, the approach has to be area-wide, i.e. the control effort targets an entire pest population within a circumscribed area, to avoid any possible reinvasion. Three different tools (microsatellite DNA, mitochondrial DNA and morphometrics) were used, and all showed an absence of gene flow between G. p. gambiensis from the Niayes and from the nearest known population in the south east of the country (Missira). This genetic isolation of the target population leads to the recommendation that an eradication strategy for the Niayes populations is advisable. This kind of study may be extended to other areas on other tsetse species. <a href="http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=71794E5607C77159E37B1498B89AC41A.ambra01?"uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0000692&representation=PDF">free pdf</a>
Solano Philippe , Dramane Kaba, Sophie Rave, Naomi A. Dyer, Baba Sall, Marc J. B. Vreysen, Momar T. Seck, Heather Darbyshir, Lae
4715
  
2010
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, in press
Variation in lifespan may be linked to geographic factors. While latitudinal variation in lifespan has been studied for a number of species, altitude variation has received much less attention, particularly in insects. We measured the lifespan of different populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa along an altitudinal cline. For the different populations we first measured the residual longevity of wild flies by captive cohort approach and compared F1 generation from the same populations. We showed an increase in lifespan with higher altitude for a part of our data. For the field collected flies (F0) the average remaining lifespan increased monotonically with altitude for males but not for females. For the F1 generation, longevity of both males and females of the highest-altitude population was longer than for the two other lower-altitude populations. This relationship between altitude and lifespan may be explained by the effects of temperature on reproduction. Reproductive schedules in insects are linked to temperature: lower temperature, characteristic of high-altitude sites, generally slows down reproduction. Because of a strong trade-off between reproduction and longevity, we therefore observed a longer lifespan for the high- altitude populations. Other hypotheses such as different predation rates in the different sites are also discussed.
Duyck P.F.;Kouloussis N.;Papadopoulos N.T.;Quilici S.;Wang J.L.;Jiang C.R.;Mueller H.G.;Carey J.R.
Tephritidae;longevity;Ceratitis rosa;Altitude;Biodemographic studies;Natal fruit fly
4709
  
2010
FFN16
FFN16
FFN16
4703
  
2010
PLoS ONE 4(3): e4665. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004665
Background\r\nThe Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata (DIPTERA: Tephritidae) is a major agricultural pest in Argentina. One main cause for the success of non-contaminant control programs based on genetic strategies is compatibility between natural and laboratory germplasms.\r\n\r\nA comprehensive characterization of the fruit fly based on genetic studies and compatibility analysis was undertaken on two founder populations from the provinces of Buenos Aires and Mendoza, used in pioneering sterile male technique control programmes in our country. The locations are 1,000 km apart from each other.\r\n\r\nMethodology/Principal Findings\r\nWe compared the genetic composition of both populations based on cytological, physiological and morphological characterization. Compatibility studies were performed in order to determine the presence of isolation barriers. Results indicate that the Buenos Aires germplasm described previously is partially different from that of the Mendoza population. Both laboratory colonies are a reservoir of mutational and cytological polymorphisms. Some sexual chromosome variants such as the XL and the YL resulting from attachment of a B-chromosome to the X-chromosome or Y-chromosome behave as a lethal sex-linked factor. Our results also show incompatibility between both germplasms and pre-zygotic isolation barriers between them. Our evidence is consistent with the fact that polymorphisms are responsible for the lack of compatibility.\r\n\r\nConclusions\r\nThe genetic control mechanism should be directly produced in the germplasm of the target population in order to favour mating conditions. This is an additional requirement for the biological as well as economic success of control programs based on genetic strategies such as the sterile insect technique. The analysis of representative samples also revealed natural auto-control mechanisms which could be used in modifying pest population dynamics.\r\n\r\n<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0004665;jsessionid=5124C6C1F778ECB0C70C8FB67E8E01A5">free article</a>
Basso Alicia, Laura Martinez, Fanny Manso
Tephritidae
4701
  
2010
PNAS published ahead of print May 10, 2010,
Speciation with gene flow is expected to generate a heterogeneous pattern of genomic differentiation. The few genes under or physically linked to loci experiencing strong disruptive selection can diverge, whereas gene flow will homogenize the remainder of the genome, resulting in isolated "genomic islands of speciation".  We conducted an experimental test of this hypothesis in Rhagoletis pomonella, a model for sympatric ecological speciation. Contrary to expectations, we found widespread divergence throughout the Rhagoletis genome, with the majority of loci displaying host differences, latitudinal clines, associations with adult eclosion time, and within-generation responses to selection in a manipulative overwintering experiment. The latter two results, coupled with linkage disequilibrium analyses, provide experimental evidence that divergence was driven by selection on numerous independent genomic regions rather than by genome-wide genetic drift. "Continents" of multiple differentiated loci, rather than isolated islands of divergence, may characterize even the early stages of speciation. Our results also illustrate how these continents can exhibit variable topography, depending on selection strength, availability of preexisting genetic variation, linkage relationships, and genomic features that reduce recombination. For example, the divergence observed throughout the Rhagoletis genome was clearly accentuated in some regions, such as those harboring chromosomal inversions. These results highlight how the individual genes driving speciation can be embedded within an actively diverging genome
Michel Andrew P., Sheina Sim, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Michael S. Taylor, Patrik Nosil, and Jeffrey L. Feder
host race inversion island of speciation latitudinal cline Rhagoletis pomonella
4700
  
2010
Journal of Applied Entomology Volume 134 Issue 2, Pages 157 - 162.
The influence of gamma radiation on the mating behaviour of the red date palm weevil (RDPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), and the efficacy of sterile insect technique (SIT) under different levels of relative humidity (RH) were studied. No adverse effects of gamma radiation were observed on the mating behaviour parameters of the RDPW, such as mate recognition time, mating duration, mating frequency within a 30-min period and duration between consecutive matings. However, the weevils were sexually stimulated during aggregation. RH significantly affected egg laying as well as egg hatching. Significantly lower egg laying and hatching were recorded at 25% RH than at higher humidity levels, suggesting that low humidity conditions are better for successful SIT manipulations in the field. Lifespan of irradiated RDPW males was significantly shorter than that of un-irradiated controls, irrespective of RH level.
Al-Ayedh H. Y. & K. G. Rasool
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) - gamma radiation - mating behaviour - red date palm weevil - relative humidity ? SIT
4698
  
2010
Journal of Applied Entomology Volume 134 Issue 3, Pages 251 - 260.
Codling moth is the main pest affecting apples and pears worldwide. Most pest control strategies used against this insect have relied on the use of broad-spectrum insecticides which have led to non-desirable effects like pesticide resistance, residues in the environment, human health concerns and the reduction of access to international markets. Therefore, alternative pest control strategies that would result in sustainable fruit production systems while taking care of the environment are strongly promoted. The use of the sterile insect technique has proven to be a valuable pest control tactic within area-wide integrated pest management strategies, and its synergistic effect for Lepidoptera pests when combined with other biological control tactics such as parasitoids has been documented. The purposes of this research were to evaluate the response of an Argentinean codling moth strain to a sub-sterilizing radiation dose of 100 Gy and to assess the acceptability and suitability of sterile codling moth eggs by the egg parasitoids, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Marchal) and Trichogramma nerudai (Pintureau and Gerding). Irradiated female moths survived better than irradiated male moths and non-irradiated male and female moths. Also, the fecundity of irradiated female moths was reduced by more than 30% as compared to non-irradiated ones whereas their fertility was close to zero. The F1 generation was male biased with a lower fertility (inherited sterility) than the parental generation. Trichogramma cacoeciae and T. nerudai parasitized both fertile and sterile eggs. However, there was a significant reduction in acceptability for sterile eggs. Trichogramma nerudai parasitized more eggs than T. cacoeciae, but egg acceptability for this species was proportionally lower than for T. cacoeciae especially on eggs oviposited by irradiated females. Development to adult of both parasitoids species was not substantially affected by the origin of the eggs and the wasps had acceptable levels of adult emergence, survival and fecundity. These results provided useful information on the potential for controlling the codling moth using egg parasitoids and the sterile insect technique in Argentina.
Botto E.& P. Glaz
acceptability and suitability - biological control - codling moth - egg parasitoids - radiosensitivity -sterile insect techniqu
4697
  
2010
Journal of Applied Entomology Volume 134 Issue 3, Pages 234 - 242.
The possibility of controlling the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) using an attract and kill approach as an alternative to chemical sprays with contact insecticides was investigated in widely separated orchards. The results of a 4-year study have shown that, using an attract and kill approach, three applications/season kept infestation rates in treated orchards below the economic injury level except in one with a too high codling moth population density. The mean number of male codling moths/trap/week in attract and kill-treated orchards was much lower in comparison with control orchards which were treated with the usual cover sprays of insecticides. The results also showed that the efficacy of attract and kill under orchard conditions decreased with time and the relationship between time effect and codling moth death rate was very strong. These data indicate that the attract and kill technique applied at a rate of three application per season resulted in good control of codling moth in well managed orchards in Syria.
Mansour M.
Attract and kill _ codling moth _ Syria
4696
  
2010
Journal of Applied Entomology Volume 134 Issue 3, Pages 221 - 226.
The codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a serious pest of pome fruit worldwide. In an effort to reduce the use of pesticides to control this pest, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is used or considered for use as a component of area-wide integrated pest management programmes. Rearing codling moths through diapause has been shown to improve the competitiveness of sterile moths released in orchards, and provides management alternatives that would allow mass-rearing facilities to increase their yearly production of sterile moths. Because radiosensitivity in insects can be influenced by numerous biological factors, laboratory tests were conducted to examine whether the response to increasing doses of radiation, as expressed in the fecundity and fertility of cohorts of moths, is similar for adult moths mass-reared through diapause or through standard (non-diapause) production protocols. Our data revealed that the effect of increasing doses of radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moths reared through both rearing strategies was similar. In the case of fertility, this is a particularly important finding for the expanded application of codling moth SIT. If mass-rearing facilities use year-round diapause rearing, the dose required to treat the insects prior to release will be similar to that used when codling moths are reared through standard production protocols.
Carpenter J. E., S. Bloem & S. Taggart
Cydia pomonella _ diapause _ inherited sterility _ mass-rearing _ radiosensitivity _ sterile insect technique
4695
  
2010
Journal of Applied Entomology Volume 134 Issue 3, Pages 207 - 215.
The codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a serious pest of pome fruit worldwide and the sterile insect technique (SIT) provides an environmentally acceptable approach for its control. As the pest is present in both the southern and northern hemispheres it would be possible for a rearing facility in the northern hemisphere to supply sterile moths to an SIT programme in the southern hemisphere during the northern winter and vice versa. This could greatly improve the economics of moth production and the running costs of rearing facilities. However in order to develop this concept, it is important to assess if populations of codling moth from different geographical regions share mating compatibility. Twelve different laboratory and field populations from both hemispheres were sampled and field cage bisexual mating compatibility tests were carried out between selected combinations. The index of sexual isolation (ISI) and the female and male relative performance index (FRPI and MRPI, respectively) were calculated for each mating combination. In only two of the combinations was there a slight but significant deviation from random mating. There were also some significant differences in mating duration between the homotypic matings and the duration of a particular homotypic mating seemed to depend on the origin of the other population in the cage. It was concluded that there exist no barriers to mating between populations of codling moth from many parts of the world and that it would be feasible for sterile moths to be shipped from one rearing facility to SIT programmes in other parts of the world.
Taret G., M. Sevilla, V. Wornoayporn, A. Islam, S. Ahmad, C. Caceres, A. S. Robinson & M. J. B. Vreysen
mating duration - reproductive barriers - sexual isolation - SIT
4694
  
2010
Journal of Applied Entomology Volume 134 Issue 3, Pages 201 - 206.
The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been successfully applied against codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera; Tortricidae) in British Columbia since 1992 where the mass-rearing facility produces between 15 and 16 million moths per week. Due to the seasonality of this pest, the facility is only fully utilized for part of the year. The time and expense of implementing SIT against codling moth in South Africa may be substantially reduced if moths from Canada were sexually compatible with those from South Africa. In addition, because the pome fruit-growing season in both countries is opposite, the programme in Canada might benefit by maintaining moth production year-round and selling moths to South Africa. Semi-field studies in small cages and release-recapture studies were conducted in an unsprayed apple orchard in South Africa to assess mating compatibility of laboratory-reared codling moth from Canada and wild codling moths from South Africa. The results suggest that Canadian codling moth males were equally attracted to calling Canadian and South African females despite the fact that Canadian moths had been transported (from Canada to South Africa) for 48 h as both pupae and adults. The data also suggest that at lower field temperatures Canadian moths were more active than South African moths. Results from the release-recapture field trials indicated that Canadian and South African males were equally attracted to Canadian and South African females. These results suggest that codling moths from Canada and South Africa are fully compatible and indicate that Canadian moths can be used for SIT studies in South Africa. As these studies were conducted with moths from two very different climatic and time zones, it is proposed that populations of codling moth in other pome fruit production areas may also be compatible with the Canadian moths.
Bloem S. , J. E. Carpenter , T. L. Blomefield & C. Harrison
Mass rearing - mating behaviour - sterile insect technique
4693
  
2010
Population genetic structure of Cydia pomonella: a review and case study comparing spatiotemporal variation
Analysis of population genetic structure is a key aspect to understand insect pest population dynamics in agricultural scenarios. Here the role of geography, hosts and time on the population genetic structure of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lep., Tortricidae) populations is described. Temporal variation was examined in two French orchards among each of three adult flights during two successive years. Analyses were conducted using two insecticide resistance markers (variation at the sodium channel gene and enzymatic activity of cytochrome P450 oxidases) and three microsatellite loci. Levels of genetic variation among temporal populations were not significant based on variation in the sodium channel gene and microsatellite loci. However, P450 oxidase activity differed significantly during both flights and years, decreasing during the three flights of the first year and increasing during the second. These results suggest that phytosanitary measures are among the factors shaping the genetic structure of C. pomonella populations over temporal and geographical scales. We discuss the relative importance of natural and passive dispersal related to anthropogenic activities affecting C. pomonella population genetics and highlight population genetic research needs in order to design more efficient pest management practices.
Franck P. & A. E. Timm
codling moth - genetic variation - insecticide resistance - Lepidoptera - microsatellite - Tortricidae
4692
  
2010
Journal of Applied Entomology Volume 134 Issue 3, Pages 182 - 190.
Spread pachytene nuclei of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lep., Tortricidae) females of a Syrian strain (SY) were used to investigate chromomere patterns of chromosome bivalents and determine their length. The karyotype of female codling moths consists of 28 chromosome bivalents, of which seven are clearly distinguishable using chromosome length and the number and size of the chromomeres in the pachytene stage. One autosome bivalent has two nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) that are located at the opposite ends of the chromosome and appear as distinct structural landmarks. In female codling moths, the WZ sex chromosome bivalent was easily identified in pachytene oocytes according to the heterochromatic thread of the W chromosome. This study contributed to the knowledge and identification of pachytene chromosomes of female codling moths.
Makee H., N. Tafesh, H. Harrown
Cydia pomonella - codling moth - pachytene bivalents - sex chromosomes
4691
  
