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IDIDAS : AllReferences

References

  
  
Source
Abstract
Authors
Keywords
  
  
1912
Journal of Economic Entomology. 5: 188.
Hunter WD
117
  
1913
Journal of Economic Entomology, 6: 226. (1913)
Morgan AC;Runner GA
Cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne
113
  
1916
Journal Agricultural Research. 6: 383-8
Runner GA
382
  
1927
Science 46, 84-87.
.
Muller, H. J.
4796
  
1930
Journal Society of Tropical Agriculture, 2: 243-263.
Koidsumi K
95
  
1939
USDA, Washington, D.C. Circular, 551: 1-7.
Proposes probit 9 as an appropriate efficacy for a quarantine disinfestation treatment
Baker AC
Probit 9
85
  
1939
United States Department of Agriculture Circular 551:1-7.
Baker AC
Disinfestation treatment testing
464
  
1950
Ameri. nat. 4,195-202
Comparative studies on the response of males and females germ cells of S. coprophila to irradiation.  Oocytes irradiated between 46 and 72 h of adult life yield inversions.  2000 r in oocytes and 4000 r in sperm yield the same number of breaks.\r
Crousse H.V.
1301
  
1953
Quarantine Bulletin 36(1): 94-106.
Baker VH;Taboada O;Wiant DE
wheat product, disinfestation, Wheat
251
  
1953
J. Economic Entomology 46, 648-656
Bushland R.C.;Hopkins D.E.
999
  
1953
The effect of oxygen concentration on the induction of lethality and chromosomal abberations by X-rays in Habrobracon and Sciara.
see Diss. Abstr. 13(1953) 157-158.
Kenworthy W.
1300
  
1954
American Naturalist. 88:287-352.
Stone, W. S. Alexander M. L. Clayton F. E. Dudgeon
1160
  
1955
J. Econ. Entomol. 48: 459-462.
Knipling, R. F.
SIT irradiation
4783
  
1956
Proceedings 3 1st Annual Meeting Hawaii Academy Science p.1 8.
Balock JW;Christenson LD;Burr GO
Tephritid, Irradiation
75
  
1956
Proc. Hawaii. Acad. sc., (31st Annual Meeting, 1956/6), 17 - 8
Steiner L.F.; Christenson L.D.
747
  
1957
Journal Economic Entomology, 50: 393-395.
Jaynes HA;Godwin PA
White pine weevil, sterilisation
165
  
1957
Atomnaya Energ. 2: 376-384.
Biberhal AV;Margulis UY;Pertsovskii ES
disinfestation, Cereal
252
  
1957
American Miller pp. 19-20, 26, 28, 32.
Brownell LE;Nehemias JV
wheat product, disinfestation, Wheat
253
  
1957
Nature 179,670
Bletchly J.D.;Fisher R.C.
675
  
1957
Ann.Am.Soc. Amer. 50(1):pp.1-9.
Howden H.F.
676
  
1957
Nature, 179:670-672
Cornwell P.B.;Crook L.J.;Bull J.O.
1013
  
1958
Nature. 182: 402-403
Jefferies Dj;Cornwell PB
disinfestation, Cereal, Sitophilus
254
  
1958
Ann. Appl. Biol. 46(1):111-117.
Fisher R.C.
674
  
1959
Journal Economic Entomology, 52: 448-450.
Cole MM;LaBrecque GC;Burden GS
Medical pests
143
  
1959
Journal Economic Entomology, 52: 868-870.
Davis AN;Gahan JB;Weidhaas DE;Smith CN
Mosquitoes
145
  
1959
International Journal Applied Radiation, Isotopes 6: 187.
Kraybill HF
disinfestation, Cereal
283
  
1959
Food Technology 13: 58-62.
Nicholas RC;Wiant DE
disinfestation, radiation resistance, grain pests
298
  
1959
Proceedings of American Society of Horticultural Science. 74: 414-422 (1959).
Salunkhe DK;Pollard LH;Gerber RK
Organoleptic effects of irradiation
466
  
1959
Nature, vol.183, n.4657, pp.338-339
Femalea are more sensitive (50 Gy)than males (150 Gy)(three times the required dose to sterilize the females)
Carney G.C.
582
  
1959
Food Technol 13,pp 58-62.
Nicholas R.C.; Wiant D.E.
669
  
1959
Jour Econ Ent 52: 868
\r\r
Davis, A. N.;Gahan, J. B.; Weidhaas, D. E.;Smith, C. N..
706
  
1959
Genetics. 44:979-999.
Alexander, M. L. Bergendahl J. Brittain M.
1158
  
1960
Proceedings Conference on the Technological Use of Radiation Sydney (Australia) Atomic Energy Commission (Australia) p. 104-116.
Anon.
disinfestation, radiation resistance, Cereal
285
  
1960
Proceedings of the Symposium on Radioisotopes and Radiation in Bombay (India) International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) p.193-206.
Anonymous
disinfestation, radiation resistance, Mexican fruit fly
286
  
1960
Bull. Inst. Agron. Sta. Rech. Gembloux, Horurs Ser.2: 872-881.
van de Woestyne N;van de Brande J
wheat product, disinfestation, Ephestia kuhniella
289
  
1960
Proceedings XI International Congress of Entomology 17-25 August, 1960, Vienna.
van den Bande J;van den Westrijne N
Ephestia kuhniella
370
  
1960
J.Sci.Food. Agr. 11,754.
Cornwell P.B.;Bull J.O.
556
  
1960
Redia 45, 193-217
Melis A.;Baccetti B.
825
  
1960
J. Sci. food Agric., 11:754-768
Cornwell P.B. & Bull J.O.
1012
  
1961
Journal Economic Entomology, 54: 202-203.
Rhode RH;Lopez FD;Eguisa F;Telich JC
Mexican fruit fly
184
  
1961
Journal Economic Entomology. 54: 211-213.
Dennis NM
disinfestation, radiation resistance, Cereal
255
  
1961
Food Irradiation 1(4):A9-A1
Cornwell PB
282
  
1961
American Naturalist. 1961; 124-126.
McDonald, D. J.;Long H. C
575
  
1961
J. Econom. Entomol. 54: 202 - 203
50 Gy to sterilize 12 d old pupae
Rhodes R.H.; Lopez D.F.; Guisa F.E.; Telich J.C.
Mexican fruit fly
658
  
1961
Atti. Assoc. Genet. Ital. 6,285
Frizzi G.;Jolly M.S.
703
  
1961
Rc Seminar Fac. Sc. Cagliari 31, 1-
Anopheles atroparvus were irradiated with dosages of 2000 R - 6000 R.  the latter produced complete sterility but 3500 R gave the highest rate of chromosome mutations.  Both pericentric and paracentric inversions were most frequently found deficiencies and rarely translocations.  Most of the inversions were in chromosomes II and III, very few in X.
Frizzi G.
722
  
1961
Nuntius radiol. 27, 600-603
Baccetti B.;Carppellini M.
826
  
1961
Atti Acad. Naz. Ital. Entomol. Rend. 8, 91-98
Test with 24-kv X-rays showed that the irradiating pupae with 30 Gy 2 to 3 days before emergence is the best to acieve complete sterility in male house flies.mortality, appearance, viability and sexual behaviour observed and were normal.
Sacca G.
1249
  
1961
Rend. Ist. Super. sanita 24, 5-12
Test with 24-kv X-rays showed that the irradiating pupae with 30 Gy 2 to 3 days before emergence is the best to acieve complete sterility in male house flies.mortality, appearance, viability and sexual behaviour observed and were normal.
Sacca G.
1250
  
1961
Biol. Bull.120, 1 ,8-10
Mechanism of sex determination.
Crouse H.V.
1306
  
1961
Can, EntomoL 93: 149-156,
Weintraub, J.
4944
  
1962
Radioisotopes and Radiation in Entomology (Proceedings Symposium Bombay, 1960), IAEA, Vienna pp.193-202.
Brownell L.E.; Yudelovich M.
Mexican fruit fly, grapefruit, Irradiation
28
  
1962
Proceedings Symposium Radioisotopes and Radiation in Entomology Bombay, India. 1960 Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency pp 193-202.
Brownell LE;Yudelovitch M
Mexican fruit fly, grapefruit
109
  
1962
Journal Economic Entomology, 55: 164-167.
The effect of gamma radiation on boll weevil (Anthonomus grandus Boheman) adults, pupae, and eggs was.determined following exposure to cobalt 60. Longevity and egg-laying capacity of reproducing weevils were drastically reduced at doses of 5,000 roentgens (r) or higher, whereas egg hatch was greatly reduced at doses as low as 2,500 r. Exposure of virgin males to 10,000 r resulted in transient sterility whereas 15,,000 r produced permanent sterility. However, these doses resulted in very rapid mortality of both sexes. A ratio of 3.8:1:1 of sterilized males:normal males: normal females did not affect egg laying or hatch. There appeared to be little, if any, effect of adult boll weevil age on susceptibility to the lethal effects of gamma rays. Emergence of adults from prepupae, young, and old pupae exposed to 10,000 r was eliminated, greatly reduced, and unaffected, respectively. However, the lethal effects carried over because all of the adults died within 2 weeks. Exposure of eggs to 600 r did not affect hatch or subsequent development whereas 5000 r drastically reduced hatch and prevented subsequent development.
Davich TB;Lindquist DA
cotton;bollweevil
146
  
1962
Canadian Journal Zoology, 40: 401-420.
Proverbs MD;Newton JR
Codling moth, fertility
182
  
1962
Compt. Rend. Rech., IRSIA 1(28): 15-47.
Van de Brande;Pelerents C
disinfestation, Flour
290
  
1962
Radiobiologiya. 2: 758-762.
Andreev SV;Martens BK;Mochanova VA;Stepanov AS
disinfestation, Cereal, Sitophilus granarius, granary weevil
305
  
1962
At. Energy Res. Estab. (Gt. Brit.) Rept.R.4003, 23pp
Pendelbury J.B.; Jeffries D.J.; Banham E.J.; Bull J.O.
545
  
1962
Mosquito News, vol.22, N.3
Pupae, collected daily from laboratory colony so that none were over 24 hours old, were exposed immediately to 12 000 r of gamma radiation in a cobalt-60 source.  Within 24 to 48 hours after adults emerged, they were inactivated in a cold room (35 to 40 F) and males were transferred to cages for release in the test area.
Weidhaas, D.E.;Schmidt, C.H.; Seabrook, E.L.
717
  
1962
N J Mosquito Extermin Assoc Proc  49:165-168
\r\r\r\r\r
Dame, D. A.;Schmidt, C. H.
720
  
1962
International Journal of applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol.13, pp.435-439
Waterhouse D.F.
846
  
1962
Bull. Entomol. Soc. America, 8, 3, 164
Bushland R.C.
1002
  
1962
Genetics. 47:71-84.
Alexander, M. L. and Bergendahl, J.
1159
  
1962
Riv. Parassit. 23(1),71-74
The optimum dose applied to pupae was 20 Gy.
Rivosecchi L.
1283
  
1962
p.183-195 in "Radiation Effect and Milieu".  International Radiobiologists Symposium in Montreux from 23 May to 3 June
Review article.
Whiting A.R.
1305
  
1962
Redia 47,161-168
male and females were sterilized at 4000 rad (Co 60 source).  15 d old pupae more suitable.  Difficulties to apply SIT because of difficulty to mass rear Thaumetopoea pithyocampa.\r\rRefernce cited in LaChance L.E., Schmidt C.H., Bushland R.C\rRadiation-induced sterilization\rin Pest Control, edited by Kilgore W.W. and Doutt R.L.. Academic Press, NY, London, 1967\r
Baccetti B.;Zocchi R.
1612
  
1963
Journal Economic Entomology, 56: 628-631
Screw-worms (Cochliomyia hominivorat (Coquerel)) have shown variable response to the standard dose level of gamma rays from cobalt 60 sources used in routine production of sterile flies for eradication of this insect. The primary influence was found to be availability of oxygen during irradiation. When pupae were irradiated in a carbon dioxide atmosphere, a dosage of prior to of 11,100 roentgens (r) was required to sterilize the females, compared with only 5,500 r to 6,M r required in oxygen and air (forced ventilation). Anoxia induced by consumption of oxygen by the pupae produced radiation-protection effects that were intensified by delay prior to irradiation and/or increased rate of oxygen uptake as pupae advanced in age. In practical tests, a canister made of 1/8-inch mesh aluminum screen provided sufficient diffusion of air to standardize the dosage safely at 6,900 r, with up to go minutes'' delay treatment for pupae 5 days of age or older. This dosage reduces by 50% that required under maximum conditions of anoxia encountered in production when a closed canister is used.
Baumhover AH
screw worm; aeration
127
  
1963
Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to Insects of Agricultural Importance. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna pp. 465-477 (1963).
Nair KK;Rahalkar GW
Trogoderma granarium, Khapra beetle
177
  
1963
Ann. Nutr. Aliment. 17: B487-B497
Pesson P;Vernier JM
disinfestation, radiation resistance, Cereal, Sitophilus granarius
258
  
1963
Ind. Aliment. Agric. (Paris). 80: 211-225.
Pesson P
disinfestation, radiation resistance, Cereal, Food
261
  
1963
Proceedings, Symposium on Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests. Athens (Greece) 22 - 26 Apr 1963 IAEA-SM--40-34 pp.23.
Anon.
disinfestation, radiation resistance, cytology
264
  
1963
Proceedings, Symposium on Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insects Pests. Athens (Greece) 22 - 26 Apr 1963. IAEA-SM--40-36 pp15.
Anon.
disinfestation, radiation resistance, radiation effects
265
  
1963
Kozp. Elelmiszeripari Kut. Kozl. (1-2):19-28.
Farkas J;Kiss I;Razga Z;Vas K
disinfestation, Malt, sprout inhibition, barley
274
  
1963
The use and application of radioisotopes and radiation in the control of plant and animal insect pests Proceedings of symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) 11 pp.
Huque H
disinfestation, radiation resistance, Cereal
293
  
1963
Food Irradiation. 3(4): A18-A21.
Pesson P
disinfestation, Cereal, Flour
297
  
1963
Radiat. Bot. 3: 363-369.
Romani RJ;Van Kooy J;Lim L;Bowers B
citrus, fruit quality
459
  
1963
Industr. Aliment. Ag. 80, 211.
Pesson P.
505
  
1963
Agricultura tec. Mex. 11,4, 168-175
Carillo L.;Ortega A.; Rodriguez J.
530
  
1963
Agricultura tec. Mex. 11,4, 168-175
Carillo L.;Ortega A.; Rodriguez J.
531
  
1963
U.S. At. Energy Comm., Div. Tech.Inform., Biol.Med.N01, TID-4200 (Abstr.KIC139),P.165
Stark R.W.
532
  
1963
Radiation and radiosioptes applied to insects of agricultural importance : proceedings of the Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animals Insect Pests. International Atomic Energy Agency. Proceedings series , p. 313-332.
Horber E.
541
  
1963
Bull. Biol. France Belg. 97,305
Laviolette P.;Nardo P.
563
  
1963
Radiation and Radioisotops Application to Insects of agricultural Importance.Proc. Symp. Athen 22-26 April 1963.  Organized by IAEA/FAO. Vienna 1963
Nair K.K;Subramanyam G.
568
  
1963
Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to insects of Agricultural Importance.  proc. Symp. Athen 22 - 26 April 1963.  Vienna, IAEA, 1963
Stone W.E.
728
  
1963
J. econ. Entomol.56, 1, 42 - 46
Balock J.W.;Burditt A.K.;Christenson L.D.
740
  
1963
Agric. Res., London, 12, 2, 5
Anonymous
748
  
1963
p. 387-411 in " Radiation and Isotopes Applied to Insects of Agricultural Importance.  proceedings of a symposium, Athens, 22-26 April 1963.  Vienna, international atomic Energy Agency.
Baccetti B.;De Dominicis R.
827
  
1963
 p.413-424, in Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to insects of Agricultural Importance.  proceedings of a symposium, Athens, 22 - 26 April 1963.  Vienna, IAEA.
Thomou H.
832
  
1963
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 56, 3 ,256-261
Large nymphs of the German cockroach Blattella germanica were exposed to 60Co gamma radiation.  Lethality occurs at 64-96 Gy while 32 Gy induce sterility in male and female.
Ross M.H.;Cochran D.G.
933
  
1963
J.Econ. Entomol. 56,5,628-631
Baumhover A.H.
1000
  
1963
Int. J. rad. Biol., 7, 4, 321-331
LaChance L.E.
1001
  
1963
Journal of Economic Entomology. 56:279-281.
Henneberry, T. J.
1142
  
1963
Journal of Economic Entomology. 56:819-822.
Henneberry, T. J. and McGovern, W. L.
1143
  
1963
p.97-102, o "The application of nuclear energy to agriculture.  Triennial Report". NYO-2043-130, Inter American inst. of Agricultural Sciences,  turrialba (Costa Rica). 171 p.
Theoretical Discussion of SIT application to coffee leafminer.
Moh C.C.
1752
  
1963
Genetics 48, 7, 906
Reduced fecundity was observed with little relationship to the radiation dose.
Ray D.T.
1792
  
1963
Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 7(5):491-495
At 9–13 days after collection from the backs of cattle as larvae, or 6–8 days before heel flies emerged, pupae of the common cattle grub, Hypoderma lineatum (de Villers), were exposed to 1000, 2500, 5000, or 7500 roentgens of gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Flies from irradiated pupae were mated with those from non-irradiated pupae to determine fertility of the treated individuals. At 5000 and 7500 roentgens both sexes were completely sterilized; at 2500 r females were completely sterilized and males exhibited reduced fertility. 1Roentgen = 9.93 mGy  ==10 mGy == Gy/100 1000 R= 10 Gy
Drummond, R. O.
SIT sterility
4946
  
1964
Journal Economic Entomology. 57: 690-691
Dosage-mortality studies, conducted with gamma rays to determine their effectiveness in destroying immature stages of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), showed the order of susceptibility at the probit 9 level of mortality (99.9968%) to be larva>egg>pupa. Results suggest promise for radiation as a quarantine treatment of insect-infested products.
Benschoter CA;Telich C
Tephritid, Mexican fruit fly, Irradiation
69
  
1964
Journal Economic Entomology, 57: 986-990.
Pupae and larvae of the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L.), were irradiated with a cobalt-60 gamma source. The effect of various dosages on pupal survival, adult longevity, mating success, egg numbers, egg viability, and F<SUB>1</SUB> survival are reported. The irradiation of pupae more than 9 days old with 20,000 r resulted in very few crippling defects of the treated insects and reduced egg hatch to a low level.
Godwin PA;Rule HD;Waters WE
Silvicultural pest, forestry, gypsy moth
158
  
1964
Journal Economic Entomology, 57: 813-815.
Gamma radiation or the alkylating agent apholate sterilized male and female Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant. With adults the effect was produced with ionizing radiation at 8 or 16 kr. Pupae were more susceptible-complete sterilization of females was obtained at doses of 1, 4, 8, or 16 kr and males were sterilized at doses of 4, 8, or 16 kr. Larvae were more susceptible to direct radiation effects than pupae and pupae more susceptible than adults. Adult male or female bean beetles dipped in an aqueous solution of 0.5% apholate or confined for 48 hours on bean foliage sprayed with the same concentration in water were completely sterilized. Untreated female beetles mated with treated males (irradiated or exposed to apholate at effective doses) deposited about the same number of eggs as females of untreated pairs, but no eggs hatched. Treated female beetles (irradiated or exposed to apholate at effective doses) mated with untreated males deposited few or no eggs. Adult beetles of either sex irradiated in the pupal or adult stage or apholate treated adults were shorter lived than untreated beetles. Untreated female beetles mated first with irradiated or apholate-treated males produced sterile eggs, but a subsequent mating with untreated males resulted in the production of viable eggs.
Henneberry TJ;Smith FF;McGovern WL
Mexican bean beetle;Epilachna
162
  
1964
Radiobiologiya 4:. 928-929.
Bychkovskaya IB;Ochinskaya GK
disinfestation, oxygen
256
  
1964
Propriete Ind. Nucl. (Paris), 7(18): 76
Boisot M
disinfestation
262
  
1964
Terminal summary report 15 October 1964, 7 pp.
D'Youville Coll.;Buffalo;NY (USA)
Tenebrio molitor, X-ray effects, biochemical changes
281
  
1964
Journal Economic Entomology.57: 414-415.
This paper deals primarily with the influence of sterile adults of Gnorrimoschema operculella (Zeller) (exposed to gamma radiation as fully developed pupae) on the reproductive potential of normal moths when confined together in cages. However, the competitive ability of sterile males and females when caged with normal adults at different ratios also was tested.
Elbadry E
Potato tuber moth, Gnorrimoschema operculella, potato
284
  
1964
Journal Economic Entomology 57: 672-674 (1964).
Females of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus telarius (L.), mated to gamma-irradiated males produced fewer female progeny and more nonviable eggs as the dosage of radiation increased. At a dosage of 32 kr there were male progeny and nonviable eggs but no female progeny. Virgin females exposed to gamma radiation and mated to untreated males produced fewer males and females as the dosage increased from 1 to 24 kr, and after exposure to 32 kr produced only nonviable eggs. Surviving female progeny of males irradiated at 8 kr or more were incapable of reproduction, and female progeny of males irradiated at 2 or 4 kr produced fewer males and females and more nonviable eggs than female progeny Of, untreated parents. Evidence for sperm inactivation or death was observed, at doses of 96 kr and above.
Henneberry TJ
Tetranychus telarius
383
  
1964
Journal Economic Entomology 57: 813-815.
Henneberry TJ;Smith FF;McGovern WL
384
  
1964
Mosquito News  24:6-14
Dame D.A.;Woodard D.B.; Ford H.R.;Weidhaas D.E.
Behavior, biology and ecology, Sex, Anopheles
705
  
1964
J.Econ. Entomology, vol.57, n.5753-754
 Mosquito pupae at least 24 h old were treated with 10 000 or 12 000 r from a cobalt source supplying 736 +/- 33 r/min.
Schmidt, C. H.; Dame, D. A; Weidhaas, D.E.
727
  
1964
Genetics. 19:855-863.
 
Rinehart, R. R.
1148
  
1964
Heredity. 51:1-12.
Sollunn, F. Stroemnaes O.
1149
  
1964
Chromosoma. 42:685-688.
.
Riordan, D. F.
1786
  
1964
Genetics 50: 173-179.
Trout W. E.
Irradiation genetics
4790
  
1965
Journal Economic Entomology, 58: 179-180.
Modifications of the radiosensitivity of various species of insects have been demonstrated when the insects were exposed to sublethal heating or to various gases. Baldwin and Narraway (1958) reported that the lethal effects of X-rays were drastically modified by temperatures which are normally nonlethal to the test species, Dahlbominus fuscipennis (Zetterstedt) (500F-1140F), the effect being observed when the temperatures were applied during or after the irradiation, but not when they were applied before the X-ray. Clark and Herr (1955) found that Habrobracon during development was more radioresistant when irradiated in the presence of H. than in the presence of air. When irradiated in N2 or CO. the insects were more resistant to radiation damage than those treated in an atmosphere of H2- The effects of preconditioning with variations of temperature or carbon dioxide anesthesia on the susceptibility of confused flour beetles, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duVal, to gamma irradiation was not known. A preliminary test to determine the effects of such preconditioning on the radiation mortality of this species was conducted.
Tilton EW;Burkholder WE;Cogburn RR
Tribolium confusum;irradiation preconditioning
188
  
1965
Food Irradiation. 6(1-2): A7-A9.
Brower JH;Laudani H;Tilton EW
disinfestation, Cereal, irradiation facilities
259
  
1965
Food Irradiation. 6(1-2): A11-A13
Goresline HE
disinfestation, Cereal, survey, irradiator
260
  
1965
Science. 149: 426-427.
Crenshaw JW
wheat product, disinfestation, radiation resistance, fitness
263
  
1965
Radiation Technology in Conjunction with Postharvest Procedures as a Means of Extending the Shelf Life of Fruits and Vegetables: Annual Report No. UCD-34P80-3, AT(I I- 1)-34, Division of Isotopes Development, United States Atomic Energy Comm
Maxie EC;Rae HL;Boyd C
Lemons in storage, irradiaated lemons
470
  
1965
Radiation Pasteurization of Foods: Summaries of Accomplishments, Fifth Annual Food Irradiation Contractors Meeting, Division of Technical Information, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. pp.39-42.
Dennison RA
471
  
1965
Radiation Pasteurisation of Foods, Summaries of Accomplishments, Fifth Annual Food Irradiation Contractors Meeting, Division of Technical Information, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. pp.43-47.
Ross E;Brewbaker JL
shelf life, Lychees
478
  
1965
ADVANCES IN INSECT POPULATION CONTROL BY THE STERILE-MALE TECHNIQUE (REPORT PANEL VIENNA 1964), TECHNICAL REPORTS SERIES N0.44, IAEA,VIENNA
Andreev S.V.
504
  