2010
Journal of Applied Entomology Volume 134 Issue 3: p 165-181.
The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) is a key pest of pome fruit (apple, pear and quince) and walnut orchards in most temperate regions of the world. Efforts to control the codling moth in the past mostly relied on the use of broad spectrum insecticide sprays, which has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance, and the disruption of the control of secondary pests. In addition, the frequent reliance and use of these insecticides are a constant threat to the environment and human health. Consequently, there have been increased demands from the growers for the development of codling moth control tactics that are not only effective but also friendly to the environment. In that respect, the sterile insect technique (SIT) and its derivative, inherited sterility (IS), are, together with mating disruption and granulosis virus, among the options that offer great potential as cost-effective additions to available control tactics for integration in area-wide integrated pest-management approaches. In support of the further development of the SIT/IS for codling moth control, the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture implemented a 5-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled ''Improvement of codling moth SIT to facilitate expansion of field application''. Research focussed on sterile codling moth quality and management (e.g. mobility and life-history traits in relation to rearing strategy, dispersal, flight ability, radiosensitivity and mating compatibility) and a better understanding of the basic genetics of codling moth to assist the development of genetic sexing strains (e.g. cytogenetics, the development of dominant conditional lethal mutations, molecular characterization of the sex chromosomes, sex identification in embryos and cytogenetic markers). The results of the CRP are presented in this special issue.
Vreysen M. J. B., J. E. Carpenter, F. Marec
area-wide integrated pest management - codling moth - genetic sexing - mass-rearing - quality management - sterile insect techni
4690
  
2010
Journal of Applied Entomology Volume 134 Issue 3: p 227-233.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the radiosensitivity of codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) strains from different elevations, 850 and 2000 m above the sea level. The level of sterility of parental males and inherited sterility of F1 males in the strain from the higher elevation at all radiation doses (80, 100 and 150 Gy) was significantly lower, than in the strain from the lower elevation. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the F1 generation in the strain from the higher elevation was significantly lower at 80 and 150 Gy than that in strain from the lower elevation. The average number of eupyrene sperm in the F1 males descended from irradiated males was higher in the strain from the higher elevation than in the strain from the lower elevation. Inheritance of the resistance/susceptible to ionizing radiation were examined by standard genetic cross-breeding analysis confirming the polygenic nature of the differences in radiosensitivity. The implications of these findings for the implementation of area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the use of sterile insects are discussed.
Azizyan A. A., A. R. Ter-Hovhannesyan
chromosomal aberrations - codling moth - inherited sterility - radioresistance
4689
  
2010
Journal of Applied Entomology, Published Online: 7 May 2010
The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is widely used to suppress or eradicate infestations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). In large-scale programs, sterile males are chilled (4?C) to allow their transfer and storage in the aircraft used for the releases. Sterile males may remain chilled for as long as 3 h prior to release. Here, we describe the results of experiments that assessed the effect of chilling on flight ability and mating competitiveness of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies held under conditions of low (plastic buckets) or high (emergence tower trays) density. Males from both densities were subject to 0 (no chill), 1, or 3 h of chilling at 3 days of age. Chill treatment had no effect on flight ability for males held at low density. However, for males held at high density, chilling for 1 or 3 h significantly reduced flight ability below that observed for the no chill treatment. Consistent with the flight data, chill treatment had no effect on the mating success of males held at low density. However, among males held at high density, 3 h of chilling significantly reduced mating success below levels observed for unchilled males or males chilled for 1 h only in trials conducted 1 day after the cold treatment. An auxiliary experiment revealed that this reduction in mating performance was temporary: in mating trials conducted 3 days after 3 h of chilling, sterile males derived from tower trays had similar mating success as unchilled males. Implications of these findings for Mediterranean fruit fly SIT are discussed.
Shelly T. E., J. Edu & J. Nishimoto
Ceratitis capitata - insect release - quality control - Sterile Insect Technique
4688
  
2010
Current Biotica Vol 3 Issue 4, 581-593
Ionising radiation has been recognized as an alternative to chemicals for treating freshagricultural produce in order to overcome quarantine barriers in trade. Radiation processing is anewly emerging technology of post harvest treatment that can eliminate metamorphic stages ofinsect pests. It is an environment friendly technology, does not leave any residues in the food andhas the potential to successfully replace chemical fumigation practices. The lifting of ban on theimportation of Indian mangoes that were treated with recommended doses of gamma radiationby the USA is the recent most example of the applicability and acceptance of irradiationtechnology as an ideal phytosanitary treatment. This paper reviews the importance, methodology,status and scope of irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit flies in the light of availableliterature.
Reddy  P. V. Rami, Abraham Verghese , K. Sreedevi and S. Manivannan
Fruit flies, phytosanitary treatment, quarantine, radiation
4676
  
2010
Agron. Sustain. Dev. 10.1051/agro/2010009, 19 April 2010
Despite the liberal use of broad-spectrum insecticides to keep many insect pests of agricultural and veterinary importance at bay, food losses, both pre- and post-harvest, due to these insect pests contribute significantly to the high prevalence of undernourishment in the world. New, innovative pest control tactics and strategies are therefore needed that are both effective and not detrimental to the environment. As part of the arsenal of environmentally-friendly control tactics, the sterile insect technique (SIT) has proven to be a very effective tool against selected insect pests when used as part of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approach. Likewise, the use of natural enemies for augmentative or inundative biological control is now a major component of pest control in many parts of the world. Both control tactics are complementary and even synergistic under certain circumstances, but their combined use has so far not been applied on an operational scale. Ionising radiation can be readily employed to effectively and safely induce sexual sterility in insects. Although the sterile insect technique has often been associated with an eradication strategy, major advances in rearing efficiency, and improved handling and release methods, have made the use of sterile insects economically feasible for insect pest suppression, prevention or containment. Recently, more emphasis has been placed on the quality of the sterile insect once released in the field rather than mainly assessing quality in the rearing facility. This combined with other innovations such as the development of genetic sexing strains, better understanding the impact of radiation on radio-resistant species such as Lepidoptera and the development of the F1 sterility concept, advances in monitoring the induced sterility, etc. have significantly increased the efficiency of the sterile insect technique for several insect species. The action of sterile insects is inversely dependent on the density of the target population, and sterile insects have the intrinsic capacity to actively search for and mate with the last individuals of a pest population. These two characteristics make them ideal to deal with outbreaks of invasive insect pests. The use of sterile insects presents no threat to the environment, but aspects such as diet and waste disposal in large rearing facilities or bio-security in cases where the rearing facility is located in an area that is already free of the pest require the necessary attention. Ionising radiation can also be applied to greatly improve the efficiency of mass-rearing, handling and shipment of insect parasitoids and predators. Area-wide integrated pest management programmes that use sterile insects or natural enemies are complex and management-intensive, and require a management structure that is exclusively dedicated to the programme. Past and current examples have shown the enormous benefit-cost ratios that these programmes can generate and the
Vreysen Marc J.B. and Robinson Alan S.
natural enemies / sterile insect technique / area-wide integrated pest management / economic benefits
4672
  
2010
Biomedical and Life Sciences 10.1007/s10526-010-9282-1
Field experiments and surveys were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of releasing Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Psyttalia fletcheri  (Silvestri) parasitoids for suppression of Bactrocera cucurbitae  (Coquillett) infesting wild Coccinia grandis L. In 2003 and 2004, P. fletcheri releases combined with natural emergence from wild fly populations resulted in better fly suppression, compared to the control site. While P. fletcheri developed freely on melon fly, F. arisanus was less successful at producing its own progeny, yet causing mortality and a twofold decrease in pupae recovered from ivy gourds. Concurrent releases of both parasitoids exerted a compounded suppressive effect on the melon fly population 2-3 times higher than during the pre-release phase. A similar, less obvious, pattern occurred in 2004, due to reduction of the ivy gourd fruit canopy. In 2005, only P. fletcheri was released, with greatly reduced impact, due to ivy gourd destruction and by growers leaving crop culls in fields, producing large numbers of melon flies unaffected by parasitoid releases.
Harris Ernest J., Renato C. Bautista, Roger I. Vargas, Eric B. Jang, Avraham Eitam and Luc Leblanc
Braconidae -  Fopius arisanus   -  Psyttalia fletcheri   - Suppression - Tephritidae -  Bactrocera cucurbitae
4670
  
2010
Biocontrol Science and Technology, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 137 - 148
We compared the oviposition behavior and host discrimination ability of wild and mass-reared Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) females parasitizing Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae. Both kinds of parasitoid females were presented simultaneously with parasitized and non-parasitized larvae in choice tests, and their superparasitism performance was evaluated under a mass-rearing situation. At the time of the test, D. longicaudata had 156 generations under mass-rearing conditions. Our goal was to determine the effect of the mass-rearing process on the foraging decisions of this species. One of the primary findings was the apparent ubiquity of superparasitism by D. longicaudata females. Both types of females showed similar patterns in each of the phases of oviposition behavior evaluated. The only notable differences were among the percentages of transition between behaviors, mainly related to the intensity with which each activity was performed. Under a mass-rearing situation, both strains of females had a similar tendency to increase superparasitism (i.e., number of oviposition scars per puparium and the proportion of superparasitized larvae) over time. The mass-rearing process appears to have induced the selection of more aggressive, fertile and precocious females. Despite these observations, we concluded that the process of adaptation to mass-rearing conditions has not substantially influenced the foraging and ovipositional behaviors in this species.
Gonzalez P. I.; P. Montoya; G. Perez-Lachaud; J. Cancino b; P. Liedo
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata; superparasitism; foraging decisions; mass rearing
4666
  
2010
IOBC/wprs Bulletin Vol. 53:17-21.  Working Group ?Integrated Protection of Olive Crops?.  Proceedings of the Meeting at Bragan?a (Portugal), 10-12 October, 2007. Edited by: Argyro Kalaitzaki.
The susceptibility of the main olive cultivars grown in Sardinia (Italy) to olive fly  attack was studied in order to improve pest management techniques. Observations were carried  out during 2004-2005 in an organic olive grove where the three following cultivars were  randomly distributed: Manna, an early ripening cultivar with large drupes; Bosana, a mediumlate  ripening cultivar with small drupes; Semidana, a late ripening cultivar with medium sized  drupes. The first generation of olive fly females preferred ovipositing in Manna olive fruits,  which are characterised by larger size and lower hardness, whereas drupe size did not influence  significantly female fruit preference in autumn. In this period, olive fruit susceptibility was  likely to be more related to different amounts of epicuticular waxes on fruits from the three  diverse cultivars. The olive fruit resistance to Bactrocera oleae development was evaluated  estimating the mortality of eggs and young larvae. The highest percentages of mortality, which  were reached in August, differed significantly among cultivars in both years (92% for Manna,  68% for Bosana and 79% for Semidana in 2004, and 72%, 42% and 44% in 2005, respectively).  At harvest time, the percentages of wormy olives were 24 and 27% for Manna, 65 and 32% for  Bosana, and 75 and 55% for Semidana, in 2004 and 2005, respectively. The susceptibility of the  three cultivars to the olive fly seems to be strictly related to the over-time-changing oviposition  preference and to the cultivar response to the mortality factors, such as high summer  temperature.
Delrio G., S. Deliperi & A. Lentini
Bactrocera oleae, Olive fly, olive cultivars
4664
  
2010
IOBC wprs Bulletin/Bulletin OILB srop Vol. 53:11-16
Abstract: The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is an effective, species-specific and  environmentally friendly method for controlling pest populations. SIT involves releasing  millions of sterile insects over a wide area to mate with the native insects that are present. Native  females that mate with the sterile males produce non viable offspring, leading to a decline in the  target pest population. SIT has been used successfully for control of several tephritid fruit fly  species in programmes targeting local eradication, suppression below economic thresholds, and  prevention of establishment. Modern genetic methods hold out the prospect of significant  operational and cost-effectiveness improvements to the SIT, and for extension of the SIT to a  broader range of pest species. Genetic improvements include: more reliable identification of  released individuals with a fluorescent genetic marker; removing the need for radiationsterilisation  (?genetic sterilisation"); reducing the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental  releases from the mass-rearing facility by arranging that the insects need an artificially-provided  condition, for example a dietary supplement, in order to survive or reproduce; providing  automated sex-separation prior to release to eliminate females from the release population  (?genetic sexing?). Oxitec has developed the RIDL? suite of genetic technologies and has  demonstrated all of these properties in Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and Mexican  fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens), as well as in moths and mosquitoes. SIT would be a useful tool for  the Integrated Pest Management of olive fly (Bactrocerea oleae) but implementation has been  constrained by the difficulty of mass-rearing, including the lack of a cheap and consistent  artificial diet and changes in behaviour such as time of mating. Research into these issues is  ongoing in Greece and at the IAEA. The cost-effectiveness of an SIT approach would be greatly  improved by the ability to release only males. Each female olive fly lays 50-400 eggs at one per  fruit, causing significant damage to the crop, regardless of whether she has been sterilised or not.  In addition, if males and females are released together, the males may court the sterile females,  and consequently not seek out the wild females as effectively as if they had been released alone.  This distraction effect of sterile females on sterile males has been shown to have a major impact  on the male effectiveness of Mediterranean fruit fly in the field. Oxitec?s RIDL technology  could be applied to olive fly to rear populations of male insects which produce no female  progeny in the absence of a specific diet supplement. In addition, they could be reared safely in  olive growing areas without the need for irradiation to sterilise them.
McKemey Andrew R., Luke Alphey, Martha Koukidou & Ann Kramer
SIT, Bactrocera oleae, Olive fly, Genetic
4663
  
2010
Pomologia Croatica, Vol.15 No.3-4:77-86
Bactrocera oleae is the most importanat olive pest in Montenegro. The infestation is located only on the fruit and results in significant damage and for this reason, induces the neccessity for its control. Various control methods and applications of chemical substances are directed towards suppression of adults and have preventive character, therefore monitoring of abundance and flight dynamics is of high importance. Trials were set in olive plantation of Centre for subtropical cultures in Bar, on native variety ?utica, in three years period (the year of 2005, 2006 and 2007). Flight dynamics was monitored by chromotropic and pheromone traps of Dacotrap type,\r\nduring the period from July to the end of October in all years of monitoring. Traps were monitored once a week and the flight dynamics of fly is showen through the average abundance of females and males on chromotropic and pheromone traps. In the region of Bar, which is the biggest olive area in Montenegro seaside, olive fly developes several generations during one year. Generations interleave with each other and therefore the fly is present in plantations, with different appearance intensity, from begining of July untill the middle of December, and in some years the flight lasts even longer, so the presence of adults is also detected in January. The maximum abundance, reffering to the most intensive flight is during September and October. Chromotropic traps hold out a more precise evaluation of population abundance present in the plantation, while pheromone traps are very important in infestation forecast and appropriate treatment timing determination.
Perovic Tatjana;Hrncic Snjezana;Indic Dusanka
olive fly; olive; chromotropic traps; pheromone traps
4659
  
2010
Biocontrol Science and Technology, Volume 20, Issue 7 , page 1
The Argan Argania spinosa (L) Skeels (Ericales: Sapotaceae) is an endemic and emblematic tree growing in the centre and the south west of Morocco. Argan fruits are frequently infested by the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied (Diptera: Tephritidae). To date, no control program has been undertaken in the Argan forest. This research is the first investigation of natural mortality factors of C. capitata larvae in the Argan forest. The study was conducted at two localities near the city of Essaouira with different climatic conditions. Observations were conducted using 260 late instar larvae which were individually deposited on the ground, under fruiting host trees, where they naturally fall to find a suitable pupation site. Overall, 42% of the larvae died before being able to burrow into the ground, irrespectively of the location. Larval survival and their likelihood of burrowing decreased with increasing ground temperature, as 53% of all the larvae deaths occurred at temperatures over 48?C. However, at lower ground temperature, predation by ants and spiders accounted for 47% of all mortality. Four species of ants carried out 94% of the captures. Monomorium subopacum Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which frequently forages under Argan trees, was by far the most efficient predator, due to a powerful sting that rapidly immobilizes the prey. Our results suggest that the burrowing performance of larvae is constrained by high thermal conditions and the presence of ant predators at lower temperatures.
El Keroumi Abderrahim ; Khalid Naamani; Abdallah Dahbi; Isabel Luque; Ana Carvajal; Xim Cerda; Raphael Boulay
Ceratitis capitata; Argania spinosa; ants; predation; biological control
4658
  
2010
ISHS Acta Horticulturae 857: IX International Controlled Atmosphere Research Conference
Ionizing irradiation is a phytosanitary treatment that is increasing in application. The effect of low-oxygen, modified atmosphere storage on irradiation efficacy has not been addressed until recently. Hypoxia for 18 hours before irradiation until a couple of hours after irradiation reduced efficacy to varying degrees as measured by adult development or reproduction for four insects studied. It is recommended that irradiation phytosanitary treatments not be approved for commodities stored under hypoxic conditions until adequate research determines the effect of the specific modified atmosphere on efficacy and provides proper solutions on a case by case basis.
Hallman G.J., R.L. Hellmich
Entomology, Enter keywords as:, Mosquitoes
4655
  
2010
Biocontrol Science and Technology, 1360-0478, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 621 ? 624
Bracon celer, Psyttalia perproxima, Psyttalia humilis (all Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Tetrastichus giffardianus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were reared from fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting Coffea canephora in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Psyttalia perproxima and T. giffardianus were recorded for the first time from southern Africa. Ceratitis capitata was likely the main tephritid host.
Manrakhan Aruna ; Hannah Nadel ; Mathew C. Middleton ;Kent M. Daane
Bracon; Psyttalia; Tetrastichus; Tephritidae
4653
  
2010
Environ Entomol, April 1, 39(2): 570-5.
We studied the dispersal behavior and survival of sterile medfly males either treated or not with ginger root oil (GRO), in field conditions, in Petrolina-PE, northeast Brazil, from May 2006 to December 2007 in a sterile insect technique (SIT) program. The tsl strain Vienna 8 from the Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae), medfly, mass-rearing facility located in Juazeiro-BA, Brazil, was used. The results showed that sterile males either exposed or not to GRO exhibit similar dispersal behavior and postrelease survival. More than 60% of the sterile males, either treated or not treated with GRO, were recovered at a 25-m distance from the releasing point, approximately 20% at 50 m, and 5% in traps situated 100 m from the releasing point. Around 90% of the sterile males, exposed or not to GRO, were recovered 5 d after release of the sterile male individuals, whereas <1% were recovered after 11 d. Our results imply that ginger root oil can be used to treat sterile medfly males without interfering with their dispersal or survival in the field.
Paranhos BJ, NT Papadopoulos, D McInnis, C Gava, FS Lopes, R Morelli, and A Malavasi
Tephritid, Ceratitis, ginger, dispersion
4649
  
2010
Zootaxa 2425: 32-44
Anastrepha is the most diverse and economically important genus of Tephritidae in the American tropics and many species remain undescribed. Three new species A. acuminata, A. carreroi and A. sinuosa collected from Colombia are described in this paper and six species: A.isolata, A. perdita, A. sororcula, A. montei, A. panamensis and A. lanceola are reported from Colombia for the first time. The Colombian species of Anastrepha are discussed.
Canal Nelson A.
Diptera, Tephritidae, fruit flies, taxonomy, Anastrepha, Colombia
4647
  
2010
Journal of Economic Entomology 103(2):379-385.
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by reproductively mature flies are unknown. In this study, the main objective was to identify insecticide bait treatments that can prevent oviposition after being ingested by reproductively mature R. indifferens. First, flies were fed liquid bait. Of flies fed spinosad bait, 20% oviposited and all died within 1 d. Of flies fed acetamiprid + sucrose, 72% oviposited after 1 wk, and all recovered from paralysis within 1 d. Of flies fed spinosad bait + acetamiprid, 7% oviposited and most died within 1 d. None of the flies fed spinosad bait + thiamethoxam oviposited and all died within 1 d. Of flies fed thiamethoxam + sucrose, 2% oviposited and most died within 1 d. None of the flies fed spinosad + thiamethoxam + sucrose oviposited and all died within 1 d. Of flies fed spinosad + sucrose, 11% oviposited and almost all died within 1 d. Next, flies were fed 2-d-old dried baits. No flies fed dried spinosad + thiamethoxam + sucrose and thiamethoxam + sucrose oviposited. On the basis of absolute numbers of eggs laid by flies fed liquid and dried treatments, spinosad + thiamethoxam + sucrose may be the most effective of the seven insecticide baits tested for preventing oviposition by reproductively mature R. indifferens.le
Yee Wee L.
Rhagoletis indifferens, spinosad bait, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, egg laying
4645
  
2010
Journal of Economic Entomology 103(2):394-401.
Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a key pest in apple (Malus spp.) production areas located in the northeastern and midwestern United States and the eastern provinces of Canada. The development of Surround WP has offered a new approach for controlling apple maggot and other tephritid species, because this material is considered to be compatible with advanced integrated pest management and organic production systems. We conducted studies aimed at identifying the behavioral and biological effects of this material on apple maggots. Specifically, we examined the effect of Surround WP on the visual ecology of adult flies under field conditions, on tactile responses of flies in semifield trials, and on fly mortality in laboratory-based-bioassays. We demonstrated that an even coating of white particles over a fruit-mimicking sphere surface reduced visual attractiveness. We also found that spotty-coated fruit-mimicking spheres (meant to mimic ripe fruit bearing an uneven coating of Surround WP) were perceived by flies as not having the ideal round silhouette shape stimulus. Surround WP served as a tactile deterrent; the residence time of females introduced on to treated fruit was much shorter compared with untreated fruit. Surround WP also had a toxic effect on both adult apple maggot and Rhagoletis suavis (Loew); flies exposed to and forced to stand on Surround-treated surfaces died in <2 d in all trials. The combined effectiveness of Surround WP is based on a reduction in the attractiveness of fruit-based visual cues, an increase in the likelihood of flies leaving treated surfaces due to tactile deterrence, and a potential for increased mortality due to exposure to Surround WP particles.
Leskey Tracy C., Starker E. Wright, D. Michael Glenn, and Gary J. Puterka
Surround WP, kaolin, particle film technology, apple maggot, behavior
4644
  
2010
Journal of Economic Entomology 103(2):409-415.
Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps with solid lure dispensers were deployed in areas with low and high populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In low-density areas, standard Jackson traps or Hawaii Fruit Fly Areawide Pest Management (AWPM) traps with FT Mallet ME wafers impregnated with dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) or AWPM traps with Scentry ME cones and vapor tape performed equally as well as standard Jackson traps with liquid ME/C-L and naled. Standard Jackson traps or AWPM traps with FT Mallet C-L wafers impregnated with DDVP or AWPM traps with Scentry C-L plugs with vapor tape performed equally as well as standard Jackson traps with a lure-naled solution. In high density areas, captures with traps containing FT Mallet wafers (ME and C-L) outperformed AWPM traps with Scentry cones and plugs (ME and C-L) with DDVP insecticidal strips over a 6-mo period, Captures of B. dorsalis and B. Cucurbitae with wafers containing both ME and raspberry ketone (FT Mallet MC) were equivalent to those containing separate lures. From a worker safety and convenience standpoint, FT Mallet ME and C-L wafers with DDVP or Scentry plugs, with or without DDVP vapor tape, are more convenient and safer to handle than standard liquid insecticide formulations used for monitoring and male annihilation programs in Hawaii, and for detections traps used on the U.S. mainland. Furthermore, the FT Mallet MC wafer might be used in a single trap in place of two separate traps for detection of both ME and C-L responding fruit flies.
Vargas Roger I., Ronald F. L. Mau, John D. Stark, Jaime C. Pi?ero, Luc Leblanc, and Steven K. Souder
tephritid flies, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera cucurbitae, naled, spinosad
4643
  
2010
Journal of Economic Entomology 103(2):533-540.
Release?recapture studies were conducted with both feral and sterile females of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine sampling range for a liquid protein bait (torula yeast/borax) and for a two-component synthetic lure (ammonium acetate and putrescine). Tests were done in a guava, Psidium guajava L., grove and involved releasing flies at a central point and recording the numbers captured after 7 h and 1, 2, 3, and 6 d in an array of 25 Multilure traps located 9?46 m from the release point, In all tests, highest rate of recapture occurred within the first day of release, so estimations of sampling range were based on a 24-h period. Trap distances were grouped into four categories (<10, 10?20, 20?30, and >30 m from release point) and relative trapping efficiency (percentage of capture) was determined for each distance group. Effective sampling range was defined as the maximum distance at which relative trapping efficiency was >=25%. This corresponded to the area in which 90% of the recaptures occured. Contour analysis was also performed to document spatial distribution of fly dispersal. In tests with sterile flies, immature females dispersed farther and were recovered in higher numbers than mature females, regardless of attractant, and recapture of both cohorts was higher with torula yeast. For mature feral flies, range of the synthetic lure was determined to be 30 m. With sterile females, effective range of both attractants was 20 m. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on the active space of attractants, as reflected by distribution of captured flies.
Kendra Paul E., Nancy D. Epsky and Robert R. Heath
Caribbean fruit fly, trapping, synthetic lures, torula yeast, spatial analysis
4642
  
2010
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Volume 135 Issue 1, Pages 96 - 104
To improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), our objectives in this study were two-fold. First, to evaluate the ability of sterile males of the Vienna-8 strain to survive starvation, we compared them to wild males under laboratory conditions. The second objective was to determine the effect of protein-rich nutrition on sterile male fly survival, under starvation conditions in the laboratory, under semi-natural conditions in a field enclosure, and under natural conditions in the open field. Therefore, we released marked sterile flies of the two diet regimes, protein-fed or protein-deprived, and monitored their survival by recapturing them after 4, 6, and 7 days. In the laboratory, wild males endured starvation significantly better than sterile ones and protein addition to sterile fly diet resulted in even greater reduced capability to endure starvation. On the other hand, the addition of protein to sterile-male diet did not affect their ability to survive in a field enclosure or in the open field. We conclude that under natural conditions, where food is available, sterile male fly survival is unaffected by protein-rich pre-release diet.
Gavriel Sagi, Yoav Gazit & Boaz Yuval
Ceratitis capitata - sterile insect technique - SIT - nutritional ecology - Diptera - Tephritidae - mark-release-recapture - med
4641
  
2010
Fruits Volume 65, Number 2:113 - 130
Significance of fruit flies in vegetable crops. Vegetable crops hold a key position in agricultural production in Reunion (Indian Ocean); however, many pests and diseases threaten the profitability of this agricultural sector. Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) figure among the main pests for solanaceous crops and cucurbits (cucumber, zucchini, melon, etc.). Losses of as much as 80% of tomato and 100% of cucurbit crop harvests have been frequently observed. <b>Inventory and distribution</b>. Four fruit fly species belonging to the Tephritidae family cause major damage to vegetable crops in Reunion: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), Dacus ciliatus Loew and D. demmerezi (Bezzi) on Cucurbitaceae, and Neoceratitis cyanescens (Bezzi) on Solanaceae (primarily the tomato). Distribution of each of them is presented. <b>Biology and behavior</b>. A few studies on the biology and behavior of the four fruit flies were conducted in Reunion in the late 1990s. Their main biological characteristics are summarized. <b>Population control methods used in Reunion</b>. Various methods such as chemical control, preventive measures (sanitation), physical control, biotechnical control [colored traps, the Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) and the Bait Application Technique (BAT)], and biological control currently used in Reunion against fruit flies are reported. Other control methods such as Integrated Pest Management and the Sterile Insect Technique are not used in Reunion. Prospects for implementing agro-ecological management of vegetable fruit flies in Reunion. This part presents research actions implemented in fly bio-ecology, research actions into the genetic structure of populations and design of an agro-ecological management scheme for vegetable fruit flies. <b>Conclusions</b>. The control methods used independently have not been successful to effectively control tephritid populations. A more integrated approach is required, also taking into account the landscape scale and its mosaic of habitats, especially wild plants, whose role must be considered within a framework of agro-ecological management of these pest populations.
Ryckewaert Philippe, Jean-Philippe Deguine, Thierry Brevault and Jean-Francois Vayssieres
Reunion / vegetable crops / Tephritidae / Bactrocera cucurbitae / Dacus ciliatus / Dacus demmerezi / Neoceratitis cyanescens / p
4628
  
2010
Annals of the Entomological Society of America vol. 103, n? 1, pp. 96-99
Results of a study of the inheritance and linkage relationships of eye-color mutations in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), are presented. The mutations white eyes (we) and yellow eyes (ye) are recessive and autosomal, whereas Red eyes (Re) and Violet eyes (Ve) are dominant, and the latter is homozygous lethal. The genes we and ye showed epistatic interaction, the first with ye, Re, and Ve, and the second with Re. The results of the various crosses suggest that only Ve and ye are linked, so the linkage groups have been designated as A- we, B- Ve-ye, and C- Re. Study of these mutants in A. ludens will serve as the basis for the development of a genetic map for this species. The mutations also will be useful for the development of a genetic-sexing method.
ZEPEDA-CISNEROS C. S. ; MEZA J. S. ; GALVEZ S. ; IBANEZ J. ; ROBINSON A. S.
Anastrepha, Tephritidae, genetics
4625
  
2010
Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 103, n? 1, pp. 11-19
Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a notoriously variable species. Seven varieties were once recognized. Three varieties were elevated to species status. The status of the other four varieties, including the synonyms for S. longipennis, has been contested. Such taxonomic instability, particularly when associated with variable patterns of host use, suggests that S. longipennis may represent a dynamic complex of host-associated populations in the process of divergence. To detect evidence of genetic differentiation indicating genetically distinct sympatric populations of S. longipennis, we sequenced a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I of mitochondrial DNA of S. longipennis from two sites (three habitats) in eastern Iowa. At each site, we found two genetically and morphologically distinct sympatric populations. One corresponds to morphological descriptions of S. longipennis variety typica (Loew). The other corresponds to descriptions of S. longipennis variety vittigera (Loew). High levels of genetic differentiation between these divergent sympatric populations suggest the populations might represent host races or incipient species.
AXEN Heather J. ; HARRISON Jessica L. ; GAMMONS John R. ; MCNISH Ian G. ; BLYTHE Laura D. ; CONDON Marty A..
Tephritidae, Taxonomy, DNA
4624
  