1965
J.Econ.Entomol. 58, 3, 519 - 522
Steiner L.F.; Harris E.J.; Mitchell W.C.; Fujimoto M.S.; Christenson L.D.
746
  
1965
Dissertation Abstract., 25, 7, 3803
Flint H.M.
1228
  
1965
J. Econ. Entomol. 58, 3, 555-559
Flint H.M.
1229
  
1965
p.97-102, o "The application of nuclear energy to agriculture.  Annual Report". NYO-2043-108, Inter American inst. of Agricultural Sciences,  turrialba (Costa Rica). 1 Jul. 1965, 112 p.
Theoretical Discussion of SIT application to coffee leafminer.
Katiyar K.P.;Ferrer F.
1751
  
1965
Radiation research 25:514-525.
<a href="http://www.jstor.org/pss/3571766">Abstract</a>
Wharton DRA;Wharton Martha;Lola John
Irradiation, Ionizing radiation, Periplaneta americana
4673
  
1966
Journal of Economic Entomology. 59: 202-204.
Gamma rays from a cobalt-60 Source were applied to egg and larval infestations of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel; melon fly, D. cucurbitae Coquillet; and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in various fruits and vegetables to investigate such radiation as a quarantine treatment for fresh commodities. A dosage of 10 kr generally prevented immature stages of fruit flies from developing to adults. Dosages over 100 kr failed to fully prevent pupation. Mortalities were converted to probits, and LD99.9 and LD99.9968 determined for the oriental fruit fly and the melon fly. Solo papayas, tomatoes, cucumbers, bananas. litchis, and ripe mangoes tolerated dosages between 25 kr and 100 kr without losing commercial acceptability. Most varieties of avocados and mature green Haden mangoes were injured by 25 kr.
Balock JW;Burditt AK Jr;Seo ST;Akamine EK
Disinfestation treatment, Hawaiian fruit flies, Irradiation
34
  
1966
Journal of Economic Entomology, 59: 884-888.
Macfarlane JJ
Tephritid, Bactrocera tryoni, irradiation mortality
39
  
1966
Journal Economic Entomology. 59: 202-204.
Balock JW;Burditt AK Jr.;Seo ST;Akamine EF
Disinfestation treatment, Hawaiian fruit flies, Irradiation
77
  
1966
Journal Economic Entomology. 59: 268-270.
A study of the effects of X-radiation, with an intent to sterilize the male alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (GyllenhaI), was conducted. Normal females mated to radiated males produced eggs, but most of the eggs from weevils mated with males given 2000R thru 10,000R failed to hatch, Only 0.8% of the eggs from females mated with males radiated at the 2000R level hatched. This same percentage of eclosion occurred using males radiated at the 4000R level. However, there was no hatching using males radiated at the higher levels.
Burgess EE;Bennett SE
alfalfa weevil
137
  
1966
Journal Economic Entomology, 59: 976-980 (1966).
The effects of gamma radiation on the grain mite, Acarus siro L., were studied. The egg, larval, hypopial, and adult stages of the mite were treated with 13.2 (+/-10%), 17.5, 25, 45, and 100 kilorads of gamma radiation. Eggs hatched at 100 kilorads. Eggs and hypopi were able to transform to the adult stage at 45 kilorads, but larvae did not mature at dosages above 25 kilorads. Irradiated adults produced F1 adults after dosages as high as 25 kilorads and irradiated hypopi and eggs at 17.5 kilorads or less, but larvae did not produce F1 adults at dosages more than 13.2 +/- 10% kilorads.
Burkholder WE;Tilton EW;Cogburn RR
Stored product pests, Grain mites
138
  
1966
The Entomology of Radiation Disinfestation of Grain. P. B. Cornwell (ed.), pp. 27-40. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Pendlebury JB
Sitophilus granarius, granary weevil
181
  
1966
Journal Economic Entomology, 59: 944-948.
 study to determine the gross effects of gamma radiation on Trogoderma glabrum (Herbst) and the black carpet beetle, Attagenus piceus (Olivier) , was conducted. All metamorphic stages of the insects were treated with 13.2 +/-10%, 17.5, 25, 45, and 100 kilorads or with 13.2 kilorads +/- 10% repeated 5 times at hourly intervals for a total of 66 kilorads +/- 10%. Each week mortality, developmental progress, and reproduction by treated individuals were checked. Eggs and larvae of both species were controlled effectively by all dosages. However, no dosage used was enough to produce complete mortality immediately of any of the stages of either species. Reproduction in both species was limited in the F1 generation to the insects where the P1 generation received the lowest dosage. Indications are that males of both species when treated directly were less subject to genetic damage than the females. Genetic damage, as evidenced by reduced reproduction, was transmitted to the F1 generation of T. glabrum.
Tilton EW;Burkholder WE;Cogburn RR
Trogoderma glabrum;Attagenus piceus
189
  
1966
Journal Economic Entomology, 59: 1363-1368.
Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) ; confused flour beetles, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duVal; rice weevils, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) ; and cigarette beetles, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), were exposed to various levels of gamma radiation from a Co00 source. All 4 metamorphic stages of each insect were used. Dosages were 13.2+/-10%, 17.5, 25, 45, and 100 krad and, on all insects except the lesser grain borer, a fractionated dosage of 13.2 krad +/-10% repeated 5 times at hourly intervals. The dose rate for all treatment levels was about 330 krad per hour. In all species the adults were the most tolerant, followed by the pupae, then the larvae, and then the eggs. No dosage used was high enough to produce immediate complete mortality of all species. All 4 species were sterilized by gamma radiation in a single continuous dose of 25 krad or more.
Tilton EW;Burkholder WE;Cogburn RR
Tribolium confusum, Lasioderma serricorne, Sitophilus oryzae
190
  
1966
Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung.16: 207-215.
Farkas J
wheat product, disinfestation, radiation resistance, Tribolium confusum, Tyrophagus dimidiatus
257
  
1966
Atomic Energy Centre Dacca-RB--5 pp28.
Anon.
disinfestation, Rice, sensory properties, mould
266
  
1966
Atomic Energy Australia 9(4) p. 11-19.
Osborn AW;Shipp E;Hutchinson PB
disinfestation, sugarcane, virus, sugar cane leafhoppers
267
  
1966
Hawaii Farm Science 15(1): 8-9
Upadhya MD;Brewbaker JL
pineapple, irradiation effects
269
  
1966
Hawaii Farm Science 15(1): 11-12.
Steiner LF
disinfestation, fruit, vegetables
270
  
1966
Journal Economic Entomology 59: 682-685.
A study of the gross effects of gamma radiation on the Indian-meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner), and the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), was conducted. All metamorphic stages of the insects were treated with 13.2?1O%, 17.5, 25, 45, or 100 kilorads of gamma radiation. Weekly observations were made to check mortality, ability of treated metamorphic stages to continue their development, and reproduction by treated individuals and their first-generation progeny. Eggs of both species and larvae of the Indian-meal moth were effectively controlled by all dosages. Larvae of the Angournois grain moth were controlled by all dosages except 13.2?10% kilorads, which permitted some larvae to develop to the adult stage and reproduce. The life of insects treated as adults or as pupae was not greatly shortened by the treatments, but the incidence of sterility and a marked reduction in progeny produced per pair of moths varied directly with the dosage applied. Genetic damage, as evidenced by reduced reproduction, was transmitted to the F1 generation. When treated directly, males of both species were less subject to genetic damage than were females; however, the progeny of treated males was more subject to genetic damage than was the progeny of treated females. Cereal, disinfestation, radiation resistance
Cogburn RR;Tilton EW;Burkholder WE
271
  
1966
Journal Economic Entomology 59: 1206-1208.
When male sweetpotato weevils, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) were exposed to 18,000 R of gamma rays and then mated with untreated virgin females, egg hatch was reduced to less than 1%. Irradiated males competed favorably with untreated males for virgin females. Matings involving 4 sterile males, 4 untreated males, and 4 untreated virgin females had an average of 55% egg hatch. There was no subsequent reduction in the number of progeny produced when virgin females were first mated with untreated males and later with irradiated males. Radiosensitivity decreased as the age of the weevils increased. Utilization of a sterile-male method for control of the sweet potato weevil is discussed. sweet potato, disinfestation, radiation resistance
Walker JR
Sweet potato, sweet potato weevil
272
  
1966
Kerntechnik 8: 514-517.
Haisch A;Suess A
disinfestation
273
  
1966
Pergamon Press, New York (USA) pp.255.
Cornwell PB
Radiation disinfestation
275
  
1966
Report of a panel Application of food irradiation in developing countries International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) p 73-83.
Daget J
disinfestation, Smoked fish
276
  
1966
Report of a panel Application of food irradiation in developing countries International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) p 85-94.
Boisot MH;Gauzit M
disinfestation, radiation resistance, commercial feasibility, dried product, sensory properties, Fish, fresh water fish, smoked product
277
  
1966
Report of a panel: Application of food irradiation in developing countries International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) p 105-113 (1966).
Talhouk AS
disinfestation, Cereal, fruit, vegetables, packaging, chemical treatment, heating
278
  
1966
Food Irradiation: Proceedings of the international symposium on food irradiation I A EA and FAO Vienna (Austria) p. 381-393 (1966)
Cornwell PB
disinfestation, papaya, irradiator, fruit, legislation
279
  
1966
Proceedings of the"6th Annual AEC Food Irradaition Contractors Meetings, Washington, D.C. USA 3-4 October 1966" Conf.-661017, Division of Isotopes Development (AEC), Washington, D.C. 1966 p.58-60
Brewbaker JL;Ross E
disinfestation, papaya, radiation dosimetry, Mango, avocado, vegetables, spice, packaging
280
  
1966
Canadian Entomologist 98: 931-935.
MacClanahan RJ;Simons HS
disinfestation, Onion, onion maggot
288
  
1966
Montes 22: 159-168.
Cadahia D
disinfestation
292
  
1966
Hawaii Farm Science 15(1): 6-7.
Anonymous
disinfestation, Mango seed weevil, Mango, ripening delay
300
  
1966
Hawaii Farm Science. 15(1): 11-12.
Steiner LF
disinfestation, Irradiation
301
  
1966
Radiation Research 14; 449
Beck JS
Tribolium confusum
371
  
1966
Food Irradiation. Proceedings Symposium Karlsruhe, 6-10 June, 1966, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp.455-471.
Cornwell PB
Grain insects
375
  
1966
Can.Entomol.98 (1):1-10
Sterilisation of newly emerged males and females of the bark beetle I. confusus was almost complete at doses of 75 and 100 Gy respectively.Gallery establishment was affected above 150 Gy. Longevity was affected of 50 Gy.  At 75 Gy the LT50 for males was 11.5 days compared with 29 days for controls. Significant F2 population reduction in logs could be achieved at dosages between 60 and 75 Gy.
Wood D.L.;Stark R.W.
Ips confusus, bark beetles, log timber irradiation
533
  
1966
Proceedings of the FAO Symposium on Integrated Pest Control, Pt.2,Rome, Italy.  11-15 October 1965. Rome FAO 1966, 183p
Horber E.
543
  
1966
p.58-60 of "6th Annual AEC Food Irradaition Contractors Meetings, Washington, D.C. USA 3-4 October 1966"  Conf.-661017, Division of Isotopes Development (AEC), Washington, D.C. 1966 216p.
Brewbaker J.L.
562
  
1966
The Entomology of radiation disinfestation of grain : a collection of original research papers / edited by P.B. Cornwell. p. 177-185.
Jefferies, D.J.
573
  
1966
Int. J. radiat. Biol. 10, 183-188
Irradiation of both sexes with 2500 R or more prevented reproduction.
Drummond R.O.; Medley J.G.; Graham O.H.
587
  
1966
6th Annual AEC Food Irradiation Contractors Meeting, Washington, D.C., 3-4 Oct.1966. p.69-70
Mayer E.L.; Tilton W.; Laudani H.
668
  
1966
J Econ Entomol 59(6):1392-4
\r\rStudies on eradication of Anopheles pharoensis by the sterile-male technique using cobalt-60. II. Induced dominant lethals in the immature stages.\r\r\r\r
Tantawy AO; Abdel-Malek AA;Wakid AW.
710
  
1966
Fd irradiation, 6,3, A28- A32
Huque H.; Ahmed H.
745
  
1966
Tzanakakis M.E.;tsitsipis J.A.;Papageorgiou M.;Fytizas E.
828
  
1966
Atompraxis 12, 231-236
Zeeuw D.de
830
  
1966
Nat. Hist., N.Y., 75, 3, 30-35
Whitney D.
831
  
1966
Nature, 211, 98-99
Sugar cane leafhoppers (Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirk) Vector of Fiji disease of sugar cane.
Ship E.;Osborn A.W.;Hutchinson P.B.
954
  
1966
Bull. Entomol. Soc. America 12,278
Nelson T.E.
1161
  
1966
J-Econ-Entomol. v. 59 (3) p. 682-685.
.
Cogburn,-R.R.; Tilton,-E.W.; Burkholder,-W.E.
1617
  
1967
Pakistan Journal Science. 19: 233-238.
Haque H;Ahmad R
Tephritid, Irradiation
40
  
1967
In Radiation Dosimetry 2, F. H. Attix and W. C. Roach [eds.], Academic Press, New York. pp 167-239 (1967).
A text book on radiation dosimetry giving methodology
Fricke H;Hart EJ
Dosimetry, Irradiation
72
  
1967
Journal Economic Entomology, 60: 1724-1730 .
Actively growing nondiapausing 3rd-, 4th, or 5th-instar laboratory-reared larvae of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), were irradiated with gamma rays from a Co 60 source. Diapausing larvae collected in the field were irradiated after either 3 or 5.5 months of refrigeration. The nondiapausing larvae had too much somatic damage from the irradiation to make this a practical method of borer control. However, the diapausing larvae showed little evidence of somatic damage. Rates of pupation, . moth emergence, and mating were nearly normal at levels of irradiation as high as 5000 rad. Numbers of eggs laid and egg hatch were most severely affected at 4000 and 5000 rad. There was an interaction between time to pupation and dose level when diapausing larvae were irradiated and then divided into 3 groups (A, B, and C) based on length of time to pupation. Egg hatch was significantly affected. All levels of radiation affected pupation period A (early) most strongly. Only 4000 and 5000 rad affected hatchability of eggs from pupation period B (middle). Only 5000 rad affected the egg hatch of pupation period C (late). Irradiation of diapausing larvae appeared to affect the motility or viability, or both, of sperm instead of inducing lethal gene mutations.
Raun ES;Lewis LC;Picken JK Jr.;Hotchkiss DK
European corn borer;Ostrinia nubilalis
183
  
1967
Journal Economic Entomology, 60: 1594-1596.
Smittle BJ
House fly, Musca domestica
186
  
1967
Engineer (London) 223: 97-98
Anon.
Grain irradiator, disinfestation facility
268
  
1967
Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, Mayaguez 23 pp.
Anonymous
disinfestation, sugarcane
294
  
1967
Boll. Ist. Entomol. Agr. Osserv. Fitopatol. Palermo. 7(56): 101-102. (1967)
Cavalloro R
disinfestation, Cereal, commercial feasibility, fruit, vegetables
296
  
1967
Food Technology (Australia). 19: 660-665.
Macfarlane JJ
Bactrocera tryoni, banana, Orange, Queensland fruit fly, apricot, fig
299
  
1967
Journal Stored Products Research 3: 223-234.
Walters FL;MacQueen KF
disinfestation, radiation resistance, stored grains pests
302
  
1967
Natick, Mass: Food Laboratory, U. S. Army Natick Laboratories?, pp.22.
Heiligman F;Wierbicki E
425
  
1967
Boll. Zool. 11(8)
Cavalloro R.;Bonfanti G.
503
  
1967
Waldhygiene 6,6,161-170
Hober E.
542
  
1967
Acta phytopath. hung.2,3,pp211-217
Jermy T.
544
  
1967
Meded. Rijksfac. LandbWet. Gent. 32: 3-4, 890-903.
Vereecke, A.; Pelerents C
576
  
1967
Entomologia Experimentalis & Applicata, 10, 143-152
Nymphs are prevented from molting at doses sup ot equal to 2000 Rontgen if exposed before feeding.  Both sexes emerging from nymphs irradiated by > 2000 rontgen, two weeks later after feeding, are sterile.  These males are not competitive due to lack of sperm.  Females become sterile after irradiation by >2000 Rontgen, whereas males require 16 000 Rontgen in order to induce 99% dominant lethality.  They are effective in competing with normal males.
Galun R.;Warburg M.;Avivi A.
591
  
1967
Jap.J.Sant. Zool.,18:2-3, pp.126-129
Sterilizing effectiveness of gamma radiation with C-60 or chemosterilant on the engorged female cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, was determined.  Doses of 10 to 100 kr were inhibitory to oviposition.  A 50% hatchability was shown by eggs deposited by females irradiated at a dose of about 0.5 kr.
kitaoka S.;Morii T.
602
  
1967
Final report, April 1967--September 1977,9 p
The major objectives of the project on Aedes aegypti, which is one of the most important disease vectors of man, were to study the cytogenetic effects of radiation and certain chemical mutagens, the genetics of radiation-induced chromosomal rearrangements with particular attention to reciprocal translocations, and the possibility of using translocations for genetic control of natural populations. Results reported on work done during the years 1967 and 1977 show these objectives have been mostly accomplished
Rai, K.S
635
  
1967
Bull Entomol. Soc. Am. 13(3), p.194.
Brown G.A.
670
  
1967
<i>in</i> Pest Control, edited by Kilgore W.W. and Doutt R.L..  Academic Press, NY, London, 1967
LaChance L.E.; Schmidt C.H.; Bushland R.C.
749
  
1967
CRP, contract 169, p79-81.  Technical report 74. Vienna,  Intenational atomic Energy Agency, 223p
Baccetti B.
829
  
1967
Proc. Hawaii Entomological Soc,, vol.XIX, N.3
Mau R.;Mitchell W.C.;Anwar M.
942
  
1967
Genetics. 55:263-276.
Lefevre jr, G
1144
  
1967
J.Econom. Entomol. 60:6,1758-1759
Wave H.E.;Henneberry T.J.
1152
  
1967
Vest.sel-khoz. nauk, no.1, 48-52
Andreev-SV;Martens-BK;Molchanova V.A.;Saldan L.N.
1200
  
1967
C.R. Acad. Sci., 265, 25D, 2027-2029
The posterior extremity of eggs of the insects were exposed to x-rays before the stage 16 nuclei.  histological examination were made on larvae.  A 2nd group of eggs was reared to adult stage and the gonads were examined.  Adults developping fromeggs exposed to a dose of 10<sup>6</sup>R were fertile and reproduced normally:  this demonstrate the extreme resistance of the germ cells.  exp[osure to 10<sup>7</sup>R inhibit gametes formation in gonads.
Bluzat M.R.
1201
  
1967
Thesis, university of California, Berkeley, 130p.
.
Proshold F.I.
1365
  
1967
p.p.118-122. In The application of nuclear energy to agriculture.  Annual Report.  Moh C.C., Ed. NYO-2043-52, Inter American Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Turrialba (Costa Rica). 1 jul. 1967, 165 p.
leucoptera coffeella Guer. exposed to variuos doses at pupal and adult stage.  60 KR applied to 7-day-old pupae lead to the emergency of 29% male and 41% female against 45 and 39 in control.  Mortality was 88% for males and 23% for females against zero for control. Fertility dorpped sharply after treatment with 60-90 KR gamma ray.
Katiyar K.P.
1750
  
1967
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 293-297.
This paper is a ?theoretical insect pathology? consideration of the prospects of integrated microbial and radiation control of harmful insects. While considering this topic our attention is directed first to the possible applications of the radiation sterilizing method of population suppression. The exploratory investigations of this subject have shown that ionizing radiation will induce sterility but there is considerable variation in the amounts needed. The research also suggests that radiation damage may in some cases prevent application of the method to some insects. In nature some insects appear to be so abundant that the use of the sterile-male technique may not be feasible without first processing the geographically isolated and nonisolated infested area with other control measures to bring wild populations ?within reach?. Such a situation can be approached from two angles. The population may be controlled by means of well-tried microbial pathogens. Also, the release of sterile male insects carrying parasites or pathogens has control possibilities. In such a situation an intensified search has to be made for those pathogens that are nonvirulent when present in or on the adult, but are highly virulent to the larvae. Coelomomyces  and Thelohania are probably of this category.\r\n\r\nThe increased susceptibility of irradiated insects to pathogens is opening a new field of investigation. The life span of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum beetles was shortened considerably when the test insects received Bacillus thuringiensis immediately and after an interval of 24 and 144 hours following exposure to X-rays. The life span of the irradiated beetles was somewhat shortened by the presence of Farinocystis tribolii, Nosema whitei, and Adelina tribolii, protozoan parasites in the fat body of the test insects.\r\n\r\nThere are promising prospects of evolving, through irradiation, new strains of pathogens of high virulence. Already strains of increased virulence of Beauveria bassiana and Aspergillus flavus have been evolved by means of ionizing radiation. There is economic feasibility in using gamma radiation from cobalt-60 in the control of diseases of the honey bee, and in the sterilization of honey. The use of radiation as an insect repellent and the behavioral aspects of radiation on insects is a fascinating field of future investigation. Examples of this phenomenon are cited.
Jafri R. H.
Irradiation, insect
4675
  
1967
pp. 617-650. In Wright JW, Pal R (eds.) Genetics of insect vectors of disease. Elsevier Amsterdam.
LaChance L. E.
SIT irradiation mutation genetics
4784
  
1968
An. Bromatol. (Madrid) 20(2): 149-182.
Pujol A;Gonzalez AF
disinfestation, stored grain
287
  
1968
Dtsch. Lebensm.-Rundsch. 64: 133-138.
Gruenewald T;Frank A
Grain disinfestation
291
  
1968
An. Bromatol. (Madrid) 20: 149-182.
Pujol A;Gonzales FA
wheat product, disinfestation, Cereal
295
  
1968
Nuclear Science Applied. 4: 11-18.
Khan M;Zainul Abedin M;Abdul ASM
disinfestation, radiation resistance, Sitophilus oryzae, Rice weevil
304
  
1968
Proceedings of the 14. International Convention on vital foods, nutrition, social diseases 13pp.
Deschreider AR
disinfestation, radiation resistance, Cereal
311
  
1968
In Preservation of Fruit and Vegetables by Radiation. PL-19313, IAEA, Vienna pp.3-11.
Kahan RS
avocado, irradiation effects, Bananas
451
  
1968
Dosimetry, Tolerance and Shelf Life Extension Related to Disinfestation of Fruits and Vegetables by Gamma Irradiation, Report 1966 to 1967, Division of Isotopes Development, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. pp.140-144
Upadhya MD;Brewbaker JL
Lychees, organoleptic effects
473
  
1968
J. Econ. Entomol. 61(6):17211726
Shipp E.;Osborn A.W.
849
  
1968
Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley.
,
Gogia Usha
1342
  
1968
Canadian Entomologist. 100:190-192.
,
George, J. A. Howard M. G.
1518
  
1968
Isotopes and radiation in entomology; Vienna.  IAEA, pp. 391-403.
.
North, D. T. and Holt, G.G..
1746
  
1968
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria), Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy), Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology, 445 p, Jun 1968, p. 69-73, Symposium on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology, Vienna (Austria), 4-8 Dec 1967, IAEA-SM--102/7, ISSN 0074-1884,
Effects of host irradiation on the development of its parasite were investigated. Females of Bracon brevicomis readily accepted irradiated larvae of tile wax moth (Galleria mellonella) and rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica) for oviposition. However, irradiated wax moth larvae adversely influenced the viability of eggs laid on them and also the survival of the parasite grubs feeding on their bodies. The female grubs were affected more than the males. Rice moth larvae, on the other hand, exerted no significant influence on the viability of parasite eggs, but adversely affected the survival of the grubs. The progeny of parents that had been reared on irradiated larvae also exhibited some developmental changes although grown on non-irradiated host larvae, and these changes were more pronounced when G. mellonella was used as the host insect. (author)
Rahalkar, G. W.; Ramakrishnan, V.
EGGS, FEMALES, IRRADIATION, LARVAE, MALES, MOTHS, PARASITES, PROGENY, RICE, VIABILITY, WAXES
4981
  
1969
International Journal Radiation Biology. 16: 183-192.
Bughio AR;Quereshi AZ;Mecci MZ
Tephritid, Irradiation
70
  
1969
Muehle Mischfuttertech. 106(6): 79-80.
Gruenewald T
disinfestation, Cereal, irradiator, baking quality, feeding test
303
  
1969
Muehle Mischfuttertech. 106(28): 492-493.
Anonymous
disinfestation, Cereal
318
  
1969
Food Irradiation (Saclay). 9(4): 19-22.
Huque H;Khan MA
disinfestation, grain moths
319
  
1969
Food irradiation. Proceedings of a seminar at Trombay, January 13-14, 1969. p p. 21-23.
Rahalkar GW;Lewis AJ
disinfestation, grain pests
320
  