2010
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. 73: 2, 106-117.
Farnesoic acid <i>O</i>-methyl transferase (FAMeT) is the enzyme involved in the penultimate step of insect juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis and is thus a key regulator in insect development and reproduction. We report the characterization of the putative-<i>FAMeT</i> in the medfly or Mediterranean fruit fly, <i>Ceratitis capitata</i>. This gene was identified by suppressive subtractive hybridization and completely sequenced by the screening of a medfly cDNA library. The obtained sequence was analyzed for conserved protein domain identification and its expression profile was evaluated by quantitative Real-Time PCR in medfly pre-imaginal life. The tissue expression of the isolated gene was verified by in situ hybridization on third instar larvae sections. The characterization of the isolated gene pointed out several typical features of methyl transferase genes. The pre-imaginal putative-<i>FAMeT</i> expression levels were consistent with JH titer change in Diptera. As recognized in some crustaceans, this gene seems to be widely expressed in the medfly as well. <i>Ceratitis capitata</i> is one of the most relevant agricultural pests against which insecticides and the sterile insect technique (SIT) are extensively used in spite of the well-known limitations of these approaches. Although results are not conclusive for the physiological role of the isolated gene, they suggest the characterization of a new gene in the Mediterranean fruit fly potentially involved in JH biosynthesis and may, therefore, have implications for pest control.
Vannini, L.; Ciolfi, S.; Spinsanti, G.; Panti, C.; Frati, F.; Dallai, R.;
complementary DNA. enzymes. gene expression. genes. hybridization. insect control. insect pests. juvenile hormones. nucleotide s
4623
  
2010
Biological Invasions. 12: 3, 581-592.
The natural reproductive behaviour of invasive insects is pivotal knowledge for managing species of ecological or economic concern. We use microsatellites to examine female multiple mating and multiple nest infestations in the introduced parasitic fly, <i>Philornis downsi</i>, which causes high mortality in endemic birds on the Galapagos Islands. We analyse larvae and pupae within 57 nests from Santa Cruz and Floreana Islands in both the highland and lowland habitats. Sib-ship reconstructions of offspring revealed that up to five females may infest a single nest, while multiple mating in females was frequent (65% of reconstructed maternal genotypes), with an average of 1.91 (+or-0.06 SE) males per female. Genetic relatedness (<i>R</i>) of offspring within nests was generally low, though lowland nests on Floreana had higher <i>R</i> than highland nests. Knowledge of the reproductive behaviour of <i>P. downsi</i> is necessary for modelling appropriate management strategies, in particular, the sterile insect technique, for which success is greatly influenced by female multiple mating.
Dudaniec, R. Y.; Gardner, M. G.; Kleindorfer, S.
ectoparasites. genotypes. infestation. invasive species. mating. nests.
4622
  
2010
Neotrop Entomol, 39(1): 9-14.
This study evaluated the influence of two fruits hosts (orange and papaya) on biological and behavioral parameters of two populations of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) reared under laboratory conditions. One of these populations has been reared under laboratory conditions by 25 years without introduction of wild flies (Lab-pop), while the other has been maintained under the same conditions by 15 years but with occasional introduction of wild specimens (Hybrid-pop). The following parameters were analyzed: emergence percentage, life cycle duration (from eclosion to emergence), adult size, longevity, female fecundity and oviposition preference. The best performance of immatures of both populations was obtained on papaya as a host. Larvae reared on orange had longer life cycle, low emergence percentage and smaller adults. The fruit type did not affect fecundity and longevity of the Lab-pop, but in the Hybrid-pop males lived longer when reared on papaya, while females had higher longevity and fecundity when reared on orange. Females of both populations preferred to lay eggs in papaya (better host for larvae) when compared to orange. However, some eggs were deposited on orange only by females of Lab-pop, suggesting a lower ability for host selection of this population. These data are discussed regarding to the effects of continuous laboratory rearing on the biological parameters of this species.
Joachim-Bravo IS , AN Guimaraes, TC Magalhaes, and AS Nascimento
papaya, citrus, Orange, Medfly, Rearing
4618
  
2010
Florida Entomologist 93(1): 39-44
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used to suppress or eradicate target insect pest populations. The effectiveness of SIT depends on the ability of the released sterile males to mate with and inseminate wild females. Irradiation is effective for sterilizing mass-reared insects, and the negative impacts of this procedure are not limited to reproductive cell damage. In this study, we evaluated the death-feigning that is considered as an antipredator behavior of male Cylas formicarius (Summers) (Coleoptera: Blentidae) irradiated with 200 Gy, which is the dose used in the SIT program in Okinawa Prefecture. Irradiated male insects were observed in the laboratory for 10 d after irradiation. On d 0, fewer irradiated males feigned death than nonirradiated males. The number of irradiated and nonirradiated males who feigned death and the duration of their death-feigning were about the same from 2 d after irradiation. On the basis of our results, we discuss the optimal release time of irradiated male C. formicarius.
KURIWADA TAKASHI;KUMANO NORIKUNI;SHIROMOTO KEIKO;HARAGUCHI Dai
Gamma radiation, sterile insect technique, predatory avoidance, tonic immobility, thanatosis,
4617
  
2010
Physiological Entomology (2010), in press
Mass-reared sterile tephritid flies released in sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes exhibit behaviour, physiology and longevity that often differ from their wild counterparts. In the present study, video recordings of flies in laboratory cages are used to determine whether the sequential processes of mass-rearing and sterilization (using gamma radiation) that are integral to SIT affect general activity patterns of male and female Queensland fruit flies Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) (?Q-flies?). Compared with wild flies, mass-reared flies exhibit a marked reduction in overall activity, and further reduction is found after sterilization. In terms of the frequency of activities, both fertile and sterile mass-reared Q-flies fly less often and exhibit more bouts of inactivity and grooming than wild Q-flies. In addition, in terms of the duration of activities, fertile and sterile mass-reared Q-flies spend less time flying and more time walking, grooming and being inactive than wild Q-flies. Although fertile and sterile mass-reared flies are similar in other regards, sterile mass-reared flies spend more time being inactive than fertile mass-reared flies. These findings raise new questions about how changes in behaviour and activity levels may influence the performance of mass-reared sterile Q-flies in the field, as well as the physiological and metabolic processes that are involved. The frequency and duration of inactivity could provide a simple but powerful and biologically relevant test for quality in mass-rearing and SIT programs.
Weldon Christopher W.;Prenter John;Taylor Phillip W.
Behaviour, gamma-irradiation, inactivity, locomotor activity, quality, control, sterile insect technique (SIT), Tephritidae.
4616
  
2010
Florida Entomologist 91(1): 63-72
A major obstacle for many studies examining sperm competition and cryptic female choice in insects has been the identification and quantification of sperm stored in the sperm storage organs of females that have mated with two or more males. Historically, sexual selection studies have focused primarily on paternity outcomes for inferring potential underlying mechanisms (e.g., sperm competition and cryptic female choice). We describe a technique for isolating, genotyping and quantifying sperm in Anastrepha suspensa Loew, a species that has four sperm storage organs (three spermathecae and a ventral receptacle) that are minute (approximately 80 micrometer) and exhibit complex interior structures restricting sperm recovery through simple dissection. With our protocol, we were able to isolate and amplify sperm DNA (PCR of microsatellite loci) without contamination from female cells, and quantify sperm contributed to a storage organ by one or more males. Briefly, sperm storage organs are dissected-out of the female abdomen, sonicated to remove female cells, rinsed in saline, crushed between micro-slides (1 x 2 mm), and placed in a microcentrifuge tube for DNA isolation in situ using a solution containing 10% chelex, proteinase-K and DTT. After boiling, the DNA is amplified by PCR. With this technique, we have successfully amplified microsatellite loci from as few as 10 +/- 3 sperm. Estimates of absolute numbers of sperm stored in sperm storage organs was accomplished by incorporating a reference amplicon standard in each sample during fragment analysis of microsatellite loci. The protocol described in this study enable the localization, identification and quantification of sperm from multiple males stored in female sperm storage organs and, therefore, generates data that can augment interpretations of paternity outcomes.
Fritz Ann H.;DHAKAL PREETI;FRITZ GARY N.;KIRBY LAURA A.
spermathecae, sperm quantification, multiple-mating, sperm storage
4615
  
2010
Food Chemistry Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushrooms were packed in biorientated polypropylene (BOPP) bags and exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 kGy) within the packaging, heat sealed and stored at 4°C for 20 d. Of the three doses, 1.0 kGy was most effective in maintaining a high level of firmness. Samples treated with 1.0 kGy also exhibited smaller initial declines in soluble protein, higher increases in total sugar content and lower levels of malondialdehyde accumulation. Furthermore, 1.0 kGy promoted the accumulation of phenolics compound and showed higher antioxidant ability during storage. At higher doses, 2.0 kGy resulted in a higher microbial reduction, but showed negative effects on texture, chemical properties and functional components. All the gamma irradiation were effective in retarding mushroom sensory deterioration. Thus, application of gamma irradiation in combination with MAP can extend the storage life of shiitake mushroom up to 20 d.
Jiang Tianjia, Shasha Luo, Qiuping Chen, Lirong Shen and Tiejin Ying
Shiitake mushroom; Gamma irradiation; Physicochemical property; Microbiological quality; Storage life
4613
  
2010
Radiation Physics and Chemistry Volume 79, Issue 4, April 2010, Pages 502-506
The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of irradiation on destroying Salmonella on raw almonds and evaluating the resultant sensory changes in the almonds. Raw almonds inoculated with various strains of Salmonella were irradiated at 5 dose levels up to 3 kGy and the D value was determined. The strain SEPT30 was the most resistant strain with a D value of 1.25 kGy indicating that a 4 log CFU/g reduction would require a dose of 5.0 kGy. Irradiation at 2.98 and 5.25 kGy induced significant sensory changes in almond nuts as manifested by intensity of chemical/metallic/rancid flavor ranked by a trained panel. A consumer panel found that samples treated with 5.25 kGy irradiation rendered the almonds unacceptable. Thus, irradiation by itself is unlikely to be a feasible method to eliminate Salmonella from raw almonds.
Prakash A., F.T. Lim, C. Duong, F. Caporaso and D. Foley
Almonds; Ionizing irradiation; Salmonella; Sensory evaluation
4612
  
2010
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 9-16
The present study involves red palm weevil adults Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) irradiated with 5, 10 or 15 Gy of gamma radiation. The biological effects of gamma irradiation on the F1 adult females, descendant of irradiated parental male pupae, were studied. The percentage egg hatch decreased significantly, as the dose increased, compared with the untreated control.\r\nThe effect of gamma irradiation on the morphology of the ovaries showed a remarkable effect on size, shape and measurement of the paired ovaries.\r\nAdditionally, histological studies showed some damages by irradiation of the oocytes maturation, which increased with increasing dose. These symptoms were elongation of the terminal filament, rupture, separation, or shrinkage of external sheath and follicular epithelium, degenerated or absent of nurse cells, and ruptured oocytes at 15 Gy.\r\nVacuolation appeared in different degrees inside the oocytes and the nurse cells were absent in some areas. The damage in the oocytes was more severe as the dose was increased. The follicular epithelium was thin, oocytes clumped together throughout the ovariole causing some oocytes become abnormal or rectangular in shape.
El Naggar Samira E.M., Hussein F. Mohamed, Eman A. Mahmoude
Gamma irradiation; Red palm weevil; Rhynchophorus ferrugineus; Histology; Morphology; Reproductive system; Coleoptera
4610
  
2010
Mathematical Biosciences Volume 223, Issue 1, Pages 12-23
We present a mathematical model to describe the dynamics of mosquito population when sterile male mosquitoes (produced by irradiation) are introduced as a biological control, besides the application of insecticide. In order to analyze the minimal effort to reduce the fertile female mosquitoes, we search for the optimal control considering the cost of insecticide application, the cost of the production of irradiated mosquitoes and their delivery as well as the social cost (proportional to the number of fertilized females mosquitoes). The optimal control is obtained by applying the Pontryagin?s Maximum Principle.
Roberto C.A. Thomé, Hyun Mo Yang,  and Lourdes Esteva
Mathematical modeling; Optimal control; Pontryagin?s Maximum Principle; Sterile insect technique; Aedes aegypti; Insecticide
4608
  
2010
Livestock Research for Rural Development 22 (3)
Several Sterile Insect Technique facilities for national programs against fruit flies are being constructed around the world. Along with the mass-rearing of millions of sterile fruit flies per week, large amounts of larval diet are wasted every day and environmental problems could be diminished with its re-utilization as alternative feedstuff for small ruminants. The objective of this work was to characterize the nutritional composition of the larval diet used for the Medfly reared in Brazil and to evaluate its in vitro degradability, also comparing the results to others tropical by-products.\r\n \r\nThere was no significant decrease in any of the nutritional constituents between the initial and wasted diet due to Medfly larval feeding. The diet presented mean levels of DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, CF, ash and OM of 925, 175, 24, 337, 210, 89, 40 and 967 g/kg DM respectively. Phenolic and tannin contents were very low and the larval diet could be safe for the ruminal digestion. In vitro fermentation was higher during the first 6-8 h post-incubation and the linear curves for cumulative gas production for either initial and wasted diets did not differ. Therefore, the larval diet disposal from the mass-rearing of Medfly has potential as an alternative livestock feed.\r\n<a href="http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd22/3/mast22058.htm">download</a>
Mastrangelo T., J Silva, A L Abdalla, M R Pe?anha and J M Melges Walder
alternative feedstuff, by-product, fruit fly
4607
  
2010
Heredity 104, 387-392
Differences in mating time between populations can give rise to premating reproductive isolation. Tephritid fruit flies exhibit large variation in mating time among intra- or inter-specific populations. We previously cloned the clock gene period from two strains of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae; in one the individuals mate early during the day, whereas in the other the individuals mate later. These strains were originally established by divergent artificial selection for developmental time, ''short'' and ''long'', with early and late mating times, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of PERIOD proteins for these two strains were reported to be identical. Here we cloned another clock gene cryptochrome (cry) from the two strains, and found two stable amino acid substitutions in the strains. In addition, the allele frequency at the two polymorphic sites of cry gene correlated with the circadian locomotor period (tau) across strains, whereas the expression pattern of cry mRNA in the heads of flies taken from the short strain significantly differed from that from the long strain. These findings suggest that variation in the cry gene is related to differences in the circadian behaviour in the two strains, thus implying that the cry gene may have an important role in reproductive isolation.
Fuchikawa T, Sanada S, Nishio R, Matsumoto A, Matsuyama T, Yamagishi M, Tomioka K, Tanimura T, Miyatake T.
reproductive isolation; Bactrocera cucurbitae; clock gene; cryptochrome; speciation
4605
  
2010
Genetica.138(3):377-85.
Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest for many tropical and subtropical fruits. The fly is probably introduced in Yunnan, a southwestern province of China that shares borders with Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar. Depending on local environmental conditions, this species occurs either only in the most favorable seasons or year-round. To infer the genetic diversity and structure of the fly in the region, and to understand the relationships between the flies of year-round and seasonal areas, we analyzed 304 individuals from 14 populations using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). The sampled populations were structured into four groups, probably isolated by the main natural barriers in Yunnan such as mountain ranges and rivers. Our data suggest either that B. dorsalis in Yunnan originated from multiple introductions events, even if the source populations still need to be identified; or that Yunnan is a natural origin of this species (i.e., that it is not invasive there). Finally, we found some evidences that the seasonal populations were colonized from nearby year-round populations.
Shi W, Kerdelhue C, Ye H.
fruit fly, Tephritidae
4604
  
2010
Appl Environ Microbiol. 76(5):1320-7
Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), is one of the most important fruit pests worldwide. The medfly is a polyphagous species that causes losses in many crops, which leads to huge economic losses. Entomopathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus have been proven to be safe, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective tools to control pest populations. As no control method for C. capitata based on these bacteria has been developed, isolation of novel strains is needed. Here, we report the isolation of 115 bacterial strains and the results of toxicity screening with adults and larvae of C. capitata. As a result of this analysis, we obtained a novel Bacillus pumilus strain, strain 15.1, that is highly toxic to C. capitata larvae. The toxicity of this strain for C. capitata was related to the sporulation process and was observed only when cultures were incubated at low temperatures before they were used in a bioassay. The mortality rate for C. capitata larvae ranged from 68 to 94% depending on the conditions under which the culture was kept before the bioassay. Toxicity was proven to be a special characteristic of the newly isolated strain, since other B. pumilus strains did not have a toxic effect on C. capitata larvae. The results of the present study suggest that B. pumilus 15.1 could be considered a strong candidate for developing strategies for biological control of C. capitata.
Molina CA, Ca?a-Roca JF, Osuna A, Vilchez S.
Tephritidae, fruit flies
4602
  
2010
Science Vol. 327. no. 5962, pp. 134 - 136
INVASION BIOLOGY:\r\n\r\nIn February 2007, a voracious new invasive pest?the light brown apple moth from Australia, dubbed LBAM?was identified in Berkeley, California. The insect''s larvae feed on more than 2000 plant species, from apples, grapes, and berries to cypress trees. The California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) launched a program of aerially spraying a pheromone to disrupt the insect''s mating. But those efforts prompted a red-hot public ruckus, forcing the state to shift to a plan to release zillions of sterile moths to achieve the same ends. James Carey of the University of California, Davis, a prominent opponent of California''s efforts to eradicate Medflies in the early 1990s, has surfaced once again as a relentless voice of dissent. His core argument is essentially the same. Contrary to the agriculture agencies'' view that the moth is a new and vanquishable arrival, he thinks it was established long ago and is too widespread to wipe out. The idea of a long-standing invasion can''t be discounted, yet it is hard to prove or disprove. But it is Carey''s take-no-prisoners style, as much as his bold scientific interpretations, that has riled agriculture officials from Sacramento to Washington, D.C.
Chen Ingfei
fruit flies, moths
4601
  
2010
Pest Manag Sci. 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print
BACKGROUND: Chemosterilisation with lufenuron bait stations is a recently developed technique that is being implemented for Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann control. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemosterilising effect of lufenuron against four economically important Latin American fruit flies species: Anastrepha ludens (Loew.), A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wiedemann and A. striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) in order to design a similar strategy for their control.  RESULTS: Sexually mature adults were treated by ingestion with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 30.0 mg g(-1) of lufenuron in the diet.  In addition, conspecific crosses with only one of the sexes being treated (30.0 mg g(-1)) were performed in order to appraise the contribution of each sex to the sterilising effect. In all cases, fecundity was not affected by the treatments, as opposed to fertility where all Anastrepha species studied were significantly affected, although to different extents. The conspecific crosses showed that treated males of A. ludens, A. obliqua and A. serpentina were not able to transmit the sterility to their respective untreated females. Only in the case of A. striata did crossing treated males with untreated females significantly reduced egg hatch.CONCLUSION: Although further investigations are required, the present results demonstrate that the use of lufenuron for controlling A. striata could be potentially viable.
Moya P, Flores S, Ayala I, Sanchis J, Montoya P, Primo J.
Tephritidae, fruit flies
4598
  
2010
Mol Phylogenet Evol. 56(1):312-26.
The Tephritinae is considered the most specialized subfamily of fruit flies, predominantly infesting flowerheads of Asteraceae. Some species are known to host specific non-culturable symbiont bacteria ("Candidatus Stammerula spp.") in the midgut. In this work we (i) examined the phylogenetic relationships among the insect hosts, (ii) investigated the presence of bacteria in other hitherto unexamined species, and (iii) evaluated the phylogenetic congruence between insects and symbionts. A total of 33 Tephritinae species in 17 different genera were analyzed. Two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (16S rDNA and COI-tRNALeu-COII) were examined in the insect host, while the 16S was analyzed in the bacteria. From the phylogenetic trees, four of the five tribes considered were statistically supported by each of the clustering methods used. Species belonging to the tribe Noeetini never clustered at significant levels. The phylogenetic COI-tRNALeu-COII tree showed internal nodes more highly supported than the 16S phylogeny. The analysis of the distribution of symbiosis across the subfamily has highlighted the presence of bacteria only in the tribe Tephritini and in the genus Noeeta from the tribe Noeetini. A cophylogenetic analysis revealed a substantial congruence between hosts and symbionts. The interesting exceptions can be justified by events like losses, duplications and hosts switching opportunities, which are likely to arise during the biological cycle of the fly in consideration of the extracellular status of these symbionts.
Mazzon L, Martinez-Sanudo I, Simonato M, Squartini A, Savio C, Girolami V.
Tephritidae, fruit flies
4597
  
2010
J Invertebr Pathol. 2010 Feb 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Last-instar larvae of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, were subjected to Beauveria bassiana GHA incorporated into sterile sand and non-sterile orchard soil. Mycosis in the pupal stage was observed in >20% of buried R. indifferens pupae and >80% of larvae entering sand treated with either of two B. bassiana isolates. When pre-pupal larvae burrowed into conidium-treated non-sterile cherry orchard soil, the incidence of mycosis, on both the puparia and internally developing pupae, increased with dose. Internal pupal tissues were found to contain B. bassiana. Increasing the soil moisture level from 20% to 35% water holding capacity did not have an effect on the percentage of mycosed pupae. This is the first evidence that the preimaginal stages of R. indifferens are susceptible to infection by B. bassiana.
Cossentine J, Thistlewood H, Goettel M, Jaronski S.
 Beauveria bassiana; Rhagoletis indifferens; Tephritidae; Cherry fruit fly; Mycosis; Entomopathogenic fungi
4596
  
2010
Photochem Photobiol. 2010 Feb 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Immature stages of Ceratitis capitata were tested as a model for hematoporphyrin IX (HP IX) phototoxicity. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) of HP IX in the food was determined during postembryonic development until adult emergence as 0.173 mm (95% CI: 0.138-0.209). The corresponding HP IX LC(50) during the dispersal period alone was 0.536 mm (95% CI: 0.450-0.633). HP IX toxicity was compared against Phloxine B (PhB) (0.5 mm). HP IX elicited a mortality of 90.87%, which was mainly concentrated during prepupal and early pupal stages. PhB mortality was much lower (56.88%) and occurred mainly during the adult pharate stage. A direct correlation between light-dependent HP IX mortality, evidence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) was established in C. capitata larvae. ROS were found to be very significant in both the brain and in the gut.
Pujol-Lereis LM, Massaldi A, Rabossi A, Quesada-Allu? LA.
Tephritidae, Medfly
4595
  
2010
J Chem Ecol. 2010 Mar 5. [Epub ahead of print]
Herbivorous insects searching for a host plant need to integrate a sequence of multimodal sensory inputs. We conducted a series of no-choice experiments in a laboratory wind tunnel to examine the behavioral response of the specialist fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens (Diptera: Tephritidae), to host visual and olfactory stimuli presented singly or in combination (e.g., colored fruit model with or without host fruit odor). We also studied the influence of wind flow, age, and sex on the response of flies. In two-choice experiments, we evaluated the ability of mature females to discriminate between two fruit models emitting host vs. non-host fruit odor or clean air. Neoceratitis cyanescens mature females can use independently or interactively olfactory and visual stimuli to locate their host, whereas immature females and males respond primarily to host fruit odor. In the absence of wind, mature females mainly use visual information to locate the host fruit. In wind, host fruit odor significantly increases the probability and speed of locating the host fruit. In a two-choice situation between two bright orange spheres, flies accurately detected the sphere emitting host fruit odor vs. non-host fruit odor or odorless air. Nevertheless, they preferred to land on the bright orange sphere when the sphere emitting host fruit odor was blue. Furthermore, when odor source and fruit model were spatially decoupled (90 or 180 degrees ), >50% flies that landed on the fruit model initially performed an oriented flight toward the odor source, then turned back to the fruit model while in flight or after one landing, thus suggesting visual information to be the ultimate indicator of host fruit.
Brevault T, Quilici S.
Tephritidae
4594
  
2010
J Econ Entomol.103(1):34-9.
The combination of heat and low levels of oxygen increases mortality to insects infesting fruit compared with either heat or low oxygen alone. This combination treatment shows promise to disinfest commodities of quarantine pests. Heated air/modified atmosphere treatments employ the modified atmosphere (e.g., low oxygen) during the entire treatment interval. There is a positive relationship between temperature and efficacy of heat/modified atmosphere treatments. Efficacy of delaying atmospheric modification in a heat/modified atmosphere treatment was studied with the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), a quarantine pest of citrus and other fruit in Mexico, Central America, and southern Texas. Larvae were subjected to heat/low oxygen treatments in vitro as well as in grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfayden. The relationship between time delay of the modified atmosphere and estimated time required to kill 99% of Mexican fruit fly third instars was not linear, which would indicate an additive relationship, but followed a sigmoid relationship. When infested grapefruit were heated with 47 degrees C air in three atmospheric regimes: 1) air; 2) N2 at 99 kPa plus O2 at 1 kPa; or 3) air for 55 min then N2 at 99 kPa plus O2 at 1 kPa for the remainder of the treatment, estimated 99% prevention of pupariation was 157, 127, and 141 min, respectively.
Hallman GJ.
Anastrepha, Tephritidae, disinfestation
4593
  
2010
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 103(2): 264-272
This study evaluates characteristics commonly used to define insect quality or fitness by using a complement of three species of tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) obtained from cryopreserved embryos. Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were used to assess embryo to adult emergence and adult longevity,flight ability, mating ability, fecundity, and genetic variability after cryopreservation. With the three species tested, embryo survival was reduced by 50-70% whereas adult eclosion seemed unaffected by cryogenic treatment. Laboratory cage survival of cryopreserved A. ludens paralleled that of controls when tested with or without food and water posttreatment. With C. capitata, field cage survival was also similar when the adult progeny of cryopreserved parents was compared with that of untreated flies of the same age. Assessment of flight ability of cryopreserved A. ludens over a 19-d period by using a ?ight mill showed no statistical difference when compared with the untreated groups over the same time period. Flight ability within field cages for newly emerged progeny of cryopreserved C. capitata also mirrored that of the controls. Observed matings occurring within laboratory cages containing equal numbers of A. ludens males and females did not differ from comparable control groups. Furthermore, male progeny obtained from cryopreservedC. capitata parents competed equally with untreated males for mates while housed in field cages. A laboratory analysis of fertility and fecundity of A. suspensa revealed that males mated with control females were unaffected by cryopreservation as embryos, whereas cryopreserved females exhibited a significantly reduced fecundity when mated with control males. The fecundity of C. capitata progeny of cryopreserved parents also did not differ from control levels while caged under laboratory conditions. A random ampli?ed polymorphic DNA assay of the genetic diversity of A. ludens comparing cryopreserved males with control males showed that the coefficient of similarity was above_equal 85%. This study indicates that embryo cryopreservation had little or no effect on the reproduction, longevity and flight of the species tested and can be used to support maintenance of insect stocks and control programs supported by the mass-rearing process.
LEOPOLD ROGER A., ARUN RAJAMOHAN, TODD E. SHELLY, AND ALFRED M. HANDLER
Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha suspensa, Ceratitis capitata, long-term cold storage,, ?tness testing
4592
  
2010
16pp. Journal of Insect Science 10:8
The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound, which they ingest and use in the synthesis of the sex pheromone. Previous studies conducted in the laboratory and small field-cages have shown that males given methyl eugenol produce a more attractive pheromone for females and have a higher mating success rate than males denied methyl eugenol. Here, levels of egg sterility were compared following the release of wild-like flies and either methyl eugenol-fed (treated) or methyl eugenol-deprived (control) sterile males in large field enclosures at four over flooding ratios ranging from 5:1 to 60:1 (sterile: wild-like males). Treated sterile males were fed methyl eugenol for 1-4 h (depending on the over flooding ratio tested) 3 d prior to release. Eggs were dissected from introduced fruits (apples), incubated in the laboratory, and scored for hatch rate. The effect of methyl eugenol was most pronounced at lower over flooding ratios. At the 5:1 and 10:1 over flooding ratios, the level of egg sterility observed for treated, sterile males was significantly greater than that observed for control, sterile males. In addition, the incidence of egg sterility reported for treated sterile males at these lower over flooding ratios was similar to that noted for treated or control sterile males at the 30:1 or 60:1 over flooding ratios. This latter result, in particular, suggests that pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol allows for a reduction in the number of sterile flies that are produced and released, thus increasing the cost-effectiveness of the sterile insect technique.
Shelly T, Edu J, McInnis D.
Diptera, Tephritidae, sterile insect technique, male lure, egg sterility, Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Malus, domestica
4590
  
2010
J. Econ. Entomol. 103(1): 70-76.
Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a pest of Asian origin, first detected in Africa in 2006. We assessed the host utilization of this quarantine pest in Morogoro region, eastern central Tanzania, by collecting a wide range of cultivated and wild host plants of species belonging to Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae from April 2007 to April 2008. Fruit were collected from 29 plant species and varieties (16 Solanaceae and 13 Cucurbitaceae) in all agroecological zones of Morogoro region. Twelve solanaceous fruit species yielded B. latifrons of which four are new host records: Capsicum annuum L. cov. longum A. DC., Capsicum chinense Jacq., Solanum sodomeum L., and Solanum scabrum Mill. Similarly, three cucurbitaceous fruit species provided positive rearings and are new host records: Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai, Cucumis dipsaceus L., and Momordica cf trifoliata L. The infestation rate and incidence of the pest was mainly high in the solanaceous hosts of nightshades (Solanum nigrum L. and Solanum scabrum) and African eggplants (Solanum aethiopicum Lam. and Solanum anguivi). In a host preference study involving limited number of cultivated solanaceous crops, S. scabrum was recorded as the most preferred host. The pest has been found to outnumber Bactrocera invadens(Drewet al.), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in most of the common solanaceous hosts.
MZIRAY HENDRY A., RHODES H. MAKUNDI, MAULID MWATAWALA, AMON MAERERE,;AND MARC DE MEYER
Bactrocera latifrons, host range, host preference, Africa, Solanaceae
4589
  