1969
Journal Stored Products Research 5: 95-109
Pointel JG;Pham van Sam
404
  
1969
Report 1967 to 1968, Division of Isotopes Development, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC 126-130.
Wenkham NS;May AP
papaya, Mango
457
  
1969
Dosimetry, Tolerance and Shelf Life Extension Related to Disinfestation of Fruits and Vegetables by Gamma Irradiation, Report 1967 to 1968, Division of Isotopes Development, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington. DC. pp.161-166.
Moy JH;Chang GK;Hsia ST
lychee, organoleptic evaluation
476
  
1969
Parassitologia 11:171-176
\r\r
Lecis, A. R.
704
  
1969
Chromosoma. 28:255-279.
Brown, S. W. Wiegmann L. I.
956
  
1969
Journal of Economic Entomology. 62:818-821.
Mason, H. C.; Papageorgiou, M. C., and Jacklin, S.
1147
  
1969
Genetics. 62:819-825.
Weisbrot, D. R.
1150
  
1969
Scientific Colloquium: Biological control of blood-sucking arthropods. Pathology of vectors. Montpellier (France), September-October 1969.: Colloque scientifique: lutte biologique contre les arthropodes hematophages. Pathologie des vecteurs. Montpellier (France), septembre-octobre 1969. Annales-de-Parasitologie-Humaine-et-Comparee. 1971, 46: 35-66
Accounts are given of the rearing of Glossina tachinoides Westw., G. morsitans morsitans, Westw., G. austeni Newst. and G. fuscipes fuscipes Newst. at Maisons-Alfort, France [RAE/B 59, 820; 60, 854, 1267; etc.], of cytogenetics and spermatogenesis in these species [60, 886, etc.] and of sterilisation of males of G. m. morsitans and G. tachinoides by gamma -radiation\r
Itard J
1164
  
1969
Biological control of blood-sucking arthropods. Pathology of vectors. Montpellier (France), September-October 1969.: Colloque scientifique: lutte biologique contre les arthropodes hematophages. Pathologie des vecteurs. Montpellier (France), septembre-octobre 1969. Annales-de-Parasitologie-Humaine-et-Comparee. 1971, 46: 35-66
Accounts are given of the rearing of Glossina tachinoides Westw., G. morsitans morsitans, Westw., G. austeni Newst. and G. fuscipes fuscipes Newst. at Maisons-Alfort, France [RAE/B 59, 820; 60, 854, 1267; etc.], of cytogenetics and spermatogenesis in these species [60, 886, etc.] and of sterilisation of males of G. m. morsitans and G. tachinoides by gamma -radiation \r
Itard-J
1180
  
1969
Ann-Entomol-Soc-Am. Lanham, Md. : The Society. v. 62 (6) p. 1340-1347.
\r\r\r
Vinson,-S.B.; Londono,-R.L.; Bartlett,-A.C.
1552
  
1969
Scientific-Reports-of-the-Faculty-of-Agriculture-Okayama-University. No. 34, 15-24; 5 fig.; 4 ref.
This is a further part of a series from Japan on the sterilisation of insects with gamma -radiation from a radioactive caesium (137Cs) source [ cf. RAE/A 60, 2985, etc.]. Males of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) [cf. 59, 1903] sterilised in the pupal stage with a dose of 20 kR paired with 3-5 virgin females; none of the eggs laid by such females hatched. The start and the peak of oviposition were delayed 2 and 4 days, respectively, in females that had paired with sterilised males, as compared with those that had paired with normal ones. When virgin females paired first with normal males and then with irradiated ones two days later, most produced large numbers of viable eggs, even after the second pairing. When females paired first with the sterilised males and then with normal ones, at least 50% of them produced only non-viable eggs, but the remainder produced viable eggs after the second pairing. Investigations on the structure of the reproductive organs, the development of germ-cells and the behaviour of spermatozoa within the females indicated that the eggs failed to hatch either because the sperm had been sterile or because radiation-induced abnormalities in the ejaculatory duct or sphermatophore resulted in an absence of sperm from the receptaculum seminis. It appears that for the sterile-male technique to be successful, irradiation should not produce abnormalities of this type but should sterilise the sperm only.\r
Kiyoku-M; Tsukuda-R; Wada-T
1698
  
1969
Canadian Entomologist. 101:513-520.
.
North, D.T. and Holt, G.G..
1747
  
1969
Bulletin-de-la-Societe-Entomologique-d'Egypte. 52: 273-276; 1 fig.; 2 ref.
Studies in Egypt in which cotton seeds containing larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) were exposed to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) at doses ranging from 50 R to 50 000 R indicated that a dose of 25 000 R, which did not affect germination, would be sufficient to kill larvae in all instars and eradicate the infestation.\r
El-Kifl-AH; Abdel-Wahab-AT; Khalf-Allah-AM; Wahab-
1826
  
1969
Annual Review of 339 Entomology 14: 81-102.
Proverbs M. D.
Irradiation SIT
4787
  
1970
Food Technology in Australia, 22: 664-667 (1970).
Eric B;LeCompte J;Klein S;Kricker W
116
  
1970
Food Technology Australia 22(12): 664-665, 667.
Eric B;Le Compte J;Klein S;Kricker W
disinfestation, banana
307
  
1970
Shokuhin Shosha (Food Irradiation, Japan) 5(1): 109-110.
Mitsui E;Miyakawa K;Kawashima K;Umeda K;Sato T
disinfestation, Cereal
308
  
1970
Food Irradiation 11(1-2): 10-14.
Brower JH;Tilton EW
disinfestation, Dried fruit
330
  
1970
Muehle. 107(8): 104-106.
Saur W;Hoigne J
disinfestation, Wheat, temperature
331
  
1970
Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad. Nuclear Research Inst. 5 pp.
Anonymous
disinfestation, dates, Oryzaephilus surinamensis
332
  
1970
Journal Economic Entomology 63: 1053-1057.
Jacklin SW;Richardson EG;Yonce CE
388
  
1970
Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970
Baldwin, W.F.;Chant, G.D.
Radiation
499
  
1970
International-Journal-of-Radiation-Biology. 18: 6, 521-530
Methods for rearing, sexing and irradiating with gamma -radiation from a 60Co source males of Culex pipiens fatigans Wied. are described [cf. RAE/B 58, 438]. When males were exposed to doses of 8050 R at 24 plus or minus 1 h old and mated with untreated virgin females, the percentage sterility as judged by the viability of the egg-rafts produced was 97.8-98.8%, and this persisted throughout the life of the adults. In tests in competition with untreated males for normal females there was an increase in the number of sterile egg-rafts as the proportion of sterile males increased, and it is considered that treated males were fully competitive with untreated ones. From the percentage of partially sterile rafts when the proportions of treated males were low, it seems that females probably mate with more than one male.\r
Koshy-T; Singh-SP
1024
  
1970
Genetics. 64:313-322.
Markowitz, E. H.
1146
  
1970
Parassitologia, 12(1), 69-74
\r\r
Sacca,G.;Gandolfo, D.;Mastrilli, M.L.
1236
  
1970
Acta-Entomologica-Bohemoslovaca. 67: 5, 304-309
A study of the effects of X-irradiation of various stages of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Mg.) is described. When 50 pairs of adults were irradiated at one time (0-24 h after emergence), dosages of 1000 or 1200 R did not significantly alter the time of egg laying or the number of eggs laid (averages of 348 and 312 per female). Higher dosages significantly reduced the numbers of eggs laid per female and delayed oviposition by 3-4 days. Virtually no eggs were laid after treatment at 1700 R. The percentage emergence of adult progeny fell from 79 in untreated flies and 67 in flies treated at 1000 R to 46 at 1400 R. No adult progeny emerged after irradiation at 1500 R or above. In tests in which only one sex was irradiated, mating with an untreated individual of the other sex was not affected, but the average number of eggs laid gradually decreased with an increase in the dosage. Untreated females crossed with treated males generally produced more eggs than treated females crossed with normal males. No eggs were laid when the dosage was 2000 R and very few when it was 1700 R. The average pupal period of the progeny was virtually unaffected by dosages of 1000 to 1400 R but was suddenly lengthened at 1500 R; at a dosage of 1700 R, no eggs developed.Irradiation of larvae 0-24 h old at 500 and 1000 R had no apparent effect on the larvae. At 1500 R upwards, the proportion of larvae that pupated decreased, pupation and adult emergence were delayed, and percentage emergence decreased from 87% at 1000 R to nil at 2500 R. After dosages of 2000 R or above, normal pupae were rarely formed. Adults from larvae treated at 500 R showed no adverse effects, but those from larvae treated at 1000-2000 R were comparatively inactive and few females laid eggs. Irradiation of pupae 0-24 h old at 500 R had no adverse effects, but a dose of 1000 R delayed emergence and reduced the fertility of the resulting adults, and pupae treated at 1500-2000 R seldom gave rise to adults. It is suggested that initial or permanent sterilisation without apparent somatic damage could be induced in 95-100% of adults of L. sericata by exposing them to about 2000 R within 24 h of emergence.\rPT:  Journal-article\rAN:  730502791\r\r\r
Al-Uthman-HS
1242
  
1970
Bi-monthly-Research-Notes. 26: 2, 13-14
Males of Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) reared in the laboratory on a meridic diet [cf. RAE/A 44, p. 225; 54, p. 23, etc.] were treated in the larval, pupal or adult stages with 5-40 kR gamma -radiation from a 60Co source. Some of the larvae (treated in the 4th-6th instars) had radiation burns and some gave rise to adults with crumpled wings. Many of the pupae derived from treated larvae died, and a few of the adults that emerged from pupae that survived subsequently mated. Total sterilisation was not achieved. The minimum sterilising dose for pupae was 30 kR, but as the dose increased there was progessive mating failure. That for adults was also 30 kR. The rate of mating failure was 20-50% in treated adult males, but was also high (35%) in untreated males that had been transported to the irradiation laboratory in winter. It is concluded that larvae and pupae are difficult to sterilise without adverse side effects, but that the sterilisation of adult males is promising.\r
Retnakaran-A
1395
  
1970
Manitoba-Entomologist. 4: 53-69
In this paper, which forms part of a symposium on 'Ionizing radiation in entomology' held by the Entomological Societies of Canada and Manitoba at Winnipeg in 1970, investigations relating to the control of injurious Lepidoptera by the release of adults sterilised by irradiation are reviewed, particular attention being paid to work on Trichoplusia ni (Hb.) and Heliothis zea (Boddie).\r
North-DT; Holt-GG
1535
  
1970
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. 66: 1, 54-59; 2 fig.; 10 ref.
In this study of the effect of gamma irradiation of the larval stage of Spodoptera exigua (Hb.) on subsequent development, it was found that a lower percentage of newly hatched larvae treated with doses of 2 - 8 Krad of gamma radiation reached the pupal or adult stage than untreated controls. Sublethal doses retarded the development of the immature stages, and their effect was reflected in the total weight, total length and width of the head capsule of third- and fifth-instar larvae. There was a progressive decrease in egg production with increase of dose, and the average number of eggs laid per female reached 0.8 at 8 Krad. The viability of eggs laid decreased with increasing dosage up to 4 Krad, at which hatching was prevented. The length of adult life was also reduced by irradiation of newly hatched larvae. Irradiation of mature larvae with doses of 1 - 3 Krad decreased the percentage pupating or reaching the adult stage. Pupation was prevented with a dose of 30 Krad and adult emergence with one of 15 Krad. The duration of the pupal stage was slightly affected at doses of 2 and 3 Krad and adult longevity was shortened at all doses tested. The number of eggs laid per female and the percentage hatch was reduced at all dosages, and the reduction increased with increase of dose.\r
Zaki-MM; El-Badry-EA; Wakid-AM; Ahmed-MYY
1675
  
1970
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. 66: 3, 236-241; 3 fig.; 19 ref.
Pupae of Spodoptera exigua (Hb.) of three different ages, one day old, four days old and fully mature, were exposed to various doses of gamma -radiation from 60Co to study the effects of the treatment. It was established that egg production by females from pupae irradiated when one or four days old was greatly reduced. Dosages of 2 - 16 krad when administered to fully mature pupae appear to stimulate egg production in the resulting adult, but dosages above 16 krad depressed egg production. The viability of eggs laid by females treated as one-day-old or four-day old pupae was greatly reduced, especially by treatment at the earlier age. When fully mature pupae were treated, the viability of eggs laid by the resulting females was positively correlated with dosage. Irradiation of such pupae at 18 krad caused complete sterility in the adults. Irradiation of one day old pupae showed no definite effect on the length of adult life, whereas irradiation of four-day-old pupae caused a slight increase in the length of adult life.\r
Wakid-AM; Zaki-MM; El-Badry-EA; Ahmed-MYY
1676
  
1970
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. 67: 1, 44-48; 16 ref.
When normal males of Spodoptera exigua (Hb.) were caged with females irradiated with a dose of 18 krad, about 98% of the eggs were sterile, whereas only 80% sterility was achieved when males similarly treated were confined with normal females. However, complete sterility was reached when such treated males and females were caged together. Treated males were more competitive than untreated males at a ratio of 1:1:1 (treated males: normal males: normal females), while at ratios of 5:1:1, 10:1:1 and 15:1:1 the competitivensss of the treated males was suppressed. When equal numbers of treated males and females were added to the normal population the percentages of sterility were 82.9, 90.3, 95.7 and 96.4 at ratios of normal males:normal females:treated males:treated females of 1:1:1:1, 1:1:5:5, 1:1:10:10 and 1:1:15:15, respectively. Storage of sperm in the male after irradiation did not result in restoration of sperm viability.\r
El-Badry-EA; Wakid-AM; Zaki-MM; Ahmed-MYY
1677
  
1970
Scientific-Reports-of-the-Faculty-of-Agriculture,-Okayama-University. No. 36, 19-26; 10 ref.
In the work reported in this further part of a series [cf. RAE/A 59, 1903; 60, 2985], male pupae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) 7-9 days old were irradiated with gamma -radiation from radioactive caesium (137Cs) at dosages of 2 or 16 kR. Adult males that emerged from these pupae were crossed with untreated females in single paired matings and the F1 and F2 progeny were reared. It was found that the developmental time of the F1 larvae, especially the females, was longer than that of normal individuals. The percentage of F1 progeny pupating and emerging was considerably lower than normal, the extent of the reduction being dependent on the dosage; at 16 kR, fewer F1 females emerged than males. The mating frequency of the F1 adults was higher than normal and the number of eggs laid in the F1 X F1 cross almost as high as in untreated controls. When the original dosage was 2 kR, the hatching rate of eggs resulting from the F1 X F1 cross was high, but at 16 kR it was very low. When the F1 male progeny of males irradiated as pupae at 16 kR were crossed with untreated females the percentage egg hatch was often high, but the reverse cross (F1 females X untreated males) resulted in eggs with an extremely low hatching rate. Many of the F2 progeny resulting from the crossing of F1 males with F1 females, or from crossing F1 males or females with untreated individuals, died during the larval or pupal stage, survival to the F2 adult stage being extremely low. The mating ability of surviving F2 adults was lower than normal, and the females laid few and sterile eggs.\r
Kiyoku-M; Tsukuda-R
1694
  
1970
Manitoba-Entomologist. 4: 53-69; 35 ref.
In this paper, which forms part of a symposium on 'Ionizing radiation in entomology' held by the Entomological Societies of Canada and Manitoba at Winnipeg in 1970, investigations relating to the control of injurious Lepidoptera by the release of adults sterilised by irradiation are reviewed, particular attention being paid to work on Trichoplusia ni (Hb.) and Heliothis zea (Boddie).\r
North-DT; Holt-GG
1732
  
1970
J.Insect Physiol. 16:2211-2222
.
Holt, G. G. North D. T.
1742
  
1970
Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 63:501-507.
.
Holt, G. and North, D. T.
1743
  
1971
Cambridge University Press, London. pp 333.
A reference volume on probit analysis
Finney DJ
Irradiation
23
  
1971
Proceedings Panel Honolulu, 1970, IAEA, Vienna 177pp.
Proceedings of an expert panel meeting on irradiation as a quarantine treatment.
International Atomic Energy Agency
Irradiation
55
  
1971
Radionueleides in Ecosystems. Proceedings 3rd National Symposium, Oak Ridge pp1175-1190.
Cavalloro R;Delrio G
90
  
1971
Disinfestation of fruit by irradiation. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp. 113-124.
Loaharanu P
96
  
1971
HortScience, 6: 202-204.
Maxie EC;Sommer NF;Mitchell FG
97
  
1971
Disinfestation of Fruit by Irradiation Proceedings of a Panel on the Use of Irradiation to Solve Quarantine Problems in the International Fruit Trade, Honolulu 1970 Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency pp. 113-124.
Loaharanu P
112
  
1971
Journal Economic Entomology, 64: 72-75.
Male and female citrus red mites, Panonychus citri (McGregor), were sterilized at doses of 24 and 32 kr, respectively. The viability of eggs produced by treated mites and their progeny was affected by doses of 8, 16, 24, and 32 kr. An increased dose generally produced a decrease in viable eggs, and doses ranging from 4 to 80 kr apparently induced dominant lethal mutations in the sperm. Doses of 96, 112, and 128 kr caused sperm injury or inactivation. Tepa at concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5% sterilized male citrus red mite, and doses of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5% caused a reduction in female fecundity.
Beavers JB;Hampton RB;Toba HH;Moreno DS
sterilisation, Citrus red mite, TEPA
128
  
1971
Journal Economic Entomology, 64: 832-837.
Laboratory-reared virgin adults of Amphimallon majalis (Razoumowsky) were obtained by collecting third stadial grubs in the spring, isolating individuals in 1 oz plastic cups containing seeded sterilized soil, and incubating them at 18.3<SUP> o </SUP> C and 75-80% RH. A 70% recovery as adults resulted. Doses of gamma radiation required for sterilizing adults differed between sexes and also between laboratory-reared and field-collected beetles. For m., (sterilization dose) laboratory-reared beetles required 5400 rad (5.4 krad) for males and 1.2 krad for females. Field-collected beetles required 4.1 krad for males and 0.9 krad for females. Histological evidence indicates disruption of sperm bundles in the funnel region of testicular follicles.
Chung SL;Tashiro H;Lippold PC;Massey LM Jr.
European chafer, whitegrubs
141
  
1971
Journal Economic Entomology, 64: 1364-1368.
The sterilizing effect of 1-13 krad of gamma radiation given to 2- to 6-hr-old adults of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was established. Male sterility increased with increasing dose to reach 98.5% at 9 krad and 99.8% at 13 krad. The relationship between sterility and dose was similar to that found for males irradiated 2 days before eclosion. Above 3 krad, females produced eggs for 1 week, the number decreasing with increasing dose, and they then became infecund. When confined with untreated pairs in a 3: 1: 1: ratio, males treated with 5, 7, 9, or 11 krad 2 days before eclosion or as 2- to 6-hr-old adults reduced egg hatch to about the same extent. When males were irradiated in nitrogen 2 days before eclosion the gamma dose had to be increased by approximately 2.5 krad over that required in air to achieve a particular level of sterility. However, at the 98% level of male sterility, irradiation in nitrogen resulted in males which were 3 times more competitive than males irradiated in air.
Hooper GHS
Mediterranean fruit fly;Ceratitis capitata;competitiveness sterile males
163
  
1971
International Journal Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 22: 439-441.
Huque H
Corcyra cephalonica
164
  
1971
Radiation treatment of foodstuffs. Proceedings All-Union Scientific-Technical Conference on '20 Years of Production and Application of Isotopes and Sources of the Nuclear Radiation' Minsk (SUR) Oct 1968. pp. 134-139.
Zakladnoi GA;Ratanova VF
disinfestation, radiation resistance, Cereal, commercial feasibility
310
  
1971
Proceedings of symposium on sterility principle for insect control or eradication IAEA Vienna (Austria) p. 23-30.
Bagheri-Zenouz E
disinfestation, Wheat
312
  
1971
Agricultural Research. 20(2): 16.
Anonymous
disinfestation, grain pests
313
  
1971
Panel proceeding: Disinfestation of fruit by irradiation Honolulu, HI (USA) 7-11 Dec 1970 p. 33-41.
Burditt AK Jr;Seo ST
disinfestation, fruit flies, dose requirements
333
  
1971
Panel proceeding: Disinfestation of fruit by irradiation Honolulu, HI (USA) 7-11 Dec 1970 pp.113-124.
Loaharanu P
disinfestation, papaya, Mango, radurization, sensory properties, shelf life, spoilage, nutritional value, storage condition
334
  
1971
Panel proceeding: Disinfestation of fruit by irradiation, Honolulu, HI (USA) 7-11 Dec 1970 p. 137-156.
Dollar AM;Hanaoka M;McClish GA;Moy JH
disinfestation, papaya, physical properties, Shipping study, shelf life, sensory evaluation
335
  
1971
Radiation Research. 45(1): 210-215.
Seuge J;Morere JL;Ferradini C
disinfestation, Mealybug, Pseudaulacaspa pentagona, Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella
339
  
1971
International Journal Radiation Engineering. 1(1): 49-59.
Tilton EW;Brower JH;Cogburn RR
disinfestation, Cereal, packaging
348
  
1971
Radiation treatment of foodstuffs. Proceedings All-Union scientific-technical conference on '20 years of production and application of isotopes and sources of the nuclear radiation' Minsk (USSR) Oct 1968. pp 18-24.
Vakar AB;Zakladnoj GA;Pertsovskij ES;Ratanova VF;Sosedov NI
disinfestation, Cereal, physical properties
352
  
1971
International. Journal Applied Radiation Isotopes. 22: 439-441
Huque H.
Corcyra cephalonica, Pyralidae
386
  
1971
Journal Economic Entomology. 64: 1074 -1080 (1971).
Fourteen chemicals comprising alkylating agents, organotin compounds, an antimetabolite (aminopterin) and an antibiotic (porfiromycin) were evaluated as chemosterilants of Circulifer tenellus (Baker) . Topical application and contact exposure were found unsatisfactory, but oral administration in sucrose solution through paraffin membranes was satisfactory and was employed throughout the study. Apholate and tepa were toxic at sterilizing dosages. Metepa, tepa, and Compound I (NNI-hexa-methelene bis-l-aziridinyl carboxamide) were the most effective sterilants; hempa was the least effective. Because of high sterilant activity and low toxicity, Compound I was selected as a model compound for detailed study. Male leafhoppers were somewhat more susceptible than females to the toxic as well as to sterilant action of Compound I. Susceptibility was highest in late-stage nymphs and it decreased in both sexes with advancing age. High degree of sterility was evident when matings were performed immediately after a 24 hour acquisition period, and it increased to a plateau at 48 hours, remaining constant for the entire 1 month period of observation. Females which mated to sterile males remained monogamous provided the 1st copulation was long enough (approximately 1.6 minutes) to insure passage of seminal fluid. Chemosterilized males, when confined at various ratios with normal males and females, were found to be sexually as competitive as nonsterile individuals, both under optimum environmental conditions and under temperature stress. Sterilization of the insect by Co irradiation was also demonstrated, 95% sterility having been obtained with doses of 16-20 krad for males and 44 krad for females.
Ameresekere RVWE;Georghiou GP
393
  
1971
Disinfestation of Fruit by Irradiation (Proceedings of a Panel, Honolulu, 1970), IAEA, Vienna. pp.33-41.
Burditt A.K.Jr.;Seo S.T.
disinfestation, fruit flies, dose requirements
467
  
1971
Proceedings of a panel organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energyin Food and Agriculture and held in Vienna,1-5 June 1970.Vienna. IAEA.1971. p. 1-6.Panel
\r\r\r\r\r                         proceedings\r                         series
Ahmed M.S.H.;Al-Hakkak Z.; Al-Saqur A.
495
  
1971
Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control or eradication Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970 .International Atomic Energy Agency, Food and Agriculture Vienna (Austria) Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy Sterility principle for insect control or eradication Proceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Athens, 14- 18 September 1970.
Haisch A.;Boller E.F.
Tephritid, Radiation
498
  
1971
Symposium of the sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970.  International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Proceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Athens, 14-18 September 1970. Vienna. IAEA. 1971. p. 203-215. Proceedings series
Huignard J.
Radiation
500
  
1971
Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970.  International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Proceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Athens, 14-18 September 1970. Vienna. IAEA. 1971. p. 349-354. Proceedings series
Jermy T.
501
  
1971
Symposium of the sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970.  International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Proceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Athens, 14-18 September 1970. Vienna. IAEA. 1971. p. 203-215. Proceedings series
Huignard J.
502
  
1971
Journal Economic Entomology, 64: 823-832
Chung SL;Lippold PC; Tashiro H;Massey LM Jr
527
  
1971
Journal Economic Entomology, 64: 883-886
Chung SL;Tashiro H; Massey LM Jr.
528
  
1971
Research Reports of the Office of Rural Development, Korea. Veterinary Series, 1971, Vol.14, pp.63-67
Han, T. W.;Suh, M. D.;Kim, B. J.
603
  