2010
Biological Control (in press) doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2010.01.003
The Mediterranean fruit fly (= medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of four tephritid species that are serious impediments to the development of a robust agricultural economy in Hawaii. Despite being the target of biological control programs dating back 100 years, medfly remains a direct pest and a quarantine pest, with high population reservoirs in coffee plantations, and limited parasitism at higher elevations. Fopius ceratitivorus, an egg-attacking parasitoid from Kenya, was introduced into quarantine and analyzed for its potential to complement the existing parasitoid guild attacking medfly in Hawaii. We determined host egg-stage preference, interactions of the new parasitoid with the extant egg-attacking parasitoid Fopius arisanus, and their relative performance under different thermal conditions. Both species prefer younger medfly eggs, but F. ceratitivorus is an inferior intrinsic competitor to F. arisanus on young eggs when both species have simultaneous access to hosts. Overall parasitism rates are higher in two species than in single-species exposures, mainly due to increased parasitization of older eggs. Fopius ceratitivorus has a broader temperature tolerance and a longer lifespan than F. arisanus over the temperature range from 22 to 30 ?C. This suggests that establishment of F. ceratitivorus in Hawaii may improve overall suppression of medfly statewide. Broader temperature tolerance and longer lifespan may allow it to colonize cooler areas where F. arisanus is absent; and it is unlikely to interfere with the efficacy of F. arisanus at lower elevations, where the new species is an inferior competitor on young host eggs and does not successfully reproduce on the abundant alternate host Bactrocera dorsalis.
Krodera Stefan  and Russell H. Messing
Biological control; Fopius ceratitivorus; Fopius arisanus; Ceratitis capitata; Medfly; Parasitoid guild; Tephritid fruit fly; Ha
4588
  
2010
IDIDAS (www-ididas.iaea.org)
Success story: Screwworm fly - eradicated from the United States, Mexico, the whole Central America, and Libya.
Bakri A.
Cochliomyia hominivorax, Screwworm
4586
  
2010
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Volume 134 Issue 3, Pages 296 - 303
The potential for populations to become resistant to a particular insecticide treatment regimen is a major issue for all insect pest species. In Hawaii, for example, organophosphate (OP)-based cover sprays have been the chemical treatment most commonly applied against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations since the 1950s. Moreover, bait spray treatments using spinosad were adopted as a major control tactic in the Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management program beginning in the year 2000. To determine the current level of spinosad and OP tolerance of wild B. dorsalis populations, bioassays were conducted on flies collected from a range of geographic localities within the Hawaiian islands. Adult B. dorsalis flies were tested (1) for the level of susceptibility to spinosad using LC50 diagnostic criteria, and (2) for the presence of alleles of the ace gene previously shown to be associated with OP resistance. Regarding spinosad tolerance, only flies from Puna, the one area lacking prior exposure to spinosad, showed any significant difference compared to controls, and here the difference was only in terms of non-overlap of 95% fiducial limit values. With respect to OP tolerance, specific mutations in the ace gene associated with resistance to these insecticides were found in only two populations, and in both cases, these alleles occurred at relatively low frequencies. These results suggest that at the present time, populations of B. dorsalis in Hawaii show no evidence for having acquired resistance to the insecticides widely used in control programs.
Chou Ming-Yi, David S. Haymer, Hai-Tung Feng, Ronald F. L. Mau & Ju-Chun Hsu
Acetylcholinesterase gene ? feeding assay ? Diptera ? Tephritidae ? tolerance ? acetylcholinesterase gene
4576
  
2010
Journal of Economic Entomology 103(1):85-94.
Recent fears of terrorism have provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programs around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing radiation from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. To validate a novel X ray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X rays and traditional gamma radiation from 60Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24-48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10-70 Gy, respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of gamma radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at about 40 - 60 Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters and mating indices were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and gamma radiation, and X rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as gamma rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X ray irradiators for pest control programs that integrate the SIT.
Mastrangelo T., A. G. Parker, A. Jessup, R. Pereira, D. Orozco-Davila, A. Islam, T. Dammalage, and J.M.M. Walder
Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha fraterculus, X radiation, gamma radiation, irradiation
4574
  
2010
Environmental Entomology 39(1):114-120.
Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lamaire, is an ornamental vine, native to the eastern part of South Africa, which has escaped into natural areas in many countries and become a serious pest. Exploratory surveys in South Africa located several potential biological control agents. One of these is Parafreutreta regalis Munro, a tephritid fly that causes large (14 by 20 mm) galls to form on the stems of Cape-ivy. Female P. regalis oviposit 1-20 eggs into stem nodes or growing tips of Cape-ivy. During her lifetime, a female may oviposit up to 138 eggs (mean = 61.5 eggs). After 2 wk, the first swellings, indicating gall formation, become visible. There are three larval stages, and, 1 mo after oviposition, the gall is fully formed, and the larvae within scrape a small circular hole through the gall wall, leaving a "window" covered by intact plant cuticle. After another month, adult flies break the window and emerge from the gall. The life cycle from oviposition to adult emergence is about 2 mo, and we observed up to seven generations in a year in our quarantine laboratory. Females begin ovipositing within a day or two of emergence, and adults live for about 2 wk. We compare the life history of P. regalis to the published information about other Parafreutreta species.
Balciunas Joe and Chris Mehelis
weed biological control, Senecio mikanioides, Cape-ivy, German ivy, risk assessment
4573
  
2010
Pest Management Science, Published Online: 09 February2010
BACKGROUND: Among target pests of the insecticide spinosad is the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In Cyprus, spinosad has been sporadically used since its registration in 2002, whereas in Greece its use has been very limited since its registration in 2004, particularly in biological olive cultivars in Crete. By contrast, in California it has been the only insecticide used against the olive fruit fly since its registration in 2004. This study aimed at examining the resistance status of the olive fruit fly to spinosad.\r\nRESULTS: Populations from California, Greece and Cyprus, plus a laboratory population, were tested. Bioassays were performed by oral or topical application of different concentrations of the insecticide. Cypriot populations demonstrated no resistance as compared with that of the laboratory population. Among the Greek populations, only one from Crete demonstrated a fourfold increase in resistance, whereas five populations from California demonstrated a 9-13-fold increase.\r\nCONCLUSION: The observed resistance increase was associated with spinosad applications in the respective areas. These values are relatively low and do not yet pose a serious control problem in the field. However, the observed variation documents that spinosad tolerance has increased in areas where the insecticide has been more extensively used. Copyright ? 2010 Society of Chemical Industry
Kakani Evdoxia G, Nikos E Zygouridis, Konstantina T Tsoumani, Nicos Seraphides, Frank G Zalom, Kostas D Mathiopoulos
Bactrocera oleae ? insecticide ? tolerance
4572
  
2010
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Volume 13, Issue 2, June 2010, Pages 131-137
This paper describes a mark-release-recapture study involving males of two economically important tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and B. dorsalis (Hendel), conducted over a 2-year period in Honolulu, Hawaii. In each of two residential neighborhoods, we placed two traps, one baited with cue lure and the other with methyl eugenol (male attractants for B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, respectively), in a single tree. Dyed, mature males from recently established laboratory colonies were released 100 or 500 m from the traps along the four compass directions in both winter and summer seasons. In each neighborhood, a total of 5,600 flight-able males of each species were released 100 m from the traps (14 dates x 4 directions x 100 males/release) and 56,000 flight-able males of each species were released 500 m from the traps (14 dates x 4 directions x 1,000 males/release). Within each study area, the number of males trapped did not vary significantly with direction or season for either species for either the 100 or 500 m releases. Significantly higher numbers of B. dorsalis males were captured than B. cucurbitae males for both the 100 m (16 versus 8 males/release) and 500 m (7 versus 2 males/release) releases (average values computed over both study areas). Also, following their release, B. dorsalis males were, in general, trapped more quickly than B. cucurbitae males. Given the strong attractancy of methyl eugenol, trap captures for B. dorsalis were lower than expected, and possible explanations are discussed.
Shelly Todd E. and James Edua
trapping; detection; fruit flies; Hawaii
4532
  
2010
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Volume 13, Issue 1,Pages 9-16
The present study involves red palm weevil adults Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) irradiated with 5, 10 or 15 Gy of gamma radiation. The biological effects of gamma irradiation on the F1 adult females, descendant of irradiated parental male pupae, were studied. The percentage egg hatch decreased significantly, as the dose increased, compared with the untreated control.\r\n\r\nThe effect of gamma irradiation on the morphology of the ovaries showed a remarkable effect on size, shape and measurement of the paired ovaries.\r\n\r\nAdditionally, histological studies showed some damages by irradiation of the oocytes maturation, which increased with increasing dose. These symptoms were elongation of the terminal filament, rupture, separation, or shrinkage of external sheath and follicular epithelium, degenerated or absent of nurse cells, and ruptured oocytes at 15 Gy.\r\n\r\nVacuolation appeared in different degrees inside the oocytes and the nurse cells were absent in some areas. The damage in the oocytes was more severe as the dose was increased. The follicular epithelium was thin, oocytes clumped together throughout the ovariole causing some oocytes become abnormal or rectangular in shape.
El Naggar Samira E.M., Hussein F. Mohamed and Eman A. Mahmoud
Gamma irradiation; Red palm weevil; Rhynchophorus ferrugineus; Histology; Morphology; Reproductive system; Coleoptera
4531
  
2010
Biocontrol Science and Technology Vol. 20, No. 2:183-196
Fopius arisanus (Sonan), a solitary koinobiont endoparasitoid of fruit flies, was introduced for testing and final release against the recently discovered species Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta and White in Africa. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess host preference, host acceptability for oviposition, and physiological suitability of B. invadens and five other indigenous tephritid fruit fly species, namely, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), C. cosyra (Walker), C. rosa Karsch, C. fasciventris (Bezzi), and C. anonae Graham. Females of F. arisanus visited all host egg patches, but showed a stronger preference to eggs of B. invadens, which was also most accepted for oviposition. Successful development of parasitoid progenies varied greatly across hosts, with B. invadens yielding the highest parasitoid progeny and C. fasciventris yielding no F. arisanus progeny. Most of the parasitoid eggs laid in C. rosa and C. fasciventris were encapsulated. Sex ratio was not influenced by host species and it was female biased in all hosts that produced parasitoid progeny. Fopius arisanus was able to establish a new association with C. capitata, C. cosyra and to a lesser extent C. anonae. The results are discussed in the light of the potential use of F. arisanus as a biological control agent of B. invadens
Mohamed Samira A., Sunday Ekesi and Rachid Hanna
Bactrocera invadens; F. arisanus; Ceratitis spp.; new and old associations
4530
  
2010
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Volume 90, Number 1,  pp. 30-35(6)
BACKGROUND: Perilla and sesame seeds, a rich source of energy, are commonly utilized in different forms in many countries. During the post-harvest period, they are contaminated with insects as well as microbes that may have importance for keeping quality and quarantine, and thus they can be treated with ionizing radiation for insect disinfestation and microbial decontamination. Reliable and routine methods to identify whether or not a food has been irradiated are needed to help consumers'''''''''''''''' understanding of irradiated food and promote international trade. In the present study, fat-derived hydrocarbons from irradiated perilla seeds and sesame seeds of Korean and Chinese origin were analyzed in order to identify irradiation treatment by comparing their properties during the post-irradiation period.\r\nRESULTS: Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis showed that several saturated hydrocarbons, such as tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane and heptadecane, were found in the non-irradiated control samples, while four radiation-induced unsaturated hydrocarbons (R2 = 0.647-0.997), such as 1,7,10-hexadecatriene (C16:3), 1,7-hexadecadiene (C16:2), 6,9-heptadecadiene (C17:2) and 8-heptadecene (C17:1), were detected in all irradiated samples at 0.5 kGy or higher, with variations according to sample and origin. Concentrations of all hydrocarbons were reduced during storage and could not be detected in 0.5 kGy irradiated Chinese sample of either seed after 8 months.\r\nCONCLUSION: Radiation-induced hydrocarbons (C16:3, 16:2, 17:2, 17:1) could be used as markers to identify irradiated perilla and sesame seeds of both Korean and Chinese origin at 1 kGy or higher for 8 months'''''''''''''''' storage at room temperature. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry
Kim, Mi-Ok; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Bhatti, Ijaz A
perilla seeds; sesame seeds; irradiation; hydrocarbons; identification marker
4485
  
2010
Journal of Applied Entomology Volume 134 Issue 3, Pages 261 - 273.
Lepidoptera are among the most severe pests of food and fibre crops in the world and are mainly controlled using broad spectrum insecticides. This does not lead to environmentally sustainable control and farmers are demanding alternative control tools which are both effective and friendly to the environment. The sterile insect technique (SIT), within an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approach, has proven to be a powerful control tactic for the creation of pest-free areas or areas of low pest prevalence. Improving the quality of laboratory-reared moths would increase the efficacy of released sterile moths applied in AW-IPM programmes that integrate the (SIT). Factors that might affect the quality and field performance of released sterile moths are identified and characterized in this study. Some tools and methods to measure, predict and enhance moth quality are described such as tests for moth quality, female moth trapping systems, ''''''''smart'''''''' traps, machine vision for recording behaviour, marking techniques, and release technologies. Methods of enhancing rearing systems are discussed with a view to selecting and preserving useful genetic traits that improve field performance.
Simmons G. S. , Suckling D. M. , Carpenter J. E. , Addison M. F. , V. A. Dyck,Vreysen M. J. B.
Area-wide integrated pest management * field performance * Lepidoptera * quality control
4477
  
2010
Journal of applied entomology vol. 134, n? 1, pp. 16-25
Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) ("Q-flies") were released as sexually immature adults from a point within an orchard. Marked male Q-flies were recaptured in the trap furthest from the release point (1087 m) by 2 weeks after release, although 98.25 +/- 1.04% of recaptured males were trapped <500 m from the release point. Comparison of gamma-irradiated (sterile), laboratory-adapted and wild male Q-flies indicated that dispersal distance was not significantly affected by fly type. There was no significant correlation between temperature and mean dispersal distance, but total recaptures were significantly negatively correlated with increasing daily maximum, minimum and average temperature.
Weldon, C. and Meats, A.
Bactrocera tryoni* cue-lure * monitoring * sterile insect technique * Tephritidae
4476
  