1971
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. (15 Nov 1971). v. 64(6) p. 1247-1249
Stahler, N
642
  
1971
Revista Peruana de Entomologia,  Vol.14, pp.66-86
The authors review work in Peru in 1968-70 on the feasibility \r          of using the sterile-male technique for the control of \r          Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) on fruit trees there. Details \r          are given of the methods used to rear, irradiate (with gamma -\r          radiation), label (with fluorescent powder) and release the \r          fly. Field work was carried out in the Valleys of Chillon and \r          Ica to evaluate the populations of wild flies, and small-scale \r          field releases of sterile individuals were begun in 1970.
Gonzalez B., J.; Vargas V., C.; Jara P., B
644
  
1971
Rev. Peruvuana Entomol. 14: 77-83
Gonzales B.J.;Vargas C.; Jara B.
645
  
1971
Report, 30 Apr 1971. 48 p
Gonzalez Bachini, J.E
646
  
1971
Symposium of the sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970,International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Proceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Athens, 14-18 September 1970. Vienna. IAEA. 1971. p.131-143. Proceedings series
Symposium of the sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970,International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterility principle for insect control or eradication. \rProceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Athens, 14-18 September 1970. Vienna. IAEA. 1971. p.131-143. Proceedings series
Chan, Kai-Lok
732
  
1971
Redia. 52: 201-230;
The sexual biology of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) was studied in the laboratory in Italy with a view to possible control by the sterile-male technique. The interval between adult emergence and sexual maturity decreased as temperatures rose and photoperiod increased. Most flies paired at light intensities below 300 lux, although mating was possible from 700 lux downwards. The degree of relative humidity had no effect. Virgin flies mated sooner with older, already mated partners than with other virgin adults. Most males mated 23-26 times. About half the females tested mated only once and most of the rest 2-4 times, at intervals varying inversely with the degree of heat and duration of photoperiod; they were more ready to accept a subsequent mating within a short than a long interval from the previous one. Fecundity was greatest in females paired with males that had alredy mated 9-12 times, and fertility was greatest in females paired with males mated 13-16 times. Artificial interruption of copulation showed that a normal hatching rate was possible after a mating period lasting 60 min but that the rate was reduced by 57-80% if mating was interrupted after 15-30 min. In tests using some irradiated males in which either sterile or no spermatozoa were being produced, it was found that during copulation the male transmitted to the female a factor present in the seminal fluid but distinct from the spermatozoa, which stimulated oviposition and rendered the female unreceptive to further matings at least for a time.
Cavalloro-R;Delrio-G
776
  
1971
Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970: International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Proceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Athens, 14-18 September 1970. Vienna. IAEA. 1971. p. 55-65.
\r
Orphanidis, P.S. Kalmoukos, P.E.
810
  
1971
Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970. Sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Proceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Athens, 14-18 September 1970. Vienna. IAEA. 1971. p. 31-36.
Huque, Heshamul
863
  
1971
p.503-512. in: Sterility principle for insect control or eradication.  Proceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Athens, 14-18 September 1970. Vienna. IAEA. 1971. Proceedings series.
Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy).
Carcavallo, R.U.;Rewald, E.;Carabajal, C.A
1004
  
1971
Indian Council of Medical Research: Genetics and our health. Proceedings of the seminar held from 5th to 8th April, , 129-134
Sharma-VP
1019
  
1971
Journal-of-Heredity. 62: 2, 90-100
Males of Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles that had been exposed to 3000 R gamma -radiation from a 60Co source were mated with females containing various marker genes, and 46 translocations in the chromosomes were identified in subsequent studies. They comprised 10 showing linkage between the genes for sex and red-spotted eye (Rs), 10 showing linkage between Rs and the wild-type allele of golden (go+) [cf. preceding abstract, etc.], 14 showing sex-linked sterility and 12 showing linkage between go+ and sterility. Some of the translocations were easy to distinguish cytologically. The results established that Rs is located on the shorter arm of the submetacentric chromosome (chromosome 2) and confirmed that the linkage group containing go and the sex gene is located on chromosome 1 \r
Sakai-RK; Baker-RH; Mian-A
1092
  
1971
Chromosoma. 35: 2, 184-205
Males of Culex pipiens L. were exposed to X-rays and neutrons, and the chromosomal translocations produced in them were isolated by methods previously described [cf. preceding abstract]. Ten lines of mosquitos carrying reciprocal translocations were maintained to the F4 generation for cytological studies. An account is given of the nature of each translocation and of the behaviour of the chromosomes of heterozygotes during meiosis. The percentage sterility (proportion of eggs that failed to hatch) was 46-52 for the heterozygotes of nine lines with translocations involving two chromosomes and 82 for those of one line with a translocation involving three chromosomes, as compared with 2.25% for the normal strain. In a discussion of the possibilities of using translocations for genetic control of mosquitos, it is pointed out that those involving three chromosomes or, alternatively, combinations of those involving two would be most effective, since these cause high percentage sterility. The results of cytological analysis indicated that the sex factor and sex-linked genes are borne on the smallest chromosome (I).\r
Jost-E; Laven-H
1098
  
1971
Experientia. 27: 8, 968-969
The results of further tests of irradiated males of Culex pipiens L. for chromosomal translocations causing partial sterility are given in this second paper of a series [cf. RAE/B 62, 262]. F1 males from crosses between irradiated males and normal females were crossed with normal females, and a translocation was considered to be present when more than 10% of the F2 eggs failed to give rise to adults. By this criterion, 124 of 401 F1 males tested contained translocations causing up to 85% sterility, though in a majority (101) the sterility ranged from 11 to 50%. Many lines were maintained for several generations, and in each the sterility varied within 10% of a mean value, showing that the translocations were stable.It is pointed out that three types of chromosomal translocations may be produced in the germ cells of irradiated male mosquitos. One type (TM) is between an autosome and the chromosome with the male-determining allele M, another (Tm) is between an autosome and the chromosome with the female-determining allele m and the third (Ta) is between the two autosomes. TM translocations are the most useful for the purpose of field control, since they are inherited by all male descendants of the irradiated male. Tm and Ta translocations are inherited on average by half the males and half the females of F2 and later generations; it is therefore difficult or impossible to select translocation-bearing mosquitos from a laboratory culture. Examination of the sperm of 81 males with translocations showed that 20 of the translocations were TM, 10 were Tm and 51 were Ta.\r
Laven-H; Meyer-E; Bieniok-R; Guille-G; Ohmann-J
1099
  
1971
Experientia.  27: 4, 471-473
The genetic mechanism whereby chromosomal translocations cause inherited semi-sterility in insects is explained [cf. RAE/B 60, 381, etc.]. In tests of X-irradiation for the production of translocations in Culex pipiens L., males 2-3 days old were exposed to various doses of radiation and then mated with untreated females. The incidence of gross chromosomal aberrations, indicated by the percentage of eggs that failed to hatch, rose from about 20% for a dose of 1 kR to over 95% for a dose of 8 kR. Only about 60% of the eggs that hatched gave rise to adults. Some of the remainder probably bore lethal factors that were expressed in the larval or pupal stages. The F1 adults were mated with normal adults of the opposite sex so that the translocation heterozygotes amongst them, each indicated by subnormal hatch of the F2 eggs, could be identified. The incidence of translocation heterozygotes in the F1 generation rose from 10% for a dose of 0.5 kR to 50% for a dose of 5 kR. Much lower incidences have been observed in Drosophila exposed to comparable doses, perhaps because the chromosomes of Drosophila are shorter than those of Culex.\r
Laven-H; Jost-E
1101
  
1971
Mutation-Research. 13: 49-57
The toxicity of 1,3-propanedioldimethanesulphonate for Culex pipiens L. was investigated as a preliminary to the design of experiments on the production of translocations in mosquitos that might be used for eradication. Doses between 2.15 X 10-3 and 1.7 X 10-1 mu mole/fly were used in the experiment and compared with X-rays with respect to dominant lethality and the induction of translocations. As with X-rays, 1,3-propanedioldimethanesulphonate produced dominant lethal mutations as well as semisterility when mature sperm of C. pipiens was exposed to different concentrations of the chemical. There was a conspicuous increase in F1 lethals from 10% at 1.7 X 10-2 mu mole/fly to 100% at about 2 X 10-1 mu mole/fly; the 3-4% semisterility detected in the F2 generation was due to translocations or pericentric inversions and was independent of the dose of the chemical used between 1.7 X 10-2 and 5.1 X 10-2 mu mole/fly. Evidence for translocations was obtained from cytological tests of semisterile lines.\r
Jost-E; Amirkhanian-JD
1102
  
1971
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. 67: 2, 125-133
Promising results were obtained in experiments aimed at sterilising males of Hyemya (Phorbia) brassicae (Bch.). It was found that a single irradiation of pupae with 4 kR during the last few days of this stage induced almost complete sterility of males, and that the intake of a 1% aqueous solution of metepa during the first three days after emergence led to 85.3% sterility. Experiments with irradiated flies in the greenhouse resulted in 67% control. The prospects of the method for achieving control of H. brassicae are discussed.\r
Muller-HP
1120
  
1971
Mutation Research. 13:353-359.
Wuergler, F. E.
1151
  
1971
Molecular-and-General-Genetics. 112: 9-13
Larvae of Musca domestica L. from eggs deposited 48, 72, 96 and 120 h previously were treated with doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 R X-rays. The larvae were heterozygous for the linked marker genes bwb (brown body) and w (white eye) in repulsion. Adult emergence was completely prevented at 2000 R but apparently unaffected at 500 R and also at 1000 R except for a slight lengthening of the development period. Examination of the adults showed the presence of genetically marked cell clones that were probably the result of somatic crossing-over (mitotic exchange of genetic markers) induced by irradiation, rather than of somatic mutation. The incidence of clones increased with larval age at the time of irradiation and was higher in those treated at 1000 than at 500 R. It is considered that this technique should prove useful in studying the development
Nothiger-R;Dubendorfer-A
1253
  
1971
Application of induced sterility for control of lepidopterous populations. Proceedings of a panel organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA \rDivision of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and held in Vienna, 1-5 June 1970. Vienna. IAEA. p. 27-39. Panel \rproceedings series
.
Jong, D.J. de Ankersmit, G.W. Barel, C.J.A. Minks,
1363
  
1971
Symposium on rice insects. Proceedings of a Symposium on Tropical Agriculture Researches 19-24 July, 1971. Tropical-Agriculture-Research-Series. undated, No. 5, 69-73
When the pupae of Chilo suppressalis (Wlk.) 5-7 days old were exposed in tests in Korea to gamma -radiation from a radioactive (60Co) source and received doses of 25 or 30 krad, the males to which they gave rise paired as frequently as normal males when a new virgin female was supplied each day. The delay between emergence and the first pairing was 2.4 days for irradiated males, as compared with 1.5 days for normal males, and the intervals between the first and the second pairing were 3 and 1.3 days, respectively. On average, each irradiated male paired 1.2 times when confined with five females and 2.5 times when confined with 10 females. Similar averages were obtained for normal males. Tests in which irradiated and normal males were confined in different ratios with virgin females showed that the irradiated males were not fully competitive. The greatest reduction in egg hatching was obtained with a ratio of 5:1:1 between the irradiated males (30 krad), the normal males and the virgin females; 26.6% of the eggs hatched, as compared with 78.6% when normal males were confined with normal females in the ratio of 1:1.\r
Hyun-JS
1380
  
1971
korean-Journal-of-Plant-Protection. 10: 2, 117-120
In studies in Korea in connection with the possible use of the sterile-male technique for the control of Chilo suppressalis (Wlk.) on rice, larvae, pupae and adults were exposed to gamma -radiation from a radioactive cobalt (60Co) source. It was found that the pupal stage was the most suitable for irradiation and that for this stage the sublethal doses were 26 kR for females and 26.7 kR for males and the sterilising dose (SD90) 23 kR for the males. In almost all cases, exposure to doses between 7.5 and 30 kR resulted in an increase in the number of eggs laid/female and in the numbers of egg-masses/female, as compared with normal females. When normal females paired with treated males, the number of eggs/female decreased.\r
Chung-KH; Ryu-J
1382
  
1971
J. Stored Prod. Res. 7:85-90.
.
Calderon, M and Gonen, M.
1480
  
1971
J. Stored Prod. Res. 7:91-96.
.
Gonen, M and Calderon, M.
1483
  
1971
Journal of Stored Products Research. 7:91-96.
.
Gonen, M. and Calderon, M.
1484
  
1971
Symposium on rice insects. Proceedings of a Symposium on Tropical Agriculture Researches 19-24 July, 1971. Tropical-Agriculture-Research-Series. undated, No. 5, 75-79
In connection with the possible use of the sterile-male technique for the control of Sesamia inferens (Wlk.) on rice in Pakistan, the borer was reared in the laboratory on an artificial diet containing rice-stem powder, agar, casein, sucrose, brewer's yeast, vitamins, ascorbic acid, cholesterol, Wesson's salts, linseed oil and distilled water. Rearing was carried out at 80 deg F and 80% R.H., with a 16 h photoperiod to inhibit diapause. Some 50-80% of the larvae gave rise to adults. The egg, larval and pupal stages lasted 6-10, 25-40 and 8-11 days, respectively, the adults lived for 3-6 days and the females laid 194-700 eggs each. Male pupae 7-8 days old were exposed to doses of 10-25 kR gamma -radiation from a radioactive cobalt (60Co) source and the adults to which they gave rise were allowed to pair with normal females. When the dose was 20, 22.5 or 25 kR, the percentage of eggs that hatched was 5.5, 3 and 0, respectively, as compared with 86% when neither adult had been irradiated. The corresponding percentages when males were irradiated one day after adult emergence were 6, 4 and 0, respectively, as compared with 88%. The irradiation appeared to have no adverse effects on the emergence of mating frequency of the individuals exposed in the pupal stage. Preliminary studies indicated that the sterilising dose for females irradiated one day after adult emergence is 10 kR.\r
Qureshi-ZA; Anwar-M; Ashraf-M; Chatha-NU; Arif-MD
1662
  
1971
Comptes-Rendus-de-l'Academie-des-Sciences-Agricoles-en-Bulgarie. 4: 4, 403-406
Laboratory investigations were made in Bulgaria to determine the effects of exposure to gamma -radiation from a 60Co source at doses of 1-100 kR on females of Sitotroga cerealella (01.), which were confined with non-irradiated males about 1 h after treatment. Females one day old were used. The minimal sterilising dose was 60 kR. The percentage of eggs laid by irradiated females that hatched decreased as the dose rate increased. Embryonic mortality was probably due to induced dominant lethal mutations, which are conditioned by the occurrence of various types of chromosomal aberrations resulting from irradiation of the oocytes. At high doses, damage to the cytoplasm of the oocytes may have a toxic effect.\r
Dryanovska-O; Glavanakova-S
1665
  
1971
Report of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand). 5 p
The army worm, Spodoptera exigua Hb. was reared for 6 more generations in an artificial medium containing Mung bean as a major component. By improving the rearing temperature and humidity conditions, better rearing results were obtained. The average percentage of development from eggs to pupae, from eggs to adults, and from pupae to adults was 41.7+-4.93, 38.44+-6.32 and 88.1+-1.48 respectively. The pupal weight was also calculated. In sterilization studies, the 3-day-old male pupae were subjected to gamma rays at 0, 5 and 10 krads. Upon emerging into adults, they were mated with non-irradiated female moths. Male moths emerged from pupae subjected to 10 krads of gamma rays could significantly induce infertility in eggs deposited \r
Loaharanu, S. Chiravathanapong, S
1682
  
1971
Scientific-Reports-of-the-Faculty-of-Agriculture,-Okayama-University. No.38, 9-14; 4 ref.
Females of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) mated with males exposed to gamma -radiation from 137Cs at a dosage of 12 kR conspicuously displayed radiation-induced sterility. Dissection of the reproductive systems of both sexes revealed four types of sterility, namely the inability of irradiated males to mate, imperfect incorporation into the spermatophore, loss of motility of the spermatozoa and chromosome damage to the germ cells; the first three were observed more frequently than the last. Males of the F1 progeny showed complete sterility when mated with unirradiated females, and abnormal development sometimes occurred in their testes. The causes of this inherited sterility appeared to be inability to mate and incomplete transfer of spermotozoa into the spermathecae.\r
Tsukuda-R; Kiyoku-M
1697
  
1971
Experimental-Parasitology. 29: 2, 292-301; 24 fig.; 9 ref.
The development of Moniliformis dubius in Periplaneta americana (L.) was studied after exposure of the eggs and early larvae of the parasite to X-rays and exposure of the infected cockroaches to high temperatures. Eggs of M. dubius that were treated in vitro with doses from 8 to 72 kR were infective to P. americana, but the proportion completing development in the cockroach decreased with increase in dose. In high-temperature experiments, larvae from infected cockroaches kept at 28 deg C were normal, whereas those from cockroaches kept at 33 deg C were greatly distorted and no larvae were found in cockroaches kept at 38 deg C. The types and extent of temperature-induced abnormalities were dependent on the length of exposure and the stage of development at which exposure occurred. Abnormalities resulting from exposure to X-rays are generally similar to those that occurred after exposure to 33 deg C for more than 1 week.\r
Robinson-ES; Jones-AW
1754
  
1972
Sind University Research Journal, 6: 77-92 (1972).
Bughio AR;Quereshi AZ;Mecci AK
88
  
1972
Journal Economic Entomology, 65: 250-254.
Effects of gamma radiation exposures of 5-100 krad on all developmental stages of Trogoderma inclusum LeConte and T. variabile Ballion were studied. Results with the 2 species were similar. Development of adults from treated eggs and larvae was prevented by 5 krad. Some adults emerged from pupae at all treatment levels, but no reproduction occurred at 30 krad or above. Adult females were more sensitive to the sterilizing effects of gamma radiation than were males. All adults were sterilized when irradiated at 30 krad or above. Control of the 2 species appears feasible with levels of radiation currently approved for treatment of stored-grain insects.
Brower JH;Tilton EW
Trogoderma variabile, Trogoderma inclusum
132
  
1972
Journal Economic Entomology, 65: 203-205 (1972).
The effects of gamma radiation on the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, and the granary weevil, S. granarius (L.) were studied. All stages of these weevils were treated with 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 krad of gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Eggs and larvae of both species were unable to develop to the adult stage at any treatment level. The emergence of adults from irradiated pupae occurred with doses as high as 50 krad for S. zeamais and as high as 20 krad for S granarius. A dose of 5 krad in the pupal stage of both species, however, was sufficient to cause sterility. The reproductive ability of irradiated adults was considerably reduced with 5 krad, and complete sterility occurred with 10 krad and above. Survival time of irradiated adults decreased with increasing dose.
Brown GA;Brower JH;Tilton EW
Stored product pest, Sitophilus granarius, Sitophilus zeamais
134
  
1972
Journal Economic Entomology 65: 1619-162.
Tests were made to determine the influence of radiation dose rate and age at treatment on some effects of gamma radiation on the eggs of Acarus siro L. Eggs of 5 ages were irradiated with 3 krad of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source at dose rates of 6, 18, and 43 rad/sec. Variations in egg mortality and hatching time resulted from treating eggs at different ages. Eggs irradiated at 3 days were the most sensitive, having the longest mean hatch time and the greatest mortality. The influence of dose rate was not significant. However, a consistently lower egg hatch resulted after the 43 rad/sec treatment.
Brown GA;Davis R
Stored product pests, Acarina
135
  
1972
Hilgardia, 41: 299-341.
Nelson RD;Stafford EM
Two spotted mite, spider mites, Tetranychus urticae
179
  
1972
Journal Economic Entomology 65: 531-533.
Brower JH;Tilton EW
disinfestation, packaging, Nuts
347
  
1972
J. Exp. Zool. (Oct 1972). v. 182(1) p. 69-94
Cooper, R.S
chromosomal aberrations; gamma radiation; genetic radiation effects; irradiation
595
  
1972
Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, Vol.71, No.4, pp.406-409, 14 ref
The average number of eggs laid/female fell from 97.69 to 12.92 at 30 krad, and there was a corresponding fall in egg viability from 99.62% to nil.
Elbadry, E. A.;Wakid, A. M.; Elaal, M. A. Abd
596
  
1972
Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz,  Vol.79, No.4, pp.223-226, 13 ref
Wakid, A. M.;Elbadry, E. A.;Abd Elaal, M. A.
597
  
1972
Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie Animale,  Vol.4, No.3, pp.379-383
A dose of 15 krad reduced the viability of the eggs by 25%. A dose of 10 krad considerably shortened the length of adult life. No males completed their development to the adult stage after exposure as larvae to 25 krad.
Wakid, A. M.;Elbadry, E. A.;Elaal, M. A.
598
  
1972
Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie Animale, Vol.4, No.3, pp.375-378, 7 ref
The total production of eggs decreased as the \r\n          dose increased from 8 to 30 krad. Males were sterilised by \r\n          exposure to 28 krad; exposure to 8-60 krad apparently induced \r\n          dominant lethal mutations in the sperm and exposure to 80, 100,\r\n          120 or 140 krad was injurious to or inactivated the sperm
Wakid, A. M.;Elbadry, E. A.;Elaal, M. A.
599
  
1972
Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, Vol.71, No.2, pp.178-181, 9 ref
Groups of 25 adult males of Tetranychus arabicus Attiah were \r\n          exposed to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) at a\r\n          dose of 30 krad and confined with groups of 15 untreated \r\n          females. The numbers of eggs laid were recorded at intervals of\r\n          two days and the percentages that hatched were noted. After \r\n          four days, the treated males were replaced by 25 untreated or \r\n          25 treated males, and observations were continued for a further\r\n          six days.
Elbadry, E. A.;Wakid, A. M.;Abd Elaal, M. A.
600
  
1972
Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol.65, No.4, pp.947-950
Eggs of Tetranychus arabicus Attiah 1 and 4 days old were \r\n          exposed to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) in \r\n          the laboratory in Egypt. The younger eggs were considerably \r\n          more susceptible to treatment than the older ones. Doses of \r\n          9052 and 70 000 rad almost completely prevented hatching in the\r\n          two groups, respectively. Unfertilised eggs were, generally, \r\n          more sensitive to treatment than fertilised eggs (regardless of\r\n          age).
Elbadry, E. A.;Elaal, M. A. A.
601
  
1972
Hilgardia v. 41(12) p. 299-342
Neson R.D.;Stafford M.
Two spotted mite, spider mites, Tetranychus urticae
604
  
1972
J. Hered. (1972). v. 63 p. 158-166
Lorimer, N.; Hallinan, E.; Rai, K.S
638
  
1972
Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. Genetics and our health. Proceedings of the seminar, New Delhi, 5-8 April 1971. New Delhi. Indian Council of Medical Research. 1972. p. 77-94
Rai, K.S.; McDonald, P.T.
639
  
1972
J. Med. Entomol. (30 Sep 1972). v. 9(5) p. 468-478
Asman, M.; Rai, K.S
640
  
1972
J. Hered. (1972). v. 63(5) p. 247-255
McGivern, J.J.; Rai, K.S
641
  
1972
Mosquito News,  Vol.32, No.4, pp.574-579,
Pupae of Anopheles albimanus Wied. not more than 24 h old were \r\n          exposed to X-rays at doses of 2000-8000 R. The mortality of the \r\n          resulting adults was negligible, and the insemination rates in \r\n          crosses between treated or untreated females and treated or \r\n          untreated males were normal except when both sexes had received \r\n          8000 R. The egg production of treated females was greatly \r\n          reduced. When males that had received 5000, 6000, 7000 or 8000 \r\n          R were mated with untreated females, the infertility rates \r\n          (adjusted for results with untreated males) of the eggs were \r\n          84.3, 82.9, 88.7 and 100%, respectively
Ali, S.R.; Rozeboom, L. E.; Lapasatukul C
643
  
1972
Food and Agriculture Organization; International Atomic Energy Agency: The sterile-insect technique and its field applications. Proceedings of a panel on the practical use of the sterile-male technique for insect control organized by the Joint FAO-IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and held in Vienna, 13-17 November . 1974, 109-115
The author reviews and discusses information, some of it unpublished, obtained during recent work in various countries in connection with the application of the sterile-male release method for the control of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) on olive. The topics dealt with include the mating frequency of the females, the sequence of sperm utilisation by females that have paired more than once, the sterilising dose of gamma -radiation, the mating competitiveness of sterilised males, the failure to develop an inexpensive mass-rearing method, and field studies on the optimum ratio of sterile to wild flies, the dispersal and behaviour of released flies and chemical control measures capable of reducing wild population rapidly before or during releases. He considers that the data discussed suggest that pupae should be irradiated as late as possible in the pupal stage, that field releases should begin well ahead of the fruiting season (preferably in late winter) and be made at short intervals, and that the release points should not be more than 200 m apart. He emphasises that much more information is required, particularly on the dispersal and possible migration of wild fly populations.
Tzanakakis M.E.
771
  