2010
Journal of applied entomology, vol. 134, n? 1, pp. 72-79
The olive fruit fly [Bactrocera (Dacus) oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)] adult diet since its development in the 1960''''s regularly incorporates antibiotic. Considering recent findings on the importance and function of the indigenous microbial flora of insects, the effects of antibiotic removal were measured on the survival and egg laying of wild flies derived from McPhail trappings and from field infested olive fruits. In the first case wild flies fed no antibiotic laid significantly greater numbers of eggs for two generations (in 5 out of 10 and 2 out of 10 counting dates for G1 and G2 respectively), while there were no significant differences in survival in either test (P = 0.221 for P generation, P = 0.988 for G1 generation from McPhail traps, P = 0.056 for flies from infested fruits). Percent egg?pupa recovery and adult emergence were not significantly affected by lack of antibiotic. An antibiotic-free strain has been maintained for eight generations, showing acceptable performance when compared to the long-reared standard ''''Laboratory'''' strain. Overall results suggest the feasibility of an adult diet free of antibiotic without negative effects on colony survival and performance.
Dimou I., Rempoulakis P. & Economopoulos A. P.
fruit fly rearing
4474
  
2010
Biological Control Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 76-85
An undescribed wasp, Pteromalus nr. myopitae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) opportunistically parasitizes the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), an introduced pest of olives in California. The native or typical host of P. nr. myopitae is unknown. We demonstrate that P. nr. myopitae is a solitary, ectoparasitic, idiobiont parasitoid of the third instar host inside fruit, and pupation occurs in the host tunnel. Reproduction of P. nr. myopitae on B. oleae in olives in the laboratory and in field cages generally failed. Host-feeding was not observed, and adults fed honey and water lived longer than those provided with water alone. Parasitism in non-commercial olives in the moderate coastal climate of San Luis Obispo occurred primarily from August to October, and was absent from a nearby location with more extreme climate and a low population of B. oleae. Greater parasitoid numbers were associated with greater host densities, and proportion of hosts parasitized was generally higher at lower host densities during two years of the study. The geographic range of the parasitoid extends along the coast from San Francisco Bay to Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, and also inland in the Sacramento Valley, with one record in the San Joaquin Valley. The potential of the parasitoid as a biological control agent of B. oleae is probably low, however the extent of its interference with other parasitoids being considered for release in California is unknown and warrants further study.
Kapaun Therese, Nadel Hannah, Headrick David and Vredevoe  Larisa
Biological control; Pteromalus nr. myopitae; Bactrocera oleae; olive fruit fly; Olea europaea; olive.
4425
  
2010
The ISME Journal 4, 28?37
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly?s life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations.
Ben Ami Eyal;Yuval Boaz;Jurkevitch Edouard
gut microbiology; medfly; sterile insect technique
4407
  
2010
Bulletin of Entomological Research, Volume 100, Issue 01, pp 35-48
Two correlative approaches to the challenge of ecological niche modeling (genetic algorithm, maximum entropy) were used to estimate the potential global distribution of the invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, based on associations between known occurrence records and a set of environmental predictor variables. The two models yielded similar estimates, largely corresponding to Equatorial climate classes with high levels of precipitation. The maximum entropy approach was somewhat more conservative in its evaluation of suitability, depending on thresholds for presence/absence that are selected, largely excluding areas with distinct dry seasons; the genetic algorithm models, in contrast, indicate that climate class as partly suitable. Predictive tests based on independent distributional data indicate that model predictions are quite robust. Field observations in Benin and Tanzania confirm relationships between seasonal occurrences of this species and humidity and temperature.
De Meyer M.;Robertson M.P.;MansellM.W.;Ekesi S.;Tsuruta K.;Mwaiko W.;Vayssieres J-F;and Peterson A.T.
Fruit flies, Bactrocera invadens, ecological niche models, potential distribution, GARP, Maxent
4279
  
2010
Biological Control, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 9-17
A recently discovered Mexican parasitoid species of Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera), Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell, has the unique behavior, for its family, of attacking tephritid fruit fly pupae (Anastrepha spp.) on or in the soil. Adults burrowed but did so rarely, thus pupae on the soil surface were significantly more vulnerable than those underground. Females facultatively hyperparasitized other larval-prepupal and pupal parasitoids such as Opius hirtus (Braconidae), Coptera haywardi (Diapriidae) and Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Pteromalidae). While E. sivinskii developed in the pupae of various other Anastrepha, including, A. serpentina and A. striata, it also attacked cyclorraphous Diptera such as Musca domestica and a tachinid species. The number of expected female offspring (Ro) was 44.3 when measured as eclosed eggs (i.e., that became larvae) and 34.3 when measured as the number of emerged adults, and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was 0.34. This is high relative to other fruit fly parasitoids and suggests that E. sivinskii could rapidly exploit a clumped resource. We conclude that the marginal ability of E. sivinskii to attack buried pupae and the environmental risks it poses through its broad host range and capacity for hyperparasitism make it a poor candidate for tephritid biological control.
Mena-Correa J., J. Sivinski, A. Anzures-Dadda, R. Ramírez-Romero, M. Gates, M. Aluja
Demography; Eurytomidae; Fruit fly; Parasitoid; Tephritidae; Hyperparasitism
86
  
2009
2009 International Nuclear Atlantic Conference - INAC 2009 Rio de Janeiro,RJ, Brazil, September27 to October 2, 2009 ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE ENERGIA NUCLEAR - ABEN ISBN: 978-85-99141-03-8
Recent fears of terrorism provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programs around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing energy from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. In order to validate a novel X-ray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24 to 48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of γ radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at about 40-60 Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. There were no significant differences between X and γ radiation regarding mating indices. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and γ radiation, and X-rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as γ rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X-ray irradiators for pest control programs in UN Member States.
Mastrangelo, Thiago; Walder, Julio M.M.; Parker, Andrew G.; Jessup, Andrew; Pereira Rui; Orozco-Davila, Dina; Islam, Amirul; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Walder, Julio M.M.
5005
  
2009
Bulletin of Insectology
The effectiveness of the bioinsecticide Naturalis based on the Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Deuteromycotina Hyphomycetes) strain ATCC 74040 against the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera Tephritidae) was evaluated in laboratory and field experiments. Under laboratory conditions, the bioinsecticide (150 ml/l) protected fruits from medfly ovipositions more effectively when they were covered uniformly with a spray volume of 5.4 ml/fruit. In laboratory choice bioassays medfly females laid respectively 5 and 3 times more eggs on untreated fruits and on fruits sprayed with inert co-formulants of the bioinsecticide than on fruits treated with the bioinsecticide. However, females did not prefer to oviposit on untreated fruits over fruits sprayed with co-formulants, suggesting that inert co-formulants did not affect oviposition behaviour of C. capitata females. Adults landed indifferently on both untreated fruits and fruits sprayed with the bioinsecticide and medflies did not appear to be repelled by chemical compounds or fungal structures of B. bassiana. However, in no-choice laboratory tests significantly more punctures per fruit were observed on untreated fruits than on fruits treated with the bioinsecticide, suggesting that medfly females prefer untreated over treated fruits to effectively oviposit. Preliminary field trials were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the B. bassiana-based bioinsecticide for medfly control. The bioinsecticide was as effective as a pyrethroid in reducing adult medfly populations and protecting orange fruits in the field. However, our results suggest that the bioinsecticide could be a valuable additional tool for the management of C. capitata in both integrated and organic groves.
Ortu S., Cocco A., Dau R.
biological control, Mediterranean fruit fly, citrus, entomopathogenic fungus, peach, apple
4942
  
2009
Journal of Insect Science 9:23, available online: insectscience.org/9.23
Several yeasts and yeast products were tested in adult diets for the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera curcurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and in larval liquid diet for mass-rearing B. dorsalis. Three hydrolyzed brewer’s yeasts (FNILS65, FNI200 and FNI210), one glutamine enriched yeast (GSH), one vitamin-enriched yeast (RDA500), Korea yeast, whole cell yeasts, and combinations of them were evaluated. Adult flies fed on a diet with FNI210FNI210 + GSH and RDA500 produced the highest number of eggs in all three tested fruit fly species. However, no significant difference was seen in egg hatch from flies fed on these diets with yeast in comparison to the control standard diet. When these yeasts were incorporated into a larval liquid diet with wheat germ oil, FNI200 and FNIL65 showed significantly higher pupal recovery than those from FNI210 and better adult flying and mating than those from Korea yeast. Glutamine enriched yeast enhanced fly performance, especially with FNI200 + GSH and FNILS65 + GSH, but not vitamin enriched yeast. Among the larvae reared with FNI200 + GSH, FNILS65 + GSH and torula yeast, those reared in FNILS65 + GSH diet with wheat germ oil developed the best. In order to select the most cost-effective yeast for liquid diet, FNILS65 + GSH and wheat germ oil was combined with whole cell yeast (LBI2240 series) and compared to the control diet (conventional mill feed diet currently used in the rearing facility). A ratio of 3:1 of LBI2240 and FNILS65 + wheat germ oil was selected as the most effective yeast for oriental fruit fly liquid larval diet based on cost and performance parameters.
Chang C.
fruit fly rearing, yeast products, liquid diet, protein resource
4937
  
2009
Bangladesh J. Zool. 37 (2): 333-335.
Farzana Yesmin and Gul Nahar.
4897
  
2009
Malaria Journal 8(Suppl 2):S6.
HELINSKI, M.E., A.G. PARKER and B.G.J. KNOLS
Diptera Mosquitoes SIT irradiation
4842
  
2009
J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 2, No.4, pp. 797-817.
In view of the fact that, any undesirable effects of gamma irradiation with the sterilizing dose (90 Gy) on the peach fruitfly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), will lead indirectly to failure of irradiated males to disperse strongly, to seek out appropriate niches or to behave synchrony with wild males to success in the courtship with females and/or to mate during the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Using the scanning electron microscopy, the changes which occurred to the antennae, wings and their associated sensilla due to the sterilizing dose were investigated. The ultrastructure of antennae in this fly showed no sexual dimorphism, but they differed significantly (P<0.05) in their lengths. Seven distinct morphological types of sensilla were observed among the microtrachia. These were trichoid (type sharp 1,2 and blunt), chaetica (type 1, 2), basiconica (type non-socket) and styloconica. The distribution of these sensilla were described. One pair of wings was found to have similar typical structures in both sexes. Six different types of located sensilla were observed on each wing namely; trichoid (type sharp and blunt), chaetica (type 1, 2 and curved) and basiconica type (non-socket). Pupal irradiation with the sterilizing dose produced adults with different malformations in the antennae (funiculus and arista) and wings (intraveins) and their associated sensilla of both sexes. There were non-significant (P>0.05) differences in the morphometric traits: head length, head width, thorax length and wing length that may result in the male mating success of the peach fruit fly. However, the significant decreases (P<0.05) in the wing width and the significant changes in the apical, anal and humural angles of the wing may affect the circadian rythum and the role of the wings for location host plant fruit for feeding, courtship and mating behaviour.
El-Akhdar E.A.H. and Afia Y.E.
Antennae, Wings, Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Zanata (Saunders), Fruit Flies, Diptera, Gamma Irradiation.
4769
  
2009
Health Physics Volume 96, Issue 2, pp: S27-S30
Self-shielded 137Cs irradiators have been used for many years to irradiate blood products to prevent graft vs. host disease and to irradiate cells and small animals in research. A report by the National Academy of Sciences recommends that careful consideration be given to replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators. Several manufacturers and users of x-ray irradiators were contacted to determine costs of replacing and maintaining 137Cs irradiators with x-ray units and to assess users' experience with x-ray irradiators. Purchase costs of x-ray units are similar to 137Cs irradiators, but maintenance costs are significantly higher if annual service contracts are used. Performance of the two irradiator types appears to be equivalent, but in some cases x-ray irradiations may need to be performed in multiple configurations to achieve adequate uniformity in dose. No literature reports were found that evaluated the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays; therefore, a careful study should be conducted to determine the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays for biological responses relevant to transfusion medicine and immunological research. Throughput may be problematic for large transfusion medicine programs, and back-up plans may be necessary in case the x-ray unit needs to be taken out of service for extended maintenance. Disposition of a 137Cs irradiator will add to the cost of replacement with an x-ray unit, but disposal may be possible through the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Source Recovery Program.
Dodd, Brian; Vetter, Richard J.
x ray, Cs-137, 137Cs, irradiator
4761
  
2009
J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 2, No.4, pp. 797-817.
In view of the fact that, any undesirable effects of gamma irradiation with the sterilizing dose (90 Gy) on the peach fruitfly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), will lead indirectly to failure of irradiated males to disperse strongly, to seek out appropriate niches or to behave synchrony with wild males to success in the courtship with females and/or to mate during the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Using the scanning electron microscopy, the changes which occurred to the antennae, wings and their associated sensilla due to the sterilizing dose were investigated. The ultrastructure of antennae in this fly showed no sexual dimorphism, but they differed significantly (P<0.05) in their lengths. Seven distinct morphological types of sensilla were observed among the microtrachia. These were trichoid (type sharp 1,2 and blunt), chaetica (type 1, 2), basiconica (type non-socket) and styloconica. The distribution of these sensilla were described. One pair of wings was found to have similar typical structures in both sexes. Six different types of located sensilla were observed on each wing namely; trichoid (type sharp and blunt), chaetica (type 1, 2 and curved) and basiconica type (non-socket). Pupal irradiation with the sterilizing dose produced adults with different malformations in the antennae (funiculus and arista) and wings (intraveins) and their associated sensilla of both sexes. There were non-significant (P>0.05) differences in the morphometric traits: head length, head width, thorax length and wing length that may result in the male mating success of the peach fruit fly. However, the significant decreases (P<0.05) in the wing width and the significant changes in the apical, anal and humural angles of the wing may affect the circadian rythum and the role of the wings for location host plant fruit for feeding, courtship and mating behaviour.
El-Akhdar E.A.H.  and Afia Y.E.
Antennae, Wings, Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Zanata (Saunders), Fruit Flies, Diptera, Gamma Irradiation.
4753
  
2009
Ghana Journal of Horticulture. 7: 129-138. 35 ref.
Fresh fruits and vegetables (FFV) are important nutritionally. Trade in FFV is valued in excess of US$70 billion and forms 16% of global agricultural trade. Food safety issues, quarantine problems, market access, regulatory and technical barriers affect international trade in FFV. Quarantine treatments are effected using irradiation, fumigation, temperature manipulation, controlled atmospheres and insecticide dips. Problems of microbial contamination and storability are addressed by methods including irradiation. Research in applications of nuclear technology for agriculture and health commenced in 1970 with a laboratory scale irradiator (Gammacell 220) at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission in the areas of food irradiation, medical sterilisation, plant mutation breeding and sterile insect technique. A multi-purpose irradiator with a Co-60 source (Gamma Irradiation Facility, GIF) was installed in 1994 for commercial processing. Regulation of food irradiation in the country is undertaken by the Ghana Standards Board and the Radiation Protection Institute. Currently, activity of the Co-60 source is very low and upgrading of the GIF is to be undertaken with funds from Export Development and Investment Fund (EDIF) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Food irradiation is a proven technology and capacity exits in the country to use the technology to improve the quality of FFV for the domestic and export markets.
Adu-Gyamfi, A.
chemical control. controlled atmosphere storage. crop quality. fruits. fumigation. insect control. insect pests. insecticides. irradiation. microbial contamination. mutants. mutational analysis. pest control. plant pests. quarantine. sterile insect release. temperature. vegetables. .
4746
  