1972
Environmental-Entomology. 1: 4, 490-497
In tests in Greece, wild adults of Dacus oleae (Gmel.), reared in the laboratory on olive fruits (W) and flies reared on artificial diet (AD) were mixed in various strain and sex ratios as soon as they were sexually mature. In some experiments, the AD males were sterilised by 60Co gamma -radiation, receiving 8 krad either as advanced pupae or as young adults. Length of life was practically the same for normal W and AD flies of both sexes and for males irradiated at the adult stage, but was slightly decreased in males irradiated at the pupal stage. Most of the observed matings were recorded during the last hour of artificial twilight at the end of the photophase. The intermating period (derived from the number of matings with either W or AD males at the time of maximum mating activity) of W females was much shorter than that of AD females. On the average, 6-10 days (W females) and 12-18 days (AD females) were needed for a new mating during the first 35 experimental days. Intermating periods were much longer as the flies grew older. When normal W and AD males competed for W females, they were nearly equal, but AD males irradiated at the pupal stage were fully competitive only during the first week. Subsequently, they were less active than W males by a factor of 3-4 or even more. Egg hatching was markedly reduced only during the first 4 weeks. When AD males were irradiated as adults, their competitiveness improved strikingly, approaching that of normal males. Egg hatching remained low according to the ratio of males throughout the experiment.
Economopoulos-AP
780
  
1972
Nucleus 9: 1-2, 107-110
\r\r
Bhatti-MA;Shipp-E
847
  
1972
Parasitology. , 64: Part 3, 429-440
Ticks were in general unaffected by irradiation doses below 2 krad, but at this dosage and above, irradiation reduced survival rate, mean engorged weight, percentage egg weight and egg viability, and it extended feeding times. Male ticks seemed to be more susceptible to the effects of irradiation than females. Males exposed to 4 krad were sterile, but since they survived doses considerably higher than this it would be worth investigating the biological control of ticks by the release of sterile males. It may prove possible to irradiate Theileria parva parasites within ticks in such a way that the feeding of treated ticks upon cattle would immunize the cattle against East Coast fever.\r
Purnell-RE;Dargie-JD;Gilliver-B;Irvin-AD;Ledger-MA
893
  
1972
Unpublished data.
Barnes B.N.
908
  
1972
Zastita-Bilja. 23: 117-118, 25-36
In further laboratory investigation in Yugoslavia on the effects of irradiating male pupae of Lymantria dispar (L.) from a 60Co source on the ensuing adults [cf. RAE/A 60, 428], the doses used were 15 and 20 krad. Males with short bodies (12-13 mm) proved the most susceptible to irradiation, especially at the higher dose, and had a shorter life-span than larger males whether treated or not. Both treated and untreated males paired with several females, the number of matings being related to body length; the highest number observed was five. The duration of mating was reduced in treated males. Female fertility depended on body length and not on the number of matings, and fecundity tended to decrease after the fourth mating owing to exhaustion of sperm in the male; there was no obvious difference between female fecundity and fertility rates, whether the male partners were irradiated or not. Treatment of males with 15 krad permitted a slightly higher hatching rate of the subsequent generation than did treatment with 20 krad.
Maksimovic-M
910
  
1972
Zastita-Bilja. 23: 117-118, 37-48; 3
Further releases of irradiated males of Lymantria dispar (L.) in Jelsa Park on the island of Hvar, Yugoslavia [cf. RAE/A 60, 417] were carried out in 1970 and 1971, with adults from pupae treated with 20 krad gamma -radiation from 60Co [cf. preceding abstract], since the higher dose previously used had prevented the transmission of sterilising factors to a subsequent generation. The moth population in the area had been steadily increasing since 1968, and complete defoliation of the trees had been prevented only by mechanical and chemical control measures. In 1970, 1473 sterile males were released, which gave a ratio of 0.42 sterile to 1 normal male; in 1971, 3813 sterile males were released, the ratio being 1.55:1. The proportion of egg-masses with a hatching rate of over 61% fell from 61.9% in 1969 to 9.2% in 1971; in an untreated park, where the natural rate of population increase was slower than in Jelsa because of a less favourable food supply, the proportion increased from 22.2% in 1969 to 47.4% in 1971. Laboratory rearing of samples of the F1 generation after the release of sterile males in each year showed that only small numbers of the larvae from egg-masses with a low hatching rate could complete their development; this confirmed the possibility of transmission of sterilising factors to their progeny by males treated with 20 krad. The progressive decline of the hatching rates over the two years indicated a cumulative effect of releases of sterile males.
Maksimovic-M
911
  
1972
Zastita-Bilja. 23: 117-118, 37-48
Reports further releases in 1970 and 1971 during the control programme in Yugoslavia already noticed [see FA 33, 6598]. The adult males were from pupae irradiated with 20 krad from a Co60 source, since the higher doses previously used had prevented the transmission of sterilizing factors to the next generation. The numbers of sterile males released (and the ratio to normal males) were 1473 (0.42) in 1970 and 3813 (1.55) in 1971. The proportion of egg-masses with a hatching rate of >61% declined from 61.9% in 1969 to 9.2% in 1971; in an untreated park that was less favourable to L. dispar, the hatching rate increased over the same period. Laboratory tests showed that only small numbers of the larvae from egg-masses with a low hatching rate could complete their development, suggesting that sterilizing factors were transmitted to the progeny. The results showed a cumulative effect of sterile-male releases.
Maksimovic-M
912
  
1972
J. Econ. Entomol. 65:1338?1340
Ladd TL Jr;Coppinger AJ;Harris RF;Petty DM;Hamilton DW;Bruer HL
1007
  
1972
Food Irradiation   7: 76-81
Sterilising and lethal dosages od irradiation were determined for Cryphalus fulvus Nijima and for Callosobruchus chinensis L. The bean weevil was sterilised at 9 krads and the bark weevil at12 krads. Other effect dosages were also determined.
Yoshida T.;Fukami J.;Fukunaga K.;Matsuyama A.
Minute pine bark weevil, Cryphalus fulva, Adzuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis
1014
  
1972
Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical: Seventh Congress of the Brazilian Society of Tropical Medicine, Manaus, 14 to 18 February 1971.: VII Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Manaus, 14 a 18 fevereiro de 1971. Revista-da-Sociedade-Brasileira-de-Medicina-Tropical. 6: 317.
Rego-AM;Oliveira-ML-de;Rodrigues-ZA;Azevedo-Rod
1020
  
1972
Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical: Seventh Congress of the Brazilian Society of Tropical Medicine, Manaus, 14 to 18 February 1971.: VII Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Manaus, 14 a 18 fevereiro de 1971. Revista-da-Sociedade-Brasileira-de-Medicina-Tropical.6: 317.
Azevedo-Z; Rego-AM; Oliveira-ML-de; De-Oliveira-ML
1021
  
1972
Mosquito News, Vol.32, No.4, pp.574-579,
Ali, S. R.; Rozeboom, L. E.
1069
  
1972
Egyptian-Journal-of-Genetics-and-Cytology. 1: 2, 300-302
Abdel-Malek-AA; Ahmed-SH
1072
  
1972
Acta-Entomologica-Bohemoslovaca. 69: 6, 365-372
The effects of gamma -radiation at 500-8000 R from a radioactive cobalt (60Co) source on pupae of Culex pipiens molestus Forsk. were studied at Cairo with a view to the use of the sterile-male technique against this mosquito, which is the vector of filariasis [caused by Wuchereria bancrofti] in the Nile Valley [cf. RAE/B 20, p. 159; 46, p. 9]. The percentage emergence from pupae treated at 500-6000 R was slightly lower than that from untreated pupae, and emergence from those treated at 6500-8000 R was slightly higher. The average number of eggs/female deposited each day decreased rapidly in females from pupae that had been treated at more than 4000-5000 R, and no eggs were laid when treatment had been at 8000 R. The decrease in egg production caused by irradiation was brought about through a decrease in the average number of eggs/raft [cf. 58, 1478]. The viability of the eggs fell steadily as the dosage rose. Irradiation of pupae at 500-5000 R generally reduced percentage pupation in the F1 generation, and irradiation at 2000-4500 R produced an irregular decline in the percentage emergence of adults of the F1 generation. No adults emerged when the dosage had been 5000 R or more. The proportion of females emerging from treated pupae was greater than from untreated ones, but the sex ratio in the F1 generation was not affected. Females from treated pupae generally lived longer than males and longer than females from untreated pupae.\r
Abdel Malek A.A.;Ahmed S.H.
1073
  
1972
Applied-Entomology-and-Zoology. 7: 3, 103-108
Male pupae of Culex pipiens molestus Forsk. were treated when two days old with gamma -rays from a 60Co source at dosages ranging from 1000 to 12 000 R to determine the effects of irradiation on emergence, length of life, fertility and mating competitiveness. The effects on emergence and length of life were slight; the emergence rate never fell below 90%. The mating activity of the sterilized males was lower than that of normal males. Exposure of male pupae to 6000, 10 000 and 12 000 R caused reductions in viability of 71.1, 99.1 and 99.9%, respectively, in the eggs laid by normal females with which the males mated, and even exposure to 2000 R caused 22.9% reduction in viability of the eggs. Eggs laid by females exposed first to normal and then to sterilized males mostly hatched, but few, if any, eggs hatched if the female had mated first with a sterilized male. It is estimated that a 14-fold release of males treated with 12 000 R would be needed to eradicate 90% of a field population of mosquitos.\r
Sonoda-H
1074
  
1972
Vestnik-Ceskoslovenske-Spolecnosti-Zoologicke. 36: 4, 233-236
The percentage of dominant lethals induced in eggs deposited by adults of Culex pipiens molestus Forsk. that had been treated in the pupal stage with gamma -radiation increased with increase in dose from 500 to 7750 R, reaching 98.3% at 7750 R. The mortality of the resulting larvae also increased at doses of from 2000 to 5500 R and reached 100% at 6000 R. The pupae showed only slight effects of irradiation of the parental generation pupae at 500-5000 R.\r
Abdel-Malek-AA; Ahmed-SH
1075
  
1972
Experientia. 28: 4, 481-482
Chromosomal aberrations (chiefly reciprocal translocations) were produced by X-irradiation of males of Culex tritaeniorphynchus Giles and these led to a constant degree of semisterility in the F2 generation. The majority of the lines isolated after irradiation showed on average a lethality of about 50%, the degree of variation within a line being plus or minus 10-15%. Cytological examination of prophase chromosomes suggested sex determining factors M and m are located on one of the two larger chromosomes.\r
Selinger-R
1091
  
1972
Canadian-Journal-of-Genetics-and-Cytology. 14: 2, 215-220
With certain provisos, the expected sterility of mosquitos heterozygous for a single reciprocal translocation is 50%, and that of mosquitos heterozygous for a translocation involving 3 non-homologous chromosomes is 75%. Since higher levels of sterility are commonly used in attempts to control insects by the sterile-male technique, two methods of raising the sterility of stocks of Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles bearing translocations and other chromosomal aberrations were investigated in Pakistan. In the first method, various stocks were exposed to about 3 kR gamma -radiation from a 60Co source (the treatment used to produce the original translocations). The maximum sterility that resulted was 76.6% among females and 89.5% among males. In the second, males heterozygous for two independent chromosomal aberrations were selected from the progeny of the appropriate parent stocks. These males exhibited 97% sterility in crosses with wild-type females. The possible advantages of such doubly heterozygous males over singly heterozygous or completely sterile males are discussed.\r
Sakai-RK; Baker-RH; Mian-A; Said-S
1093
  
1972
Fakulteit van de Landbouwwetenschappen, Gent: Gent, Fakulteit van de Landbouwwetenschappen: Twenty-fourth International Symposium on Phytopharmacy and Phytiatry, 9th May 1972.: Vierentwintigste International Symposium over Fytofarmacie en Fytiatrie, 9 Mei 1972. Mededelingen-Fakulteit-Landbouwwetenschappen-Gent. 1972, 37: 2, 738-746
In the Netherlands, three techniques were evaluated for marking adults of Hylemya brassicae (Bch.) 1-7 days old, with a view to studying their population size, dispersal rate and life-span. These methods were the addition of pigments to an aqueous solution of sugar and honey fed on by the flies, the addition of radioactive phosphorus (32P) at 1-2.5 mu Ci/ml to a similar solution, and coating the puparia with powdered paints mixed with sand, which adhered to the ptilinum of emerging adults and became lodged inside the head capsule after retraction of the ptilinum. The second and especially the third method proved economical and convenient for large-scale application. In April-August 1971, adults reared in the laboratory were released in groups of 500-1000 in small cabbage fields after marking by one of these two methods and sterilisation by irradiation at 4.5 krad. Labelled flies were recaptured in Malaise traps for 13 days after release and paint-dusted flies for 21 days; the shortest recovery time for a trap placed at 80 m from the release point was 2 days.\r
Dinther-JBM-van; Van-Dinther-JBM
1119
  
1972
Mededelingen-Fakulteit-Landbouwwetenschappen-Gent. 37: 1, 115-123
Owing to the development of resistance in Hylemya (Delia) brassicae (Bch.) to chlorinated hydrocarbons and the continuous cultivation of cauliflower and other brassica crops in Belgium, the effect of gamma -radiation was tested on laboratory-reared populations with a view to possible release of sterile adults in the field. Males flies were exposed to 2800-10 000 rad and females to 1000-4500 rad shortly after adult emergence. It was found that treatment of males with doses of up to 5000 rad had a considerable effect on the hatching rate of the eggs which was not greatly increased by increasing the dose, and that doses over 3000 rad shortened the male life-span. None of the doses had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid by the mates of treated males. Treatment of females reduced fecundity to about one-third of normal, and the hatching rate of the eggs produced was comparable to that obtained with treated males. A further reduction in fertility was obtained by irradiating both males and females. Effects were observed not only on the eggs from parents of which one had been treated, but also on the survival rate of larvae and pupae and on the fecundity, fertility and life-span of that generation; mortality was particularly heavy in the larval stage. From these results it is concluded that the best dose for male treatment is 4500 rad. Males treated at this dose had a slightly reduced life-span but otherwise appeared to compete well with untreated males.\r
Delcour-E; Pelerents-C
1121
  
1972
Entomologia-Experimentalis-et-Applicata. 15: 3, 360-376
The irradiation of males of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westw. at the end of the pupal stage (when the females of the population had already emerged) was found to stimulate emergence [RAE/B 59, 1165], thus impeding their distribution and release in the pupal stage. Further studies have shown that this stimulated emergence can be delayed by several hours if the irradiation is carried out in an atmosphere of nitrogen or at low temperatures, or both in nitrogen and at low temperature. The survival and fertility of males exposed to different doses of irradiation from a radioactive cobalt (60Co) source given in nitrogen or warm or cold air were compared and it was found that a specified level of fertility could be achieved with better rates of survival when nitrogen was used rather than air. A computer was used to calculate the probable effects on the population of releases of males that had received various possible treatments, and it was concluded that a dose in nitrogen that gives incomplete sterility would be the most effective.\r
Curtis CF;Langley PA
1181
  
1972
Entomologia-Experimentalis-et-Applicata. 15: 3, 360-376
The irradiation of males of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westw. at the end of the pupal stage (when the females of the population had already emerged) was found to stimulate emergence [RAE/B 59, 1165], thus impeding their distribution and release in the pupal stage. Further studies have shown that this stimulated emergence can be delayed by several hours if the irradiation is carried out in an atmosphere of nitrogen or at low temperatures, or both in nitrogen and at low temperature. The survival and fertility of males exposed to different doses of irradiation from a radioactive cobalt (60Co) source given in nitrogen or warm or cold air were compared and it was found that a specified level of fertility could be achieved with better rates of survival when nitrogen was used rather than air. A computer was used to calculate the probable effects on the population of releases of males that had received various possible treatments, and it was concluded that a dose in nitrogen that gives incomplete sterility would be the most effective.\r
Curtis-CF; Langley-PA
1182
  
1972
XIIIth-International-Congress-of-Entomology-Moscow-2-9-August-1968-Proceedings-Volume-3:-Rafes-PM (ed.).  Symposium E. Chemical and radiation sterilization in pest control. 1972, 436.\r
.
Sukhova-MN;Zairov-KS;Stepanova-MN;Teterovskaya-TO;Frolkov-IP;Urazimbetov-DB;Pitanina-NI
1243
  
1972
Annual report.
Four formulations containing tetramethrin and piperonyl butoxide, including one in which a small amount of the tetramethrin was replaced by resmethrin, were tested in the laboratory in Denmark in 1972 against house-flies [Musca domestica L.]. Only the formulation containing resmethrin caused 100% mortality; the poorest of the others caused 80-90%. In laboratory tests of insecticides incorporated in PVA paints, Abate [O,O,O',O'-tetramethyl O,O'-thiodi-p-phenylene diphosphorothioate] was applied at 35 g/m2, fenitrothion at 11 and dimethoate at 14 to absorbent surfaces and all were applied at half those rates to less absorbent surfaces. Abate proved to be ineffective even when flies were exposed to the treated surfaces for several days, whereas 100% mortality resulted when flies were exposed for 2 h to the surfaces treated with the other two compounds. On farms, residual sprays of bromophos, dimethoate, fenitrothion and fenthion failed to afford satisfactory control of flies, and frequent applications of aerosols of pyrethrins, tetramethrin or a mixture of bioallethrin [(+)-trans-allethrin] and bioresmethrin, all synergised with piperonyl butoxide, were ineffective except on farms where the fly populations were moderate or low. Male house-flies sterilised by exposure to 3000 rad gamma -radiation from a 60Co source were released weekly from April to June on two farms in Sjaelland at the rate of 20 for each male in the natural populations. These measures did not prevent the populations from increasing, although 28-60% of the female house-flies caught on the farms during the release period were found to be sterile.Tests of flies collected from a total of 52 farms showed that resistance to numerous organophosphate compounds was widespread and that resistance to synthetic pyrethroids occurred in flies from farms where these compounds had been used. Three synergists tested in the laboratory afforded only slight improvements in the effectiveness of various organophosphates against Danish strains of resistant house-flies, although one of them (S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate) [cf. RAE/B 60, 1102] at 3.2 mu g/fly was completely effective in overcoming malathion resistance in a strain from East Africa. A fourth synergist, FDMC [1,1-di(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanol], which inhibits the dehydrochlorination of DDT [cf. 57, 408], had little effect in overcoming resistance to DDT in Danish strains of flies.ZR-515 (isopropyl (2E4E)-11-methoxy-3,7.11-trimethyl-2,4-dodecadienoate), an analogue of juvenile hormone, was tested for the control of mosquito larvae in a salt marsh in Sjaelland. Two pools were treated at each of three rates in May, when Aedes detritus (Hal.) and A. leucomelas (Mg.) accounted for most of the large larvae and pupae present and A. flavescens (Mull.), A. dorsalis (Mg.) and A. caspius (Pall.) accounted for most of the smaller larvae. The production of adults from larvae and pupae taken from the pools was completely suppressed for 7-11
Anonymous
1254
  
1972
Comptes-Rendus-de-l'Academie-Bulgare-des-Sciences. 25: 9, 1269-1271
In tests in Bulgaria, sugar solution in white plastic containers was offered for 30 min three times daily to two groups of 100 house-flies (Musca domestica L.) in identical chambers 30 X 40 X 45 cm, and the sugar solution in one chamber was irradiated from below with gamma -radiation from a 137Cs source at about 330 R/h during each 30-min feeding period. The behaviour of the flies during the feeding periods was observed in both chambers for 6 successive days. Roughly equal numbers of flies approached the food in the two chambers at the beginning of a feeding period, but after 3-4 min the numbers near the irradiated food decreased. Flies moved continually between irradiated food and the walls of the chamber, whereas they remained on unirradiated food until they were satiated. Food irradiated for 30 min before being offered to the flies had no effect on their behaviour. Less of the irradiated than of the unirradiated food was consumed, but the difference decreased continuously during the 6 days of observations. These results suggest that the flies are able to sense the radiation or possibly a temporary change that may occur in the sugar solution while it is being irradiated, and also that their sensitivity decreases with time.The radiation source was placed under the food in one chamber for the first 4 days and under that in the other for the fifth and sixth days. On the fifth day, the amount of food consumed in the two chambers was virtually the same, showing that a conditioned reflex had been established in the flies in the chamber first used for irradiation. On the sixth day, a slightly smaller amount or irradiated than of unirradiated food was consumed.\r
Vasilev-IB;Luvchiev-VI;Ivanova-RG
1255
  
1972
Annals-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-America. 65: 3, 594-597
Three colonies of Musca domestica L., were established from an Orlando, Florida, wild-type stock to study the cumulative effects of substerilising doses of X-rays on house-fly populations. Two of the colonies were subjected to X-rays in each generation for 32 generations, while the third colony received no treatment. In one treated colony, untreated females from each generation were mated with males from the parental Orlando stock treated with a dose of 1.2 kR. In the second treated colony, males and females were crossed in every generation following treatment of the males with a dose of 1.2 kR. Egg hatch in the treated colonies decreased from an average of 60% to 20% during the study but quickly returned to the level in the untreated colony (usually 85-95%) when treatments were discontinued. The treated colonies also had a reduced but relatively constant level of larva-to-adult survival (about 75-90%) compared with the untreated colony, but the life-span of adults of the F28 generation was not adversely affected. Males from treated colonies were not as sexually competitive as males from the Orlando stock, based on the egg hatch recorded when irradiated and non-irradiated males were confined together in cages with females. Tests with flies of the F26 generation indicated that treatment with X-rays increased the frequency of deleterious recessive mutations on autosome III in flies in the treated colonies when compared with those in the untreated colony\r
Flint-HM;McDonald-IC
1257
  
1972
Pesticide-Biochemistry-and-Physiology. 1971, 1: 3-4, 373-380
Dosage-mortality tests for 29 selected organophosphate insecticides were conducted on male and female X-irradiated and non-irradiated house-flies (Musca domestica L.). Twenty of the insecticides exhibited no significant toxicity change in irradiated flies. Irradiation induced significantly increased or decreased toxicities for nine of the insecticides. Five insecticides were significantly less toxic to irradiated males than to irradiated females. Electrophoretic analysis of homogenates of X-irradiated and non-irradiated males and females showed no qualitative differences in the banding patterns for general proteins, alpha -naphtyhl esterases, and alkaline phosphatases; however, the possibility of quantitative differences in some bands is not excluded. It is suggested that microsomal induction by X-irradiation may be responsible for the toxicity changes observed.\r
Drake-JL;Crowder-LA;Ware-GW
1258
  
1972
Environmental-Entomology. 1: 5, 615-618
Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the competitiveness, length of life and mating performance of males from a male-producing strain of Musca domestica L. (in which, when reared at 33 deg C, all females die as larvae or pupae and only males emerge [cf. RAE/B 60, 1911]) in comparison with wild-type males from 2 different geographical locations. The results indicated that males from the male-producing strain that received 6 krad gamma -radiation from a 60Co source were more competitive than non-irradiated wild-type males in mating with wild-type females. Moreover, both irradiated and unirradiated males of the male-producing strain live longer than their wild-type counter-parts, although irradiation reduced the life-span of the males of the former strain. The irradiated males of the male-producing strain were found to complete an effective mating (resulting in a female being unwilling to mate again) in less time than the wild-type males and they were able to maintain this advantage through 2 successive matings. The use of the male-producing strain in control programmes for M. domestica involving the sterile-male technique is suggested.\r
McDonald-IC;Overland-DE
1259
  
1972
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology.65: 5, 1364-1368
heat-sensitive lethal mutations in Musca domestica L., large numbers of males were exposed by tarsal contact and during feeding, mainly for 16-18 h, to ethyl methanesulphonate at about 0.01 M in a 1% sucrose solution absorbed on tissue paper. A genetic technique, which is described, was used to test for dominant and recessive heat-sensitive factors located on chromosome III. Ten recessive mutations but no dominant ones were detected. Mutants of all ten types survived when reared at 25 plus or minus 2 deg C but died when reared at 33 plus or minus 2 deg C. The temperature-sensitive periods, which varied in length, occurred during the larval stage in three of the mutants and during the pupal stage in the remainder. At the lethal temperature, death occurred soon after the onset of the sensitive period.\r
McDonald-IC;Overland-DE
1260
  
1972
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 65: 6, 1721-1725
Pupae of Musca domestica L. were exposed to gamma -radiation from a 60Co source one day before emergence. The pupal mortality was 15.2-23.2% after doses of 2000-7000 R, as compared with 6.1% in untreated pupae. Male emergence was unaffected at 7000 R and slightly higher at 2000 and 4500 R than amongst untreated pupae, but the life-span of the males was reduced from 17 to 11-13 days by irradiation. When flies from treated and untreated pupae were tested in a flight-mill, no significant difference in flight time or speed was observed, though males tended to fly longer and slower, and females for shorter periods, after irradiation. Recaptures of marked females on fly-paper inside a greenhouse decreased with increasing doses of radiation, and tests with a stroboscope revealed a lowered wing-beat frequency in flies from pupae irradiated at 7000 R. Females receiving 2000 R or more deposited non-viable eggs, and those receiving 7000 R did not oviposit.\r
Shepard-M;Noblet-R;Hunter-PE
1261
  
1972
Rivista-di-Parassitologia. 33: 1, 45-49
Pupae of Piophila casei (L.) (a pest of cheese, ham, packed meats and other foodstuffs) due to emerge on the next day were irradiated with X-rays at a dosage (10 000 R) expected to give a high percentage of complete sterility combined with minimal mortality. Emergence was 91.49% and 91.78% for irradiated and control pupae, respectively. When 500 irradiated males were allowed to mate with normal virgin females in isolated groups consisting of two females and one male, 88.8% of the males yielded no progeny. Smaller samples of males tested at different ages up to 15 days showed the same high level of sterility. Length of life was unaffected.\r
Grigolo-A;Sacchi-L;Caprotti-M
1288
  
1972
Landwirtschaftliches-Jahrbuch-der-Schweiz. 1972, 86: 3-4, 393-490 (Publsher Wadenswil)
The following work on vegetables is reported: Lettuce: Forcing a winter crop under polythene tunnels; greenhouse soil heating in winter; the effect of irrigation method on the yield and disease susceptibility of greenhouse-grown heading lettuce; control of root aphids; and control of Bremia lactucae with dithiocarbamate fungicides. Tomatoes: Raising cuttings in soil blocks; temperature studies in a phytotron; growing cherry tomatoes in a greenhouse in summer; and the occurrence of Pseudomonas tomato in Switzerland. Cucumbers: Forcing ridge cucumbers under polythene tunnels; raising cuttings in soil blocks; and the development of resistance to fungicides based on benzimidazole derivatives by mildew [Erysiphe cichoracearum]. Capsicums: The effect of pruning method on promoting early yields; temperature studies in a phytotron; and a cv. trial to increase the range of vegetables grown in greenhouses in summer. Beans: Growing late crops for mechanical harvesting and processing; the effect of Benlate on root nodule bacteria; and relating the depth of sowing to herbicide damage in bush beans. Carrots: Sowing density; and control of Psila rosae by sterile male release. Onions: Stem nematode control. Spinach beet: Effects of day and night temperatures on development and yield. Fungi: Culture of Morchella, Boletus and Pleurotus spp. General: Variety trials and breeding; use of pelleted seed; soil management; fertilizer trials; economics of growing under glass; control of caterpillars of Agrotis sp.; and preservation by freezing and drying. Herbicide trials: Beans, spinach, carrots, onions, brassicas, red beet, leeks, celery, lamb's lettuce, lettuce and scorzonera. Storage trials. Brassicas, celeriac, red beet, carrots, onions and leeks in CA, and brassicas, carrots and celeriac in polythene bags. ADDITIONAL ABSTRACT: The following research on top fruit is reported: Apples: The effects of Alar [daminozide] on root development, fruit set and shoot growth; nutritional requirements; soil management; integrated control of insect pests; autocidal control of codling moth [Cydia pomonella]; trials of cvs resistant to Venturia inaequalis; benzimidazole and Santoquin residues in fruits; control of Podosphaera leucotricha with wettable or powdered sulphur; production of volatile aroma compounds by fruit after harvesting; morphological, biochemical and physiological studies on fruits; storage in cold stores or CA, or in palettes covered with polythene; and storage disorders and diseases. Pears: Fruit storage in cold stores or CA. Cherries: The effect of Alar on fruit and stone development; labour requirements for harvesting; ecology and control of the fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi; and studies on Pfeffinger virus disease; trials of cvs for kirsch production. Rootstock trials and training: Apples, pears, cherries, plums and walnuts. Variety trials and breeding: Apples, pears, cherries and prunes. General: Root development in relation to soil compaction by machinery; mech
Anonymous
1293
  
1972
Dissertation-Abstracts-International. 32B: No.12, 7094-7095
\r\r\r
White-SA
1307
  
1972
Zastita-Bilja. 23: 117-118, 65-71
In further laboratory observations in Yugoslavia on Eurygaster spp. with a view to control [cf. RAE/A 60, 4911], experiments were carried out with gamma -radiation from 60Co in order to find the best dose for sterilisation and also whether the egg parasites Telenomus and Trissolcus (Asolcus) spp. [cf. loc. cit.] can develop in sterile Eurygaster eggs from irradiated parents. Overwintering adults of the pest were collected from the field, the males were treated with 40, 60 or 80 krad gamma -radiation and paired with normal females, and the numbers of eggs laid, sterile and hatched are shown in a table. The most favourable dose proved to be 60 krad. In a second experiment, sterile eggs resulting from mating of males treated with this dose were exposed to parasitism in the open and then returned to the laboratory for observation. Both parasites were able to develop normally in these eggs. It is concluded that sterile-male releases can be carried out without interfering with the effectiveness of indigenous parasites in the field, since the parasite populations can multiply in the sterile eggs at the same time as the Eurygaster populations are being reduced by sterilisation.\r
Tadic-M
1337
  
1972
XIIIth-International-Congress-of-Entomology-Moscow-2-9-August-1968-Proceedings-Volume-3:-Rafes-PM (ed.)\rSymposium E. Chemical and radiation sterilization in pest control. 1972, 413.\rLeningrad, USSR, Aacademy of Sciences of the, All-Union Entomological Society.; USSR\r
.
Ankersmit-GW; Sang-FK
1356
  
1972
Journal-of-Agriculture-and-Forestry. 21: 205-215
Laboratory tests were carried out in Taiwan on the sterilisation of newly emerged adults of the rice borer Chilo suppressalis (Wlk.) by exposure to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) at doses of 5-60 krad. When males and females treated at 20-30 krad were mated, the subsequent egg hatch was reduced by 38.9-50% and the F1 egg hatch by 44.4-61.1%; no adult mortality resulted. When males treated at 20-30 krad were mated with untreated females, the reduction in egg hatch was 3.3-11.1%, and when females treated at the same dose were mated with untreated males, it was 10-4.4%. Microscopic examination of germ cells and chromosomes revealed that male sterility was caused by inability of the spermatozoa to migrate to the spermatheca.\r
Chiang-JJH
1381
  
1972
Korean-Journal-of-Plant-Protection. 11: 1, 25-30
When the pupae of Chilo suppressalis (Wlk.) 5-7 days old were exposed in tests in Korea to gamma -radiation from a radioactive (60Co) source and received doses of 25 or 30 krad, the males to which they gave rise paired as frequently as normal males when a new virgin female was supplied each day. The delay between emergence and the first pairing was 2.4 days for irradiated males, as compared with 1.5 days for normal males, and the intervals between the first and the second pairing were 3 and 1.3 days, respectively. On average, each irradiated male paired 1.2 times when confined with five females and 2.5 times when confined with 10 females. Similar averages were obtained for normal males. Tests in which irradiated and normal males were confined in different ratios with virgin females showed that the irradiated males were not fully competitive. The greatest reduction in egg hatching was obtained with a ratio of 5:1:1 between the irradiated males (30 krad), the normal males and the virgin females; 26.6% of the eggs hatched, as compared with 78.6% when normal males were confined with normal females in the ratio of 1:1.\r
Hyun-JS; Chung-KH; Ryu-J; Kwon-SH
1383
  
1972
Part of a coordinated programme for rice insect control and eradication. Final report for the period 15 July 1966 - 15 December 1972, 27 p.\r
.
Hyun, Jai Sun
1388
  
1972
Japan Agricultural Chemicals Overseas Development Commission: JACODEC Symposium on the Chemical Control of Rice Insects and Diseases. Japan-Pesticide-Information. 37-39.\r
In studies in Pakistan on the feasibility of using gamma -radiation as a means of controlling such pests of stored rice as Sitotroga cerealella Ol., Corcyra cephalonica (Stnt) and Ephestia (Cadra) cautella (Wlk.), it was found that in eggs exposed to radiation in the early stages of embryogenesis development of the embryo was arrested. If eggs were irradiated at a later stage, a higher dosage was necessary to render them nonviable. A dose of 25 kR is recommended for the control of eggs of these species. The lethal and sterilising doses of gamma -radiation for Sitophilus granarius (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.) under local conditions were determined. The method is considered promising provided that grain after treatment is protected from reinfestation by storage in polythene-lined bags or bags that have been soaked with insecticidal repellents. Studies on the effect of gamma -irradiation on the grain itself showed that in rdiation at 12, 16 and 20 kR did not affect the fat, crude fibre, ash and starch contents; the protein and moisture contents showed slight reduction at 20 kR, and there was a significant effect on thiamin content at all doses.\r
Huque-H
1402
  
1972
Seventh National Congress of Entomology, 13-16 October 1970, Mexico, D.F. Ethology - physiology.: VII Congreso Nacional de Entomologia, 13-16 octubre 1970, Mexico, D.F. Etologia - fisiologia. Folia-Entomologica-Mexicana. No. 23-24, 110 - 111.
.
Lambremont-EN; Nielson-RA; Halffter-G (ed.)
1511
  
1972
XIIIth-International-Congress-of-Entomology-Moscow-2-9-August-1968-Proceedings-Volume-3:-Rafes-PM (ed.).  Symposium E. Chemical and radiation sterilization in pest control. 437-438.  Leningrad, USSR, Aacademy of Sciences of the, All-Union Entomological Society.; USSR (publisher).\r\r
.
Vasyurin-ST; Uspenskaya-NV
1528
  
1972
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 65: 4, 966-969
Females of Heliothis virescens (F.) that had been sterilised in the laboratory in Texas by the addition of 1% (w/v) reserpine to the larval diet and exposure as subsequent pupae to gamma -radiation at a dose of 10 or 15 krad (both substerilising treatments) [cf. RAE/A 60, 113] were found to be fully competitive with untreated females for untreated males. When treated and untreated females in ratios of 0:1, 1:1, 4:1, 9:1 and 19:1 were kept with untreated males, the observed percentage reduction in egg hatch was, generally, the same as, or greater than the theoretical percentage (especially at the higher dose of gamma -radiation). In tests in large cages in the field in which moths were released and recaptured by ultraviolet-light traps, there were no differences in the flight potential or mating frequency between untreated moths and moths reared as larvae on diets containing 0.1% reserpine (with or without 0.0625% (w/v) Calco Red dye) and subsequently exposed as pupae to gamma -radiation at 7.5 krad. Observations on the treated insects indicated that the distribution of reserpine in the test diets was homogenous.\r
Guerra-AA; Wolfenbarger-DA; Hendricks-DE; Garcia-R
1562
  
1972
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 65: 5, 1282-1283
When pupae of Heliothis virescens (F.) resulting from larvae reared on diets containing reserpine (0.1% w/v) were exposed to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) at doses of 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 krad in laboratory tests in Texas, the subsequent adult females were completely sterile; the mating frequency and life span of the adults were unaffected. Although hatching of eggs was completely inhibited when females reared as larvae on reserpine were irradiated as pupae 2, 4, 6 and 8 days old and mated as adults with untreated males, some hatching occurred when females received the same treatment but were irradiated as pupae 10-12 days old. Males were not completely sterilised by the combinations of treatments (egg hatching never being completely inhibited), but when young male pupae were irradiated, the percentage of eggs that hatched was reduced more than when older pupae were treated.\r
Guerra-AA
1563
  
1972
Canadian-Entomologist. 104: 7, 995-1002
In further experiments in North Dakota  sterility induced by gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) in adult males of Heliothis virescens (F.) was studied in two colonies of which one was reared in the laboratory for more than 60 generations (laboratory strain) and the other for fewer than nine generations (wild strain). When irradiated males were crossed with untreated females, the percentage of eggs hatching after each dose was lower in the laboratory strain than in the wild one. When laboratory and wild females were crossed reciprocally with irradiated males, the fertilities were similar to those of the laboratory and wild strains, respectively. When irradiated males were crossed with female progeny from reciprocal crosses, the percentage of eggs hatching was similar to that in the wild strain. Wild-strain females were nearly monogamous for the first few generations, but F9 females mated nearly as frequently as females of the laboratory strain.\r
Proshold-FI; Bartell-JA
1564
  
1972
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 65: 6, 1596-1600
When single males of Heliothis virescens (F.) that had been exposed to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) at doses of 15, 22.5 and 30 krad were placed with one untreated male and one untreated female in laboratory tests in Texas in 1969-71, the treated moths were fully competitive with the untreated ones (based on the percentage egg hatch). Similarly treated males mixed with normal populations (equal numbers of males and females) or with a population having more untreated females than untreated males were not fully competitive. The differences in measurements of competitiveness may have been influenced by artefacts caused by the tests of competitiveness employed. Males exposed to 22.5 krad as adults were more competitive when mixed with a normal population than males exposed to the same dose as pupae. However, reduction in competitiveness was not more than 32%, even when the pupae and adults were exposed to 30 krad. Moths treated at 15 krad as pupae were more competitive than those treated at the same dose as adults.\r
Wolfenbarger-DA; Guerra-AA
1565
  
1972
Agronomia-Tropical. 22: 5, 497-507
In studies in Venezuela, exposure of maize to gamma -radiation from a radioactive cobalt (60Co) source to give a dose of 20-30 krad afforded complete mortality of all the insects in the grain at the time of exposure, while having no adverse effects on nutritional value. The insects present were Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.), Ephestia cautella (Wlk.), Plodia interpunctella (Hb.) and Sitotroga cerealella (Hb.) and Sitotroga cerealella
Revetti-LM
1620
  
1972
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 65: 5, 1265-1268
Fifth-instar larvae and adult males of Plodia interpunctella (Hb.) were exposed in the laboratory in Georgia to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) at doses sufficient to produce partially sterile populations. Treatmement of fifth-instar larvae at 3.5 krad caused a 72% reduction in numbers of offspring in the F1 generation when compared with the numbers produced by untreated moths. When F1 males from the treated line were mated with normal females, there was an 89% reduction in the number of offspring in the F2 generation. Males treated at 3.5 krad as fifth-instar larvae were sexually competitive with normal males. When adult males one day old were treated at various doses, treatment at 25 krad did not produce results comparable to those produced by treatment of fifth-instar larvae at 3.5 krad. Doses greater than 25 krad reduced the sexual competitiveness of males treated as adults.\r
Ashrafi-SH; Tilton-EW; Brower-JH
1626
  
1972
Annals-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-America. 65: 5, 1144-1149
Fifth-instar male larvae and 1-day-old male adults of Plodia interpunctella (Hb.) were treated with gamma -radiation. Histological observations on the testes and spermatogenic material were made, and the mating success of paired irradiated males and non-irradiated females was determined. In larval tests, spermatogonia were found to be the most sensitive to radiation, followed by spermatocytes and then spermatids. Damage to all stages increased with increasing radiation dose. Larvae treated with 3.5 krad developed normally, and the mating behaviour of the resultant males and sperm transfer to females were normal. Previous work showed that genetic damage, as evidenced by decreased progeny production, was transmitted through several generations. When adult males were treated with 25 krad, the spermatozoa appeared not to be affected, but progeny production in the first generation was reduced. However, this effect did not carry over into the second and third generations.\r
Ashrafi-SH; Brower-JH; Tilton-EW
1627
  
1972
Agronomia-Tropical. 22: 5, 497-507
In studies in Venezuela, exposure of maize to gamma -radiation from a radioactive cobalt (60Co) source to give a dose of 20-30 krad afforded complete mortality of all the insects in the grain at the time of exposure, while having no adverse effects on nutritional value. The insects present were Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.), Ephestia cautella (Wlk.), Plodia interpunctella (Hb.) and Sitotroga cerealella (Hb.) and Sitotroga cerealella (01.).\r
Revetti-LM
1664
  
1972
Japan Agricultural Chemicals Overseas Development Commission: JACODEC Symposium on the Chemical Control of Rice Insects and Diseases. Japan-Pesticide-Information. 37-39.
In studies in Pakistan on the feasibility of using gamma -radiation as a means of controlling such pests of stored rice as Sitotroga cerealella Ol., Corcyra cephalonica (Stnt) and Ephestia (Cadra) cautella (Wlk.), it was found that in eggs exposed to radiation in the early stages of embryogenesis development of the embryo was arrested. If eggs were irradiated at a later stage, a higher dosage was necessary to render them nonviable. A dose of 25 kR is recommended for the control of eggs of these species. The lethal and sterilising doses of gamma -radiation for Sitophilus granarius (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.) under local conditions were determined. The method is considered promising provided that grain after treatment is protected from reinfestation by storage in polythene-lined bags or bags that have been soaked with insecticidal repellents. Studies on the effect of gamma -irradiation on the grain itself showed that in rdiation at 12, 16 and 20 kR did not affect the fat, crude fibre, ash and starch contents; the protein and moisture contents showed slight reduction at 20 kR, and there was a significant effect on thiamin content at all doses.\r
Huque-H
1666
  
1972
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. 71: 4, 355-359; 2 fig.; 16 ref.
The results of further investigations (in which adult insects were treated) on the effects of gamma -radiation from a 60Co source on different stages of Spodoptera exigua (Hb.) [cf. RAE/A 61, 1042, 1502] are reported from Egypt. The number of eggs produced by groups of treated adult females that had been mated with untreated males and (in brackets) by untreated females that had been mated with treated males fell from 10 112 (10 155) for exposure to a dosage of 20 krad to 356 (2384) at 100 krad, as compared with 8179 for no treatment and 10 068-199 for treatment of both males and females. Treatment of females caused total egg sterility, and when the males only were treated the hatching rate fell from 23.1% at 20 krad to 0 at 75 krad, as compared with 90.3% for no treatment. The duration of adult life was not affected by dosages up to 50 krad, but that of females declined at higher dosages.\r
Wakid-AM; Ahmed-MYY
1674
  
1972
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 65: 5, 1431-1433; 11 ref.
The doses of gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) necessary to sterilise adult males and females of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith) [cf. RAE/A 59, 2187] were found in laboratory and field tests in Georgia in 1970 to be 35 and 15 krad, respectively. Sterilising doses did not alter adult life-span, the ability of the female to attract the male, the ability of the male to seek the female, or the ability of the adults to copulate. However, sterilisation of both sexes significantly reduced the oviposition rate of females and the type and quality of sperm transferred by the males. These adverse effects were reflected in reduced egg hatch. The data indicate that sterilised males are about 0.46 times as competitive as normal males.\r
Snow-JW; Young-JR; Lewis-WJ; Jones-RL
1685
  
1972
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. 72: 2, 205-212; 17 ref.
Pupae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) one and four days old and about one day before adult emergence were treated in the laboratory in Egypt with doses of 1-8, 10-18 and 20-50 krad gamma -radiation from a 60Co source, respectively. In each age-group, treatment at the lower dosages (which were substerilising) did not affect the percentage of pupae that gave rise to adults. At the higher (sterilising) dosages, 82.66-90.00% of the pupae gave rise to adults, as compared with 89.33-97.33% for no treatment. Ten percent of the females derived from pupae treated when one day old with a dose of 8 krad were deformed. The duration of adult life was not affected by sterilising doses. Treatment resulted in a reduction in fecundity, this effect increasing with dosage. The effect was greater when pupae one day old were treated than for older pupae, and irradiated males did not play a significant role in reducing fecundity.\r
Hosny-MM; Wakid-AM; Elbadry-EA; Sallam-HA
1695
  
1972
Scientific-Reports-of-the-Faculty-of-Agriculture,-Okayama-University. No. 39, 9-16; 8 fig.; 3 ref.
In this further part of series from Japan [cf. RAE/A 63, 1546], the development of the testis in untreated male larvae, pupae and adults of Spodoptera litura (F.) is described. In the third-fifth larval instars, the paired testes contain only spermatogonia and spermatocytes. In the sixth instar spermatocytes become predominant and spermatidal cysts are first observed. These predominant in the seventh (last) larval instar. The first spermic cysts or elongating cysts with immature sperm are found in the last larval instar. Prepupal testes contain both spermatidal and spermic cysts. The testes fuse in the early pupal stage, and more than half the spermatidal cysts progress to spermic cysts. By the late pupal or early adult stage, many spermatoza are nearly mature.\r
Tsukuda-R; Kiyoku-M
1711
  
1972
Environmental-Entomology. 1: 5, 592-596; 18 ref.
After males of Trichoplusia ni (Hb.) had been treated with gamma -radiation as adults, late or early pupae, prepupae or fifth-instar larvae or with X-rays in the egg stage, they and their F1 male and female progeny were studied for emergence, fertility, ability to mate and ability to transfer sperm. Irradiation of early pupae had the greatest effect on emergence, and irradiation at any stage reduced the fertility of the males. However, males irradiated in the adult or late or early pupal stage mated normally; males irradiated as prepupae had reduced mating frequency; and irradiation of early pupae, prepupae and larvae drastically affected sperm transfer. The mating ability of the F1 progeny was normal, but sperm transfer and fertility were reduced among the progeny of males irradiated as adults or as late or early pupae (no progeny were available from irradiated prepupae). The reduced number of F1 progeny from irradiated fifth-instar larvae reproduced normally.\r
Ercelik-TM; Holt-GG
1737
  
1972
Indian-Journal-of-Experimental-Biology. 10: 5, 350-356; 3 fig.; 82 ref.
The effects of three sublethal doses of gamma -radiation from a 60Co source (1000, 2500 and 5000 R) on consumption, digestion and utilisation of cabbage by adults of Schistocerca americana subsp. gregaria (Forsk.) (S. gregaria) 5-8 days old were investigated over a period of 10 days. The food intake, faecal production and weight gain of irradiated locusts were significantly lower than those of untreated ones and were dose-dependent. There was almost continuous gain in weight by both treated and untreated locusts up to the eighth day, after which treated ones lost weight, while untreated ones continued to gain weight. Although there was no significant change in average digestibility of dry matter or carbohydrates, nitrogen digestibility was seriously affected by irradiation. The food and carbohydrate balance of treated locusts decreased with time. The nitrogen balance decreased greatly, especially during the last three days of the experimental period. The consumption index and growth rate of treated locusts were significantly lower than in untreated ones and were dose-dependent. Except for the first six days, during which the gross efficiency of locusts treated at 5000 R was significantly higher than in untreated ones (owing to greater maintenance requirements of the latter) no significant difference in either gross or net efficiency of food utilisation to body matter was observed between irradiated and non-irradiated locusts. The probable involvement of various factors in the effects observed is discussed.\r
Rao-PJ; Mehrotra-KN
1776
  
1972
Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot.  23(12) p. 557-559
.
Huque, H. Ashraf, J.
1780
  
1972
Entomologia-Experimentalid-et-Applicata. 15: 2, 256-257; 4 ref.
Androgenesis, the production of progeny that are the descendents of sperm nuclei only, has been reported in Bombyx mori (L.) and in Bracon rebetor Say (Habrobracon juglandis) (Ashm.). The phenomenon apparently results from the inactivation of the female nuclei of the eggs produced by the female and the fusion of spermatozoa following fertilisation. In B. mori, inactivation of the female nuclei was achieved by exposure to X-rays. In both species, the androgenetic progeny were all males, though those of Bombyx were diploid and those of Bracon haploid.In studies in the Netherlands, virgin females of a wild strain of Tetranychus urticae Koch were exposed to X-rays at a dose of 40 kR (which had been shown to result in 100% mortality of deposited haploid eggs) and were then allowed to pair with normal males carrying a genetic marker. From 6500 treated females, 78 000 eggs were obtained, of which 31 hatched, 30 apparently having been produced by androgenesis: 27 gave rise to adult females of the marker type, 3 to nymphs of the marker type that died before completing development and 1 to a wild type female. No adult males were produced. The androgenetic females were capable of producing normal viable haploid progeny. The emergence of androgenetic diploid females of T. urticae is considered an important contribution to the understanding of sex determination in spider mites.\r
Overmmer-WPJ; Zon-AQ-van; Helle-W; Van-Zon-AQ
1789
  
1972
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 65: 5, 1272-1275; 23 ref.
\rWhen adults males of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) that had been exposed individually in laboratory tests in North Dakota to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) at a dose of 20 krad were mated with normal females, the sex ratio of the subsequent F1 adults was 4 males to 1 female, and the F1 males were not sexually competitive. When males were treated at 15 krad, the sex ratio of the F1 adults was about 2 males to 1 female. Most of the F1 males mated and transferred sperm, but the sperm mixture was abnormal, eupyrene sperm being absent in half the matings. As with many other species of moths, the F1 males were more sterile than the irradiated parental male\r
Cheng-WY; North-DT
1825
  
1972
Journal of Economic Entomology 65: 1-6.
Hooper, G. H. S.
Medfly tephritidae SIT irradiation Ceratitis
4779
  
1972
Science 178: 346 1164-1174.
Smith RH, and RC.von Borstel.
Genetics SIT
4788
  
1973
Journal of Economic Entomology 66: 937-939
Minimum doses of gamma radiation of 20.9, 21.4, 24.6, 25.2, and 29.1 krad in papaya, bell pepper, or eggplant for thicknesses of 1.47,1.73-1.87, 2.18, 2.81, and 3.14 gm/cm respectively, prevented emergence of the adult oriental
Seo ST;Kobayashi RM;Chambers DL;Dollar AM;Hanaoka M
papaya, Mediterranean fruit fly, bell pepper, egg plant, oriental fruit fly, Irradiation
68
  