2009
Health Physics Volume 96,  Issue 2, pp: S27-S30
Self-shielded 137Cs irradiators have been used for many years to irradiate blood products to prevent graft vs. host disease and to irradiate cells and small animals in research. A report by the National Academy of Sciences recommends that careful consideration be given to replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators. Several manufacturers and users of x-ray irradiators were contacted to determine costs of replacing and maintaining 137Cs irradiators with x-ray units and to assess users' experience with x-ray irradiators. Purchase costs of x-ray units are similar to 137Cs irradiators, but maintenance costs are significantly higher if annual service contracts are used. Performance of the two irradiator types appears to be equivalent, but in some cases x-ray irradiations may need to be performed in multiple configurations to achieve adequate uniformity in dose. No literature reports were found that evaluated the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays; therefore, a careful study should be conducted to determine the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays for biological responses relevant to transfusion medicine and immunological research. Throughput may be problematic for large transfusion medicine programs, and back-up plans may be necessary in case the x-ray unit needs to be taken out of service for extended maintenance. Disposition of a 137Cs irradiator will add to the cost of replacement with an x-ray unit, but disposal may be possible through the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Source Recovery Program.
Dodd, Brian; Vetter, Richard J.
x ray, Cs-137, 137Cs, irradiator
4744
  
2009
Animal Behaviour 78: 839-846.
Male insects that are unable to replenish sperm supplies between matings can suffer fitness costs either because their mates are more likely to accept subsequent suitors, or because their sperm are outnumbered when females do remate. We assessed the ability of fertile and sterile (irradiated) male Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni (?Q-flies?), to have sperm stored by five sequential mates as well as the association between sperm depletion and female remating tendency. Sequential mates of fertile males stored similar numbers of sperm, indicating ample ability to replenish and maintain constant supplies between their once-daily mating opportunities. In contrast, sequential mates of sterile males stored progressively fewer sperm, with only trivial numbers of sperm stored by females mated by sterile males that had mated with two or more females previously. Despite the massive reduction in sperm storage by sequential mates of sterile males, fertile and sterile males were similar in their ability to induce sexual inhibition in their mates (to at least 30 days) and neither showed any decline in this ability across sequential matings. The ability of multiple-mated sterile males to induce sexual inhibition in their mates despite near or complete absence of sperm provides compelling evidence that sperm abundance plays no role in the induction of sexual inhibition in this species.
Radhakrishnan, P.;Pérez-Staples, D.;Weldon, C. W.;Taylor, P. W.
Bactrocera tryoni;Queensland fruit fly;Sperm depletion;accessory gland;multiple mating;sperm competition
4737
  
2009
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 131: 159-166.
Recent laboratory studies of mass-reared flies in small cages have found that periods of just 24- or 48-h access to yeast hydrolysate can substantially enhance mating performance of mass-reared male Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) (?Q-flies?). Using field cage tests that provide a better approximation of nature, we here investigated whether access to yeast hydrolysate for 48 h after adult emergence improves the ability of male and female mass-reared, sterile Q-flies to compete sexually with wild-type flies that had been provided continuous access to yeast hydrolysate. Mating probability of sterile males was significantly increased by 48-h access to yeast hydrolysate; sterile males provided 48-h access to yeast hydrolysate had mating probability similar to that of wild males provided continuous access to yeast hydrolysate, whereas sterile males deprived of access to yeast hydrolysate had much lower mating probability. Unlike males, access to yeast hydrolysate for 48 h did not increase mating probability of sterile female Q-flies. We instead found that wild females provided continuous access to yeast hydrolysate had higher mating probability than sterile females that did or did not have 48-h access to yeast hydrolysate. This result raises the possibility that a bisexual Q-fly strain might operate essentially as a male-only release when the flies are given access to yeast hydrolysate during a 48-h pre-release holding period. Sterile males given access to yeast hydrolysate for 48 h mated significantly earlier in the evening than wild males and, as in other recent studies, this tendency was associated with an increased tendency to mate on the trees rather than the cage walls. There was no evidence of sexual isolation in this study, as wild and sterile mass-reared flies showed no evidence of preferential mating with their own kind. Further studies are now needed to assess the potential for pre-release access to yeast hydrolysate to improve sexual performance and longevity of sterile, mass-reared, Q-flies in the field.
Pérez-Staples, D.;Weldon, C. W.;Taylor, P. W.
SIT;Tephritidae;Diptera;Bactrocera tryoni;Sterile insect technique;laboratory domestication;?-irradiation;assortative mating
4736
  
2009
Aging Cell 8: 514-523.
Caloric restriction (CR) has been widely accepted as a mechanism explaining increased lifespan (LS) in organisms subjected to dietary restriction (DR), but recent studies investigating the role of nutrients have challenged the role of CR in extending longevity. Fuelling this debate is the difficulty in experimentally disentangling CR and nutrient effects due to compensatory feeding (CF) behaviour. We quantified CF by measuring the volume of solution imbibed and determined how calories and nutrients influenced LS and fecundity in unmated females of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae). We restricted flies to one of 28 diets varying in carbohydrate:protein (C:P) ratios and concentrations. On imbalanced diets, flies overcame dietary dilutions, consuming similar caloric intakes for most dilutions. The response surface for LS revealed that increasing C:P ratio while keeping calories constant extended LS, with the maximum LS along C:P ratio of 21:1. In general, LS was reduced as caloric intake decreased. Lifetime egg production was maximized at a C:P ratio of 3:1. When given a choice of separate sucrose and yeast solutions, each at one of five concentrations (yielding 25 choice treatments), flies regulated their nutrient intake to match C:P ratio of 3:1. Our results (i) demonstrate that CF can overcome dietary dilutions; (ii) reveal difficulties with methods presenting fixed amounts of liquid diet; (iii) illustrate the need to measure intake to account for CF in DR studies and (iv) highlight nutrients rather than CR as a dominant influence on LS.
Fanson, B.;Weldon, C.;Pérez-Staples, D.;Simpson, S.;Taylor, P.
reproduction;nutrition;longevity;caloric restriction;geometric framework
4735
  
2009
Journal of Economic Entomology 102: 1791-1800.
The current study is an important step toward calibrating, validating, and improving irradiation methods used for Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) sterile insect technique (SIT). We used routine International Atomic Energy Agency/U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food and Agriculture Organization quality control tests assessing percentage of emergence, flight ability, sex ratio, mortality under stress, reproductive sterility, and sexual competitiveness, as well as a nonstandard test of longevity under nutritional stress to assess the impact of a range of target irradiation doses (60, 65, 70, 75, and 80 Gy) on the product quality of mass reared B. tryoni used in SIT. Sterility induction remained adequate (>99.5%) for sterile male-fertile female crosses, and 100% sterility was achieved in fertile male-sterile female crosses and sterile male-sterile female crosses for each irradiation doses tested. There was significant increase in mortality under stress as irradiation dose increased, and reduced participation in mating by males irradiated at higher doses. The current target-sterilizing dose for SIT of 70-75 Gy is associated with significant reduction in fly product "quality". Our data suggest that adequate sterility and improved fly quality could be achieved through a small reduction in target sterilizing dose.
Collins, S. R.;Weldon, C. W.;Banos, C.;Taylor, P. W.
Tephritidae;quality control;Sterile insect technique;pest management
4734
  
2009
Biocontrol Science and Technology, Volume 19, Issue S1, pages 271 - 275
The integration of commercial facilities for mass production of beneficial arthropods (Bio-Bee) and sterile insects (Bio-Fly) within the same industrial entity in Israel has proven successful. The synergism between the two companies has resulted in the integration of nuclear techniques and the use of biocontrol agents in area-wide integrated pest management programmes.
Steinberg Shimon; Jean-Pierre Cayol
SIT; biological control; private sector; host irradiation; Ceratitis capitata; mass rearing
4713
  
2009
Pak. Entomol. Vol. 31, No.1,
In order to evaluate the effect of neem oil and neem seed water extract on the infestation, settling and oviposition of melon fruit fly, (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq.), field as well as laboratory trials were conducted on Bukhara variety of melon at Hathala, D.I.Khan. Neem oil and neem seed extract were prepared from fresh neem seeds collected from the area and different concentrations of 1, 1.5 and 2% and 1, 2 and 3% were made in water to spray in the fields, respectively. The concentrations viz., 1000, 5000 and 10,000 ppm, of both neem oil and neem seed extract were used in laboratory tests. In the field trials, neem oil and neem seed water extract at all tested concentrations reduced the fruit fly infestation. Significantly less number of pupae were recovered from the randomly selected fruits in the treated plots as compared to control. The effect of both neem derivatives was dose dependent. However, adult emergence of the flies was not affected at any level of concentration. In laboratory test, both neem oil and neem seed water extract at 10,000 ppm adversely affected the settling of melonfruit fly; as 1.7 flies and 1.7 flies on fruits treated with 10,000 ppm of neem oil and 10,000 ppm of neem seed water extract, respectively, were significantly lower than 6.3 and 7.3 flies in their respective control. Similarly pupal recovery at all tested concentrations of neem oil and neem seed water extract were statistically lower than that in their respective control.
Masood Khan Khattak, Mohammad Mamoon-ur Rashid and Khalid Abdullah
neem derivatives, melon fruit fly, deterrent, repellent, anti-ovipositional.
4711
  
2009
Zootaxa 2182: 91 p
Norrbom A. L.;Korytkowski C. A.
Anastrepha;Taxonomy
4710
  
2009
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 132, 172-181
Kouloussis N.A.;Papadopoulos N.T.;Mueller H-G.;Wang J-L.;Mao M.;KATSOYANNOS B.I.;Duyck P.F.;Carey J.R.
Diptera;tephritidae,;Age-structure;sampling bias;captive cohort;field demography;residual life span
4708
  
2009
Mutagenesis, 24, 259-269,
In their recently published study in Mutagenesis, Cheng et al. (1) reported potential cellular factors responsible for radioresistance of a lepidopteran insect cell line, Sf9, established from the ovarian tissue of Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Their study using X-ray dose range 5?20 Gy demonstrates that multiple factors including reduced induction of DNA damage, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to radioresistance of Sf9 cells, besides indicating a radioprotective role of cellular glutathione.
Chandna S.
resistance;Lepidoptera;radioresistance
4702
  
2009
Klapalekiana, 45: 123-127
We present a list of 15 species of three families (five species of the Tephritidae, seven species of the Empididae and three species of the Hybotidae) collected in the Brdy Mts. and Central Povltavi region. The specimens were obtained during the Entomological Days 2005 meeting from 27 to 29 May 2005 in the Pribram region. Records of Wiedemannia (Pseudowiedemannia) lamellata (Loew, 1869) (Empididae) and Tephritis neesii (Meigen, 1830) (Tephritidae) are commented; the former species is new for Bohemia.
Herman P. & Maca J.
Faunistics, Diptera, Tephritidae, Empididae, Hybotidae, new species for Bohemia, Brdy hills, Stredni Povltavi region, Bohemia
4687
  
2009
In: Jedlicka L., Stloukalova V. & Kudela M. (Eds): Checklist of Diptera of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Electronic version 2
Herman P. & Kinkorova J.
4686
  
2009
Sbornik Severoceskeho Muzea, Prirodn? Vedy, Liberec, 27: 65-71
Results of a recent survey of the family Tephritidae carried out in the Jizerske hory Mts and Frydlant region in 2002?2007 are presented. Altogether 377 specimens of 27 species were collected using various methods. The occurrence of Campiglossa guttella (Rondani, 1870) in Bohemia is commented, presence of Stemonocera cornuta (Scopoli, 1772) in the Czech Republic is newly confirmed.
Herman P. & Vonicka P.
Diptera, Tephritidae, Jizerske hory Mts, Frydlant region, northern Bohemia, Czech Republic, faunistics
4685
  
2009
In: Rohacek J. & Sevcik J. (Eds): Diptera of the Polana Biosphere Reserve (Central Slovakia). SOP SR, Sprava CHKO-BR Polana, Zvolen
The recent survey of dipterous fauna in the Polana BR revealed 48 species of Tephritidae from this area including one addition to regional fauna, this raising the number of species in Slovakia to 111.
Herman P. & Rohacek J.
Tephritidae, Slovakia, Polana BR, faunistics, new records
4684
  
2009
Folia Faunistica Slovaca, 14(7): 43-45
A new distributional data for nine species of Tephritidae are presented. Aciura coryli (Rossi, 1794) is confirmed for the Czech Republic (Moravia) after nearly one century and also presented as a new species for Bohemia. The records of Campiglossa solidaginis (White, 1986), Cornutrypeta spinifrons (Schroeder, 1913) and Cornutrypeta superciliata (Frey, 1935) are the first for the Czech Republic. Campiglossa difficilis (Hendel, 1927) and Trupanea amoena (Frauenfeld, 1857) are referred as new species for Bohemia while Campiglossa misella (Loew, 1869) and Tephritis mutabilis Merz, 1992 are new for Moravia. The record of Chaetorellia acrolophi White & Marcquart, 1989 is the first for the Slovak Republic.
Herman P., Bartak M., Dirblek J. & Deml M.
Tephritidae, faunistics, distribution, new records, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic
4683
  
2009
Opera Corcontica, 46: 199-204
Altogether 18 species of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) were recorded from the high\r\naltitudes of the Krkonose Mts. Tephritis zernyi Hendel, 1927 is new species for the\r\nCzech Republic, Campiglossa grandinata (Rondani, 1870) is reported from Bohemia for\r\nthe first time.
Herman P., Bartak M. & Vanek J.
Diptera, Tephritidae, Krkonose Mts., faunistics, new records
4682
  
2009
Biocontrol Science and Technology, Volume 19, Issue S1, pages 1 - 2
This Special Issue of Biocontrol Science and Technology contains 25 papers that have resulted from a 5-year cooperative research project sponsored by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria, on the use of radiation in biological control.\r\nIn this Special Issue are presented numerous innovative ways to apply radiation technology to biological control, from expanding the period of host suitability for parasitoids, increasing shelf life, studying host_parasitoid physiological interactions, and stimulating reproduction, to eliminating the risk of shipping fertile non-indigenous hosts/prey among others.
Mark Goettel
Crop Science; Entomology; Pest Management; Plant Ecology; Plant Pathology;
4677
  
2009
Biocontrol Science and Technology 19(1):303-315.
Federal regulations mandate that researchers in the field of classical weed biological control follow the precautionary principle when proposing the release of an organism that can affect our environment. However, laboratory risk assessment experiments often predict a much broader host range than that which occurs in the field. Because open-field tests are prohibited in the area of introduction, the application of the F1 sterile insect technique (F1SIT) could be used to conduct field testing in the proposed release area in a safe and temporary manner. In this study, we determined the minimum dose