1973
Journal of Economic Entomology, 66: 937-939.
Minimum doses of gamma radiation of 20.9, 21.4, 24.6, 25.2, and 29.1 krad in papaya, bell pepper, or eggplant for thicknesses of 1.47,.1.73-1.87, 2.18, 2.81, and 3.14 g/cm <SUP>2</SUP> ,respectively, prevented emergence of the adult oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Handel; melon fly D.cucurbitae Coquillett; and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The irradiated population developed to 3rd-stage larvae, but the number of larvae was reduced significantly by refrigeration at ca. 7.2 <SUP>0</SUP> C. Two-day-old or 12-day-old adult oriental fruit flies that were irradiated with minimum doses were sterile for longer than one month.
Seo ST;Kobayashi RM;Chambers DL;Dollar AM;Hanaoka M
papaya, Mediterranean fruit fly, bell pepper, egg plant, oriental fruit fly, Melon Fly
103
  
1973
Annals of Entomological Society of America. 66: 617.
Brower JH
Callosobruchus maculatus
123
  
1973
Journal Economic Entomology, 66: 1318-1320.
Ten krad of gamma irradiation to eggs and larvae of Palorus subdepressus (Wollaston) prevented the development of adults. Exposure of pupae to 5, 10, 20, 30 or 50 krad (but not 100) allowed some emergence, but longevity was greatly reduced. Adults were resistant to sterilizing effects of the radiation compared with other species of stored-product beetles: 30 krad was not completely sterilizing to either males or females, but the dose did greatly reduce fecundity, and longevity was significantly reduced: none survived for 3 weeks after a 20-krad exposure. Adults and pupae of this species would require higher doses of irradiation for effective control than would most other stored-product Coleoptera.
Brower JH
Stored product pests, Depressed flour beetle
130
  
1973
Journal. Economic Entomology, 66: 1175-1179.
Effects of gamma irradiation doses between 5 and 100 krad on all stages of Tenebrio molitor L. and T. obscurus F. appeared to be similar although T. molitor was more radiosensitive. Development of adults from eggs and larvae was prevented by 2.5 and 5 krad, respectively, but some adult T. obscurus emerged from pupae treated with doses as high as 30 krad, and some T. molitor at doses of 50 krad. Adult females of both species were more sensitive than males to the sterilizing effects of gamma irradiation, but sterility was complete at doses of 15 krad and above. Control these 2 species appears feasible with the levels of irradiation currently approved for treatment of stored-grain insects in wheat and wheat flour.
Bhuiya AD;Majumder MZR;Nahar G;Shahjahan RM;Khan M.
Tenebrio molitor, Tenebrio obscurus
131
  
1973
Journal Economic Entomology, 66: 745-751.
Effects of 6 gamma radiation dosages from 5 to 100 krad on all metamorphic stages of Cadra cautella (Walker) were studied. Development of adults from treated eggs and larvae was prevented by 30 and 20 krad, respectively. Some adults emerged from treated pupae at all levels except 100 krad, but radiation greatly reduced their lifespan. Irradiated adults paired with untreated adults produced fewer eggs than pairs of unirradiated adults, and these eggs had reduced hatch and developmental success. Females were sterilized by 30 krad and males by 100 krad. Progeny of irradiated adults inherited genetic damage that affected their reproductive ability.
Cogburn RR;Tilton EW;Brower JH
Cadra cautella, Ephestia cautella, almond moth, tropical warehouse moth
142
  
1973
Journal Economic Entomology, 66: 1047-1048.
Field-collected male and female Popillia japonica Newman were exposed to 0.87-64.5 krad of Co60 gamma rays. Calculated doses for 95% sterility were 8.4 krad for females and 4.4 and 5.2 krad for males in 2 separate tests. Increasing the doses of irradiation produced generally decreased longevity in both sexes
Ladd TL;Canfield RT;Forgash AJ
sterilisation, Japanese beetle
167
  
1973
Radiation preservation of food: Proceedings of symposium held by the International Atomic Energy Agency and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations at Bombay, 13-17 November 1972. IAEA Vienna (Austria) pp. 281-294.
Hoedaya MS;Hutabarat D;Sastradihardja SI;Soetrisno S
disinfestation, Stored rice
314
  
1973
Radiation preservation of food: Proceedings of symposium held by the International Atomic Energy Agency and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations at Bombay, 13-17 November 1972. IAEA Vienna (Austria) p. 295-309.
Tilton EW;Brower JH
wheat product, disinfestation, Wheat, combination treatment
315
  
1973
Radiation preservation of food: Proceedings of Symposium on the Radiation Preservation of Food Bombay (India) 13 Nov 1972 by IAEA and FAO at Bombay, 13-17 November 1972 IAEA Vienna (Austria) pp.617-628.
Dollar AM;Hanaoka M
disinfestation, papaya, Mango, commercial feasibility, fruit, combination treatment
323
  
1973
Aspects of the introduction of food irradiation in developing countries. Proceedings of a panel held by the Joint FAO/IAEA Div., Bombay, 18-22 November 1972. IAEA Vienna (Austria) p. 21-32.
Loaharanu P
disinfestation, Fish
353
  
1973
Appl. Ent. Zool. 8: 113-127.
Mochida 0
390
  
1973
Journal of Economic Entomology 66: 1175-1179
Brower JH
392
  
1973
Journal Economic Entomology 66: 745-751.
Cogburn RR;Tilton EW;Brower JH
397
  
1973
J.Stored Prod.Res. vol.9, pp.93-100
Brower J.H.;Tilton E.W.
584
  
1973
J. Med. Ent. vol.10, no.2:137-142
Both male and female Argas persicus mated more than 10 times,.  Males irradiated at doses which induce 99% dominant lethals (12KR) were fully competitive for the first 2-3 weeks after exposure, then became aspermic.  Decreasing the irradiation dose to 3KR increased the fertility.
Sternberg S.;Peleg B.A.;Galun R.
590
  
1973
Entomol. Exp. Appl.  v. 16(3) p. 389-394
Overmeer, W.P.J.;Zon, A.Q. van
605
  
1973
Nature (London). (10 Aug 1973). v. 244 (5415) p. 368-369
Hallinan, E.; Rai, K.S.
626
  
1973
Can. J. Genet. Cytol. (Mar 1973). v. 15(1) p. 9-20
Bhalla, S.C.
637
  
1973
Report, May 1973. 31 p
Gonzalez Bachini;  J.E. Pantigoso, B.J
647
  
1973
Report, May 1973. 11 p
Gonzalez Bachini;  J.E. Pantigoso, B.J
648
  
1973
Folia Biologica (Krakow), v.21, p.77-84
Jonczy J.
671
  
1973
Computer Methods and Application of the Sterile Male Technique.  Proceedings of a Panel Meeting Organized by Joint FAO/IAEA Division, 13 - 17 December 1971, Vienna.
Weidhaas D.E.
718
  
1973
Entomologia-Experimentalis-et-Applicata. , 16: 4, 433-444
Details are given of studies in Australia to investigate the metabolic activity and nutrition of the adults of Dacus cucumis French after exposure as pharate adults (eight days after puparium formation) to doses of gamma -radiation between 10 krad (the sterilising dose) and 80 krad. No differences were detected between the oxygen consumption of irradiated flies and that of normal flies or between the flies irradiated at different doses. The carbohydrate intake and the initial body weights were lower in irradiated flies than in normal ones. However, those exposed to 10 krad accumulated a greater volume of fat-body than normal flies, presumably because there was no vitellogenesis. Flies exposed to 40 krad accumulated fat-body at a rate that was initially slower than the rate observed in the flies exposed to 10 krad; this may be attributable to an initial hormonal disturbance caused by exposure to the higher dose. No degenerative changes were noted in the midgut of the flies exposed to 10 or 40 krad. The protein intake of these flies was similar to that of normal flies.
Bailey-P
739
  
1973
Note-ed-Appunti-Sperimentali-di-Entomologia-Agraria.14: 3-12
Further work was carried out in Italy to improve methods of mass-rearing Dacus oleae (Gmel.) for the purpose of control by the sterile-male technique. Adults were kept in fine-mesh cages, with a water-trough beneath into which the eggs fell [cf. RAE/A 57, 503]. In view of the increased hatching rate obtained when wax fruits were provided as oviposition sites [cf. 59, 592, 4016], green glass marbles were placed in some of the cages and olives modelled out of green paraffin wax in the others. The results were similar for the two types of artificial fruit, and the marbles are preferred as being cheaper and easier to obtain. The hatching rate was over 30% higher in eggs found below the marbles than in eggs laid in other parts of the cage or in cages without artificial fruits, although the numbers of eggs laid in cages with and without fruits were substantially the same. The ovipositing females attempted to penetrate the marbles with the ovipositor, and the influence of the effort involved (possibly causing the release of more sperm from the spermatheca into the eggs) on egg fertility is discussed. The hatching rate was slightly lower in cages containing 100 pairs of adults than in those containing 20 pairs. A more important factor affecting viability was the length of time for which the eggs remained in the water-trough; a reduction was observed in the hatching rate of eggs submerged for more than 4 h. A simple device is illustrated by which the eggs were automatically flushed out of the trough and filtered at intervals of 2 h.
Cavalloro-R;Delrio-G
772
  
1973
Note-ed-Appunti-Sperimentali-di-Entomologia-Agraria. 14: 13-29
An account is given of developments in the Liguria area of Italy on the study of the adult behaviour of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) with a view to obtaining information required for the implementation of biological control measures. Owing to the comparatively poor results afforded by chemical attractants and the good results obtained in attracting Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) by means of coloured surfaces coated with adhesives [cf. RAE/A 60, 1712; 62, 4301], similar tests were carried out with D. oleae. Yellow proved to be the most attractive colour, followed by orange and then red. Good results were obtained from both two- and three-dimensional trap-shapes, and the simplest ones were adopted, which were rectangles of cardboard or brass painted with fluorescent yellow pigment; the brass ones proved easier to hang in the trees and less susceptible to wind damage. The adhesive was of the non-drip type and therefore remained effective at high temperatures. Adults sterilised with 12 krad gamma -radiation and marked with fluorescent pigment were released, and 33% were recaptured. The most effective traps were those hung in the outer part of the trees. Flight was affected by weather, and no flight occurred at temperatures below 14 deg C. The adults moved across adjacent trees, even of species other than olive, but did not cross wide gaps in the vegetation such as that afforded by a road. Marked males and females were recaptured in equal numbers but indigenous females more than males, which indicated that the traps were equally attractive to both sexes but that females predominated in the wild population; this may have been due to a greater capacity for dispersal observed in the males.
Girolami-V;Cavalloro-R
773
  
1973
Redia. 54: 73-82
Facilities have been set up for field and laboratory studies on Dacus oleae (Gmel.) on olive in a new area, round Lake Garda in northern Italy which is close to the northern limit of distribution of the pest; the object is to study its life-cycle and population dynamics in the field by means of bait-traps and its sexual behaviour and response to temperature changes in the laboratory, with a view to possible releases of sterile or substerile adults as a means of control. Details of the catches in 1968 in traps baited with hydrolysed protein (Staley no. 7), diammonium sulphate or trimedlure, placed at three different heights in the trees in four different localities, are shown in a table. The results were rather poor, but indicated that diammonium sulphate was the most attractive bait and that adults begin to appear in August, with a peak in November, and seem to prefer the upper part of the tree. It is suggested that the low numbers caught may have been due to overwintering of many of the larvae and adults in the large numbers of olives that remained unharvested on the trees through the winter of 1968-69 owing both to labour shortage and to the late ripening of some olive varieties recently introduced from Tuscany. In the laboratory work, it is proposed to supplement previous studies [cf. RAE/A 62, 912] and those being carried on concurrently in other areas with further comparative investigations into the sexual activity of normal and irradiated adults, completely and partially sterilised adults, and sterilisation by irradiation and other methods, and also into the effectiveness as control agents of irradiated males alone or together with irradiated females; no results are available at present.
Zangheri-S;Cavalloro-R;Masutti-L;Girolami-V
774
  
1973
Redia. 54: 153-167
As a result of laboratory studies at Ispra in north-west Italy on the sensitivity of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) at various development stages to gamma -radiation, the doses resulting in mortality and sterility were ascertained, and considerable differences were observed between the sensitivity of pupae and of adults. For males irradiated within 24 h after adult emergence, the dose giving 98% sterility proved to be 16 krad, but the corresponding dose for male pupae treated three days before adult emergence was 7 krad. Substerilising doses, which permitted the treated males to be more sexually competitive than totally sterilised ones, were 12 krad for newly emerged adults and 7 krad for pupae. The best proportion of sterile flies in a population, for sexual competition, was found to be eight sterile males (treated in the pupal stage) to one normal pair. The fecundity of normal females that mated more than once [cf. RAE/A 62, 912] was always reduced by pairing with both treated and normal males, whichever type of male came first [cf. 62, 1195]. Field tests with a caged olive tree confirmed the effectiveness of the sterile-male technique for the control of D. oleae.
Cavalloro-R;Delrio-G
775
  
1973
Entomologia-Experimentalis-et-Applicata. 16: 2, 292-293
A method was developed in Greece for the rearing of larvae of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) in the laboratory that is expected to reduce the cost per pupa to about one-tenth of that of current methods in which a solid diet is used [cf. RAE/A 58, 2008]. A liquid diet prepared from 100 ml of a preservative solution (0.2% methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, 0.05% potassium sorbate and 4% 2N hydrochloric acid), 12 g brewer's yeast, 2.75 g sucrose, 4 g soy-bean hydrolysate. 2.75 g olive oil and 2 ml Tween 80, all of which are blended together for 1 min, is poured on to heat-sterilised deep-piled cotton towelling at a rate to give about 2-4 g diet/20 cm2 towelling. The diet is essentially the same as Diet N [cf. loc. cit.], with the omission of the costly cellulose powder, agar and roasted groundnuts. The liquid diet is easier and therefore less costly to prepare, and 10-20 pupae/g liquid have been obtained, as compared with 1-2 pupae/g solid diet. Eggs can be seeded directly on to the towelling soon after they are laid; the larvae burrow in the pile and select the degree of moisture appropriate to the requirements for food uptake and respiration in each developmental stage. The mean weight of the pupae compares well with that of pupae reared on Diet N.
Mittler-TE;Tsitsipis-JA
778
  
1973
Bulletin,-Organisation-Europeenne-et-Mediterraneenne-pour-la-Protection-des-Plantes. , 3: 3, 77-83
The author reviews instances in which the release of sterile insects has been integrated with other measures for the control of pest species. The species concerned are Dacus dorsalis Hend. on islands to the south of Japan, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) on the Italian island of Procida, Cydia (Laspeyresia) pomonella (L.) in the Wenas Vallley of Washington (United States) and Anthonomus grandis Boh. in the southern part of Mississippi (United States)\r
Moore-I
779
  
1973
Fakulteit van de Landbouwwetenschappen, Gent. : Gent, Fakulteit van de Landbouwwetenschappen: 25th International Symposium on Phytopharmacy and Phytiatry, 8th May 1973. I; II.: 25e Internationaal Symposium over Fytofarmacie en Fytiatrie, 8 Mei 1973. I; II. Mededelingen-Fakulteit-Landbouwwetenschappen-Gent. , 38: 1121-1125
Oogenesis in virgin females of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) and in those that had paired was studied in the laboratory in Greece in connection with studies on the effects on the females of mating with males that had not only had their sperms inactivated but had also lost some of their sexual vigour through artificial sterilisation. Virgin and mated females were kept with artificial fruits and dissected after 22 or 70 days of adult life. Examination of the ovaries on the 22nd day showed that virgins laid only a third of the number of eggs laid by mated females; that the number of ovarioles in which vitellogenesis was in progress or had not yet begun was about the same in both virgin and mated females; but that the formation of the chorion appeared to be affected by the absence of seminal fluid, since the number of fully developed ovocytes in virgins was only half that in mated females. Examination of ovaries on the 70th day revealed a greater number of developed ovocytes in virgin than in mated females, and numbers of ovocytes before and during vitellogenesis that were similar in both groups; this can only be explained by assuming a high rate of retention of developed oocytes in virgins. By the 70th day of adult life, the occurrence of degenerated ovocytes was 27 times more frequent in virgin than in mated females and was correlated with the number of developed ovocytes retained in the ovaries. It is concluded that the ovaries in D. oleae remain functional until an advanced age, and that the absence of effectual mating affects the mechanism of oviposition more than the formation of ovocytes; degeneration may result either directly from the absence of mating or from the build-up of ovocyte numbers in the ovaries.
Fytizas-E;Mourikis-PA
787
  
1973
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 66: 1, 62-64
\r
Fletcher-BS;Giannakakis-A
848
  
1973
International-Journal-of-Applied-Radiation-and-Isotopes. 24: 9, 497-500
Studies were carried out in the laboratory in Pakistan to compare the mating competitiveness of normal males of Dacus zonatus (Saund.) with that of males that had been sterilised by exposure as pupae seven days old to a dose of 9 krad from radioactive cobalt (60Co). Between 1 and 16 sterilised males were confined with a single normal male and a single normal female. The percentages of viable eggs obtained ranged from 52 at a ratio of 1:1:1 to 0 at a ratio of 16:1:1. No significant reduction in viability was obtained when sterile males outnumbered normal ones by 1-12. However, at a ratio of 14:1:1, 97% of the eggs failed to hatch and none of the pupae to which the larvae gave rise completed development to the adult stage. When one normal male was confined with one normal female, 88.4% of the eggs were viable.\r
Huque-H;Alam-MS;Ahmad-CR
862
  
1973
Beitrage-zur-Entomologie. , 23: 5-8, 341-353
Adam-H
886
  
1973
Gradinarska-i-Lozarska-Nauka., 10: 1, 15-21
Burov-D;Genkova-MT
887
  
1973
Revue-Agricole-et-Sucriere-de-l'Ile-Maurice. 52: 3, 133-135
Ceratitis rosa Karsch is now the most injurious pest of fruits on Mauritius [cf. RAE/A 49, p. 667]. Since attempts to control the fruit-fly by means of parasites have been unsuccessful, investigations are being carried out on the possibility of control by the sterile-male technique, and an account is given of a method developed for the mass-rearing of the fly in the laboratory.Rearing is carried out at 25-27 deg C and 70-80% R.H. under natural illumination (the photoperiod never being less than 11 h in Mauritius). The adults are kept in cylindrical muslin cages (30 cm in diameter and 1 m high) similar to those used by D.Nadel for rearing C. capitata (Wied.); each cage holds 10 000 flies. The adults are provided with protein hydrolysate and honey solution, which are supplied on foam pads, and cubes of sugar. The adults pair at dusk about five days after emergence and the females begin to oviposit on the seventh day. Oviposition continues for about a month and the females lay an average of 520 eggs each. The oviposition device consists of two plastic funnels joined at the rims. The sides are punctured to permit the insertion of the ovipositor. A piece of sponge soaked in honey solution and wrapped in khaki cloth is placed inside the funnels to maintain high humidity and to provide a substrate. It is important that the cloth should fit closely against the sides of the funnels for, unlike C. capitata, C. rosa does not drop its eggs into empty spaces. The eggs are removed from the cloth by washing and placed on the larval medium. They hatch in about 36 h at 25-27 deg C. The larval medium consists of powdered brewers' spent grain (BSG), which is a by-product of the brewing industry, maize flour, yeast, malt, sugar, hydrochloric acid, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (a preservative) and water. It is spread in a layer about 1 cm thick in shallow trays and seeded with the eggs at a rate of about 30 000/kg medium. The larvae complete their development in about 10 days. The contents of the trays are washed with water through a sieve (with holes 2 mm in diameter), which retains only the full-fed larvae. These are then placed on sand, which they enter to pupate. The pupae are later removed by sieving and placed in the muslin cages for adult emergence. The complete life-cycle from egg to adult lasts 23 days. Some 100 000 pupae are produced each week; four men are engaged in the work.\r
Nadel-D;Monty-J
905
  
1973
Annals-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-America. , 66: 4, 813-819
Sexually mature 7- and 8-day-old males and females of Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dall.) were subjected to gamma -radiation from a 60Co source and out-crossed to untreated partners. The males received a dose of 10 krad and the females 1 krad. Hatching of the eggs of females mated to irradiated males was reduced to 2.4% and that of irradiated females to 3.3% (only metaphase 1 oocytes being sampled). Eggs of different ages were dechorionated, fixed, and stained for cytological examination. Most eggs fertilised with irradiated sperm showed a decreased rate of embryonic development but at least 70% reached the blastoderm stage. In eggs from irradiated females, chromosome aberrations were evident as early as the meiotic divisions that preceded syngamy. Again, early embryonic development was slow but otherwise essentially normal until the blastoderm stage. Thereafter, developmental abnormalities occurred and death ensued. Cells with more or less than the normal 16 chromosomes were not unusual in 18- to 20-h embryos with irradiated parents. Different cells in the same embryo often had a wide range of chromosome numbers. Apparently, in species with holokinetic chromosomes, most dominant lethal mutations caused death after blastoderm formation. In Diptera and Hymenoptera, dominant lethal mutations are expressed during the early cleavage divisions
LaChance LE; Riemann JG
959
  
1973
Bulletin-of-the-World-Health-Organization. 48: 5, 631-635
In tests in India, males 1-2 days old of three strains of Culex pipiens fatigans Wied. were marked with fluorescent dust and released in a village near New Delhi, and their patterns of dispersal and survival rates were determined from recaptures made during the succeeding 6-7 days. Males of the 'wild' strain came from pupae collected locally; those of the Delhi strain came from a laboratory colony established 2 years earlier from mosquitos collected in Delhi Union Territory, and those of the D3 strain, which was cytoplasmically incompatible with the Indian strains, came from a colony of the mosquitos in which the genome of a strain from Sierra Leone had been combined with the cytoplasm of a strain from France.lThree releases were carried out. The first was of males of the wild and Delhi strains, between which no differences in dispersal pattern or daily survival rate were found. The second was of males of the Delhi strain, some of which were untreated, some from pupae that had been dipped for 3 h in 0.6% thiotepa and some that had been exposed to 6 kR gamma -radiation about 24 h after emergence. No differences in dispersal or survival were found between the chemosterilised, irradiated and untreated males. The third release was of males of the Delhi and D3 strains, which did not differ in dispersal; those of the D3 strain, however, had a lower survival rate than the others.h\r
Rajagopalan-PK; Yasuno-M; LaBrecque-GC
1022
  
1973
Antioquia Medica,  Vol.23, p.513
Dame, D. A.
1063
  
1973
Ninth International Congress on Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Athens, October 14-21. Volume II. Abstracts of communications. 1973, 185
\rAU:  \rSO:  
Amirkhanian-JD
1070
  
1973
Acta-Entomologica-Bohemoslovaca. 70: 5, 323-327
The mating behaviour, mating frequency and mating competitiveness of males of Culex pipiens molestus Forsk. that had been sterilized by irradiation were studied. Males labelled as third-instar larvae by rearing them in water containing 0.2 mu Ci 32P/litre and irradiated in the pupal stage with 8000 rad gamma -rays from a 60Co source were found to mate as often as labelled non-irradiated males. Of 100 females caged with normal males for 10 days and then with labelled males for a further 10 days, 63 showing radioactivity, indicating that they had mated more than once. Mating competitiveness increased gradually with an increase in the ratio of sterilised males to normal males. A ratio of sterilised males: normal males : normal females of 25:1:1 gave a hatch rate of eggs of only 8.7%, which equalled that among groups of females with only sterile males present. Replacing normal males by sterilised ones reduced egg production by nearly 70% and also reduced the percentage hatch [cf. RAE/B 62, 1626]. When one batch of normal males was replaced by another, neither the number of eggs nor the percentage hatch was much affected. When sterilised males were replaced by normal ones, the number of eggs was substantially reduced but the percentage hatch was not affected. When sterilised males were replaced by another set of sterilised males, a further decrease in egg viability occurred. It is concluded that the sterilising dose had no deleterious effect on the sperm, which was able to compete with the sperm of normal males regardless of which was present in the spermatheca first
Abdel-Malek-AA; Ahmed-SH
1071
  
1973
Entomophaga. 18: 4, 405-408
Studies in the United States showed that X-radiography is satisfactory for the detection of parasites in puparia of Hylemya brassicae (Bch.). It was possible to distinguish which species of parasite was present, and the technique was found to have an accuracy of 92% when the results were compared with rearing. It is more efficient when the host puparia are collected in spring than when they are collected in autumn, since both the host and the parasite are in a more advanced stage of development in spring. The exposure to X-rays did not affect the emergence of adults of H. brassicae or of the parasites; oviposition by females of H. brassicae was unaffected, as likewise was egg viability.\r
Weires-RW; Chiang-HC
1118
  
1973
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 66: 1, 257-258
In laboratory tests in Massachusetts in which adult males of Drosophila melanogaster Mg. were exposed to gamma -radiation at doses of 5, 12 and 15 krad, the percentage reduction in length of life was 10.4, 14.8 and 9.4, respectively, and in the progeny produced following mating with untreated females was 68.1, 99.3 and 99.8, respectively.\r
Nelson-FRS
1153
  
1973
Nature,-UK., 242: 5395, 274-275
Many sex-linked sterilising mutations were induced in males of Drosophila melanogaster Mg. by treating them in the laboratory with ethyl methanesulphonate. Three of the mutations caused males to produce motile sperm that was transferred to females during copulation and stored in the spermathecae, from which it disappeared at the same rate as normal sperm but did not penetrate the eggs. It is considered that such sperm should compete effectively with normal sperm in females that mate more than once, and that mutant males of this type could therefore be used for control of insect species of which the females are polygamous. For control of species of which the females are monogamous, sperm competitiveness is unnecessary provided copulation with males bearing sterilising mutations is followed by resistance to further copulation. It is suggested that the release of males bearing sterilising mutations would avoid some of the current drawbacks of the sterile-male technique for insect control, and a basic method for detecting such males and producing large numbers of them is described. It depends on the induction of a 'balancer' X-chromosome in the females by use of radiation or mutagens. This chromosome (Xb) should bear one or two inversions to inhibit recombination and a mutation with a visible phenotype to act as a marker. Males with an Xs chromosome (one bearing a sterilising mutation) are crossed with homozygous Xb females, and the offspring, consisting of XbY males and XsXb females, are crossed amongst themselves. Half of the resulting F2 generation consists of equal numbers of XsY males, which are sterile, and XbXb females, which are fertile. The other half consists of equal numbers of XbY males and XbXs females, all of which are fertile. By repeated crossing of successive generations of the latter males and females, sterile males can be produced in any numbers required. Various improvements and modifications of the method are outlined, including the use of temperature-sensitive sex-linked sterilising mutations, the induction of a female-sterilising mutation on the balancer chromosome and modifications for insects in which sex is determined other than by an XY chromosome pair.\r
Denell-RE
1154
  
1973
Genetical-Research. 21: 2, 153-165
Males of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westw. were exposed to various doses of gamma -radiation from a 60Co source and were then allowed to mate with untreated females. The sex ratio of the F1 progeny was significantly biassed towards males, probably because dominant lethals are more readily induced in the large X chromosome of female-determining sperm. In 9 experiments at dosage rates of 6-15 krad, the male:female ratio of the F1 progeny was 166:72. The mean fertility of the F1 progeny was subnormal, due to the induction of 50% sterility in a large proportion. Cytogenetic examination of the offspring of crosses between the F1 progeny and untreated flies indicated that most of the semi-sterile flies bore translocations involving the large autosomes or Y chromosome. Almost all the normally fertile F1 flies gave rise to cytogenetically normal offspring. The biassed sex ratio and semi-sterility of irradiated flies would enhance their effectiveness if they were used for control by the sterile-male technique. Calculations showed that the numbers needed in order to bring about a 99 or 99.9% reduction in the target population would be 15 or 50% fewer than if the abnormalities did not occur.\r
Curtis-CF; Langley-PA; Mews-AR; Offori-ED; Souther
1178
  
1973
International-Journal-of-Applied-Radiation-and-Isotopes. 24: 9, 535-543
Tests were carried out on methods of labelling Glossina morsitans morsitans Westw. with elements that could, on recapture of released insects, be detected by activation in a reactor with a neutron flux of 1-2 X 1013/cm2 per second and measurement of the gamma ray emission spectrum with a germanium-lithium crystal and a 4000 channel analyser. Adults emerged successfully from pupae buried under a mixture of dysprosium, silica gel and sand, but 85% of them died within 24 h. Tests with the elements presented under agar membranes in solution in saline or haemolysed blood (both with ATP added as a feeding stimulant) showed that iridium and manganese were highly toxic but saline containing 0.5 X 10-3M dysprosium or europium was only slightly deleterious to the reproduction rate of females feeding on it and did not affect survival. Fairly good survival followed a meal of blood containing 0.5 or 2.5 X 10-3M gold but not of a meal on gold in saline. Iridium in blood at 0.5 X 10-3M caused little mortality. However, the reproduction rate after a meal of gold or iridium in haemolysed blood was significantly lower than in untreated flies. Repeated feeds on iridium in haemolysed blood had an adverse effect on survival, but repeated feeds on blood containing gold gave no worse survival than a single feed. All the elements were detectable following neutron activation and analysis of the gamma spectra 20 days after the labelled meal. Iridium was the least reliable label and europium the most reliable from the point of view of detection. The progeny of labelled females and the spermathecae of untreated females that had been mated with labelled males did not contain sufficient material for detection.\r
Curtis-CF; Curtis-J; Hamann-HJ
1179
  
1973
Environmental-Entomology. 2: 6, 976-980
Adults of Haematobia irritans (L.) that had been sterilised as pupae by irradiation with 2000 rad gamma -rays from a 60Co source were released into a semi-isolated population in western Texas to determine the effect on the natural population. The initial releases in June 1971 (at a ratio of 10 sterile: 1 fertile insect based on prerelease data on adult emergence) caused a downward trend in reproduction. Continued releases caused a decrease in reproduction rate (calculated from the numbers of eggs per fat and their viability) of over 98% during the last 3 weeks of the 16-week study, and control exceeded 70% for 10 weeks. However, when the sterile: fertile ratio dropped below 6:1, the decrease in the reproduction rate dropped below 90%.\r
Eschle-JL; Kunz-SE;;Schmidt-CD;Hogan-BF; Drummond
1214
  
1973
Bulletin-of-Endemic-Diseases. 13: 1-4, 91-95
The results are given of a study of the effects of irradiation on the movement and food intake of 0- to 1-day old adults of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Mg.). In the 24 h following irradiation from a 60Co source or an X-ray machine, the number of flies that moved from one cage into a second one appeared to decrease linearly in relation to the dose received, falling from over 55% among the untreated flies to 6% among those receiving 100 000 R. The pattern of movement on the next two days was less clear, but there was some evidence that the lowest dosages (4000-8000 R) stimulated movement slightly. The percentages of movement on the first day was found to be highly and positively correlated with the percentages of movement on the second and third days. Food intake was reduced for a short time after irradiation, the time of recovery being related to the dose and exposure time.r\r
Al-Uthman-HS;Uthman-HS-Al-
1244
  
1973
Proceedings-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-Ontario. 1972, 103: 104-107
release of irradiated females of Musca autumnalis DeGeer, the nematode Heterotylenchus autumnalis [cf. RAE/B 61, 1038] was considered as a supplement to the release of sterile males for the control of the fly in North America. The irradiated males would compete with wild males for wild females, while sterile females could compete for wild males and some of them would contribute infective nematodes to the natural habitat. Previous research had indicated that exposure of pupae of M. autumnalis when five days old to gamma -radiation at 2.5 krad would produce complete sterility in the resulting adults of both sexes. Parasitised females were irradiated at doses of 1 and 2.5 krad and produced F1 and F2 progeny that were highly parasitised, indicating that irradiation at these dosages did not sterilise the nematodes.\rADDITIONAL ABSTRACT: Pupae of Musca autumnalis, some of which were infected with Heterotylenchus autumnalis, were irradiated at 1.0 and 2.5 krad and bred through 2 generations. H. autumnalis was found to survive both irradiation doses and was not sterilized. In both control flies and those irradiated at 1.0 krad there was a marked increase in nematode prevalence between the F1 and F2 generations. Flies irradiated at 2.5 krad were attacked by the fungus Entomophthora and did not reproduce satisfactorily.\r
Gregory-D;Wright-RE
1245
  
1973
Behavior-Genetics. 3: 3, 217-223
A 'minority male effect' on mating frequency has been observed in several species of Drosophila: when adults of two types are kept together in unequal numbers, males of the rarer type often mate relatively more frequently than those of the other. Attempts to determine whether such frequency-dependent mating success occurred in Musca domestica L. are described. Wild-type adults were confined for 35 min in a cage with one or other of 3 mutant strains of adults at ratios ranging from 18:2 to 2:18, and all matings were recorded. The results showed that the mating frequencies were within the expected range at each ratio tested. The minority male effect in Drosophila is thought to be dependent on courtship behaviour. Its absence in M. domestica is probably due to the fact that courtship behaviour is negligible in house-flies.\r
Childress-D;McDonald-IC
1262
  
1973
Rivista-di-Parassitologia. 34: 2, 161-166
In earlier research on sterilisation of Piophila casei (L.) by irradiation [RAE/A 61, 2051], it was noted that this species is extremely resistant to the lethal effects of such treatment, an X-ray dosage adequate to induce a high degree of sterility being much below that needed to kill or even to cause appreciable damage. The work described in this further paper was designed to analyse, in P. casei, the influence of the chronological distribution of radiation (time factor) on the probability of inducing a lethal effect. The experiments were carried out on pupae five days ( plus or minus 5 h) old under strictly controlled conditions. The LD50 having been calculated to be 69 630 R, some pupae were treated once with 70 000 R, some once with 35 000 R and others twice with 35 000 R at intervals of 1, 3 or 6 h. Splitting the dose into two parts reduced the mortality by more than 35% when the interval was 1 h and by more than 50% when it was 3 or 6 h. Repair processes began immediately after the first exposure and continued thereafter. Possible interpretations of the repair phenomenon are discussed.t\r
Caprotti-M;Sacchi-L;Grigolo-A
1286
  
1973
Acta-Entomologica-Bohemoslovaca. 70: 3, 189-195
Tests in Czechoslovakia showed that adults of a laboratory strain of Piophila casei (L.), a cosmopolitan pest of foodstuffs, were highly resistant to the lethal effects of gamma -radiation from a 60Co source [cf. RAE/A 62, 1741, etc.]. for doses greater than 50 krad, the duration of adult life was reduced; at 125-130 krad it was halved and at 250 krad all adults died within 24 h. Much of the mortality arose from the inability of treated adults to free themselves after accidental contact with the food medium, which was a mixture of dried milk, agar, honey and water, or dried milk, glucose and water [cf. 61, 1917]. In further tests, in which the fly was reared for 16 generations, it was found that the duration of adult life was increased for both treated and untreated adults, and it is concluded that initial and increased resistance to ionising radiation is related to resistance to other deleterious environmental conditions. In the 11th generation, the age at which adult females ceased to oviposit fell from 17-21 days for doses of 10 krad to 3-6 days for 75 or 100 krad, as compared with 37-40 days for no treatment and no oviposition for doses of 150-200 krad.\r
Zuska-J
1287
  
1973
Genetica-Agraria. 27: 4, 410-414
Further experiments were carried out in Italy with fractionated doses of X-rays on five-day-old pupar of Piophila casei (L.) [cf. RAE/A 62, 1741], to determine the effect of temperature on the repair processes in the insect. The pupae were exposed twice to 35 000 R with an interval of 1 or 6 h between the exposures; during the interval, pupae of each group were kept at 5 or 27 deg C. The results showed a reduction in the mortality of pupae kept at 27 deg C for an interval of 6 h as compared with those kept at 5 deg C, but no significant difference in mortality rates were observed when the interval was only 1 h. The repair processes are probably correlated with the metabolism of the insect, which is dependent on temperature.\r
Sacchi-L;Grigolo-A;Caprotti-M
1290
  
1973
Novenyvedelmi-Kutato-Intezet-Kozlemenyei. 7: 23-30
In further studies in Hungary on the possible use of the sterile-male technique for the control of Adoxophyes orana (Fisch. v. Roesl.) (reticulana (Hb.)) [cf. RAE/A 62, 1092], it was found that, with an adult population of uniform age, it was in the second week of the egg-laying period that the daily rate of oviposition was highest; for different proportions of the sexes, the rate was highest when the ratio of males to females was 1.13:1. In tests with gamma -radiation from radioactive caesium (132Cs) or cobalt (60Co), females (but not males) were completely sterilised by exposure to 25 krad from either source. At all dosages (5-25 krad) to which females were exposed, their fecundity increased. Exposure of males to 25 krad caused 91.3% sterility, but did not diminish the average number of spermatophores transferred by treated males to females or the fecundity of females that mated with treated males.\r
Bodor-J; Viktorin-AR
1352
  
1973
A-Novenyvedelmi-Kutato-Intezet-Kozlemenyei.6: 39-50
In connection with studies in Hungary on the possible use of the sterile-male technique for the control of Adoxophyes orana (Fisch. v. Roesl.) (reticulana (Hb.)) on apple, it was found that the moth could be reared satisfactorily throughout the year on an artificial diet containing ground lucerne and soy-bean flour, provided that the population remained free from infection. In tests with gamma -radiation from radioactive caesium (132Cs) or cobalt (60Co), males were completely sterilised by exposure in the early adult stage to 20 krad from (132Cs; their sexual activity was greater than that of normal males.\r
Bodor-J; Viktorin-A
1353
  
1973
Netherlands-Journal-of-Plant-Pathology. 79: 4, 148-155
In this further part of a series from the Netherlands [cf. preceding abstract] on the development of the sterile-male technique for the control of Adoxophyes orana (Fisch. v. Roesl.) on apple, details are given of the effects of the exposure of adult males and females to X-rays or fast neutrons. The moths were irradiated within 24 h of emerging. The dose response curves for the percentage egg hatch after irradiation are shown on graphs. The X-ray doses that afforded more than 95% sterility were 30 krad or more for males and 12.5 or more for females. The corresponding doses of fast neutrons were 6 krad and 5 krad, respectively. Investigations indicated that doses of these orders had no adverse effects on the duration of adult life, the frequency of pairing or fecundity.\r
Snieder-D; Ankersmit-GW; Velde-HJ-ter; Ter-Velde-H
1354
  
1973
Entomophaga. 18: 2, 185-191
The author discusses the probable consequences of a partial or total ban on the use of chemicals in European apple orchards for the control of Cydia (Laspeyresia) pomonella (L.) and the placing of greater reliance on genetic control measures such as the release of sterile adults. Though this approach has proved successful in commercial orchards in western North America, apple orchards in Europe are seldom ecologically isolated, and the wider complex of insect fauna present in them necessitates a close integration of control measures. It is pointed out that the release of large numbers of sterile adults results in quantitative changes in the food supplies available for predacious and parasitic species. On the one hand, the activity of predacious wasps and birds may increase when additional prey has been supplied and the previously beneficial species become a hindrance to attempts to overflood the wild populations. On the other hand, the large numbers of eggs produced by the released sterile females, though non-viable, provide an abundant food supply for egg parasites. In studies in Hungary, Trichogramma evanescens Westw., which is present in apple orchards, was able to develop in non-viable eggs laid by normal females of C. pomonella that had paired with irradiated males and also in eggs of C. pomonella that had been exposed to 25-40 krad gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60CO) when 1-2 days old. This suggests that the release of limited numbers of Trichogramma could be combined with the release of sterilised moths, to provide additional control both of C. pomonella and other Tortricids in apple orchards. In the laboratory, T. evanescens attacked and developed successfully in eggs of Adoxophyes orana (Fisch. v. Roesl.) (reticulana (Hb.)). At the usual rate of release, sterilised females of C. pomonella could be expected to produce up to 5-10 million eggs/ha per season. Assuming two parasites per egg and 75% parasite mortality, up to 2.5-5 million adults of Trichogramma/ha could be produced each year in this way.[See also RAE/A 62, 1900.]\rADDITIONAL ABSTRACT: Releasing sterile Cydia pomonella moths may supply certain entomophagous species with an extra food source. Both non-viable eggs from sterile moths and gamma -sterilized eggs proved satisfactory food for T.evanescens larvae, which also developed in normal eggs of Adoxophyes reticulana. It is suggested that limited numbers of T.evanescens could be released at the same time as sterilized moths to improve control of several injurious tortricids.\r
Nagy-B
1355
  
1973
Neth. J. Plant Pathol. v. 79(6) p. 229-235
.
Denlinger,D.L.;Ankersmit, G.W.;Noordink, J.Ph.W.
1364
  
1973
Experientia. 29: 9, 1161-1162
Larvae of Chilo auricilius Dudgn., a pest of sugar-cane in northern India, were successfully reared in the laboratory on an artificial diet prepared from 100 g French beans, 16 g yeast extract, 1 g ascorbic acid, 50 g casein, 5 g Wesson's salts, 0.5 g sorbic acid, 1 g methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, 8 g vitamin mixture, 8 g agar, 50 g powdered dried sugar-cane tops, 1 ml formaldehyde and 425 ml water. When newly hatched larvae were transferred to the medium in sterilised glass tubes, 82% reached pupation and 65.8% of the pupae gave rise to adults. The duration of the larval and pupal stages averaged 47.0 and 8.3 days, respectively, and the females laid an average of 224.8 eggs each.\r
Varma-A; Avasthy-PN
1367
  
1973
Entomologia-Experimentalis-et-Applicata. 16: 4, 478-482
In studies in the laboratory in Kenya on the bionomics of Earias insulana (Boisd.), particular attention was paid to reproduction and the effects on it of exposure to gamma -radiation. The larvae were reared on cotton at about 27 deg C and 70-80% R.H. and the adults were provided with 10% sugar solution. The sex ratio was very close to 1:1. It was established that one spermatophore was transferred by the male at each pairing and that most females paired only once. Oviposition usually began two days after adult emergence and the oviposition period lasted 2-5 days. Females laid 9-265 eggs each, of which an average of 92.9% hatched. Adults of both sexes lived for up to 8-9 days. Few virgin females oviposited and those that did so laid only small numbers of eggs. When pupae were exposed to doses of 10-35 krad gamma -radiation one day before adult emergence, there were no adverse effects on the emergence rate. A dose of 30 krad was sufficient to sterilise both sexes but did not adversely affect pairing or the length of adult life. When normal females paired with males irradiated at 30 krad, they laid an average of 134.9 (infertile) eggs. When females that had been exposed to 30 krad paired with normal males, they laid an average of only 14.3 (infertile) eggs. In comparison, normal females that had paired with normal males laid an average of 128.4 eggs. It is considered that E. insulana is a good candidate for control by means of the sterile-male technique.  \r
Anwar-M; Ashraf-M; Arif-MD
1452
  
1973
J. Stored Prod. Res. 9:105-107.
.
Gonen, M. Calderon M.
1482
  
1973
J. Stored Prod. Res. 9:105-107.
.
Gonen, M and Calderon, M.
1485
  
1973
Annals-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-America. 66: 1, 147-153
Following pair matings of normal females of Ephestia (Anagasta) kuehniella (Zell.) to males, the male parents of which had received 15 krad gamma -radiation, a study was made of the ultrastructure of the sperm in 10 pairs. Emphasis was placed on the spermathecae and seminal vesicles, although some observations were made on the testes. Only three spermathecae contained eupyrene (nucleate) spermatozoa. A few apyrene (anucleate) spermatozoa were found in four other spermathecae. All intact spermatozoa in the spermathecae appeared to have a normal morphology. Bundles of eupyrene spermatozoa were found in the seminal vesicles of seven males. These bundles had reduced numbers of cells, and the cells presented a variety of abnormalities. The most spermatozoa were found in the males mated to the females with eupyrene spermatozoa in their spermathecae. Nine sets of seminal vesicles contained large quantities of apyrene cells, and normal-appearing bundles of apyrene cells were found in the testis of the 10th male. Thus, in the sample studied, there was severe impairment to eupyrene sperm production. Apparently, only morphologically normal cells are maintained in the spermathecae.\r
Riemann-JG
1492
  
1973
Canadian-Entomologist. 105: 3, 377-382
In further studies in North Dakota of inherited sterility induced by gamma -radiation in Heliothis virescens (F.) [cf. RAE/A 60, 2565, etc.], females treated with doses of 7.5, 15, 22.5 or 30 krad were mated with untreated males, and survival and fertility in the F1 progeny and survival in the F2 progeny were noted. The data on survival in the F1 generation indicated a dose-dependent reduction, increasing with dosage, but survival in the F2 generation was normal. The fertility of the progeny of irradiated females was near normal regardless of dose.\r
Proshold-FI; Bartell-JA
1559
  
1973
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 66: 5, 1067-1070
In laboratory tests in Texas, adults of Heliothis virescens (F.) reared from eggs that had been exposed to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) at doses of 1,2 or 4 krad when 1, 2 or 3 days old were found to be partially sterile, the hatching rate of their eggs being reduced by as much as 82% (when compared with that of eggs from untreated examples). Adults of both sexes reared from eggs exposed to gamma -radiation at 4 krad when 2 days old competed sexually with untreated examples; however, sperm transfer was adversely affected.\r
Wolfenbarger-DA; Guerra-AA; Robinson-SH
1560
  
1973
Environmental-Entomology. 2: 6, 1085-1088
Laboratory-reared adults of Heliothis virescens (F.), marked with dyes (administered in the larval diet) and sterilised by gamma -irradiation from a 60Co source were released at separate points in north-eastern Mexico and southern Texas and recovered in sex-lure traps set at known distances in cardinal compass directions. In Mexico, male moths dispersed 10 miles north in 24 h, and a distance-dilution effect was indicated. In southern Texas, the moths dispersed as much as 70 miles from the release point within an estimated period of 4-5 days. The positions of major areas of cultivated food-plants in southern Texas were reflected by the high densities of native moths caught in the baited survey traps, but the numbers of marked, released moths caught at the various locations did not correspond to the numbers of native moths caught.\r
Hendricks-DE; Graham-HM; Raulston-JR
1561
  
1973
Analele-Institutului-de-Cercetari-pentru-Protectia-Plantelor. 1971, 9: 390-399
In further experiments in Rumania on the effects of gamma -radiation on pupae of Hyphantria cunea (Dru.) [cf. RAE/A 55, 26], male pupae were exposed at the end of the pupal stage to doses of 10-50 krad and females to 10-30 krad. Almost complete sterilisation of the resulting male adults was obtained with 50 krad, but 40, 30 and 10 krad permitted 0.7, 13.3 and 36.9% hatch of eggs, respectively. When female pupae were treated, 30-50 krad gave complete sterility and 20 krad permitted 0.4% egg hatch (99.4 % P-sterility), as compared with an average hatching rate of 91.8% for eggs of normal parents. Mating between males and females treated with 10-30 krad resulted in completely sterile egg-batches. When normal females were mated with males exposed to 20-50 krad, some of the ensuing eggs hatched but the larvae did not survive; if the male dose was only 10 krad, some of the eggs that hatched (36.9% P sterility?) gave rise to larvae that completed their development, but the ensuing pupae (% F1 sterility?) were smaller and lighter in weight than normal.\r
Beratlief-C; Boguleanu-G
1582
  
1973
Environmental-Entomology. 2: 1, 48-54
Males of Manduca sexta Joh. irradiated as pupae with an average dose of 37.7 krad of gamma -radiation from a 60Co source were released on Vieques, a 56-mile2 island near Puerto Rico, over a 17-month period to determine the effect on the native moth population. The highest ratio of released (sterile) to native males collected subsequently in ultraviolet-light traps was 3.7:1, but egg hatch in the native population was not reduced proportionately and the population increased during the releases. Collections of adults from traps baited or unbaited with virgin females showed that the released males were less attracted to the bait females than the native males. Similar sterile males from pupae irradiated when they were 1-2 days older than those released on Vieques appeared more competitive when they were released on St. Croix, based on the greater reduction in egg hatch.\r
Cantelo-WW; Baumhover-AH; Henneberry-TJ; Smith-JS
1586
  
1973
J-Econ-Entomol. v. 66 (2) p. 461-467.\r
\r\r.
Brower,-J.H.
1616
  
1973
International Atomic Energy Agency; Food and Agriculture Organization: United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization: Radiation preservation of food. Proceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and held in Bombay, 13-17 November, 1972. 295-309; 53 ref.\rVienna, International Atomic Energy Agency.; Austria
Information is given on investigations in the United States on the use of gamma -radiation for the control of stored-grain pests. A table showing the sensitivity of 31 species to radiation is included. No resistance developed when four species were exposed to substerilising doses for 30 generations. Two malathion-resistant strains of Plodia interpunctella (Hb.) showed normal susceptibility to gamma radiation. Other work is in progress.\r
Tilton-EW; Brower-JH
1621
  
1973
Annals-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-America. 66: 6, 1309-1314
Spermatozoa in the testes of adult males of Plodia interpunctella (Hb.) were studied by electron-microscopy after gamma -irradiation of the insects (from 60Co) in either the last larval instar or the early adult stage. Irradiation of newly emerged adults resulted in rupture and dispersal of sperm bundles and a few flagellar abnormalities in eupyrene sperm. Irradiation of the larvae resulted in high frequencies of flagellar and apical abnormalities of eupyrene sperm. These genetic abnormalities in the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa were inherited more intensely than in F1 progeny, produced from the cross of irradiated males with unirradiated females.\r
Ashrafi-SH; Roppel-RM
1622
  
1973
Annals-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-America. 66: 6, 1324-1328
Ultrastructural analysis of the testes of normal 13-day-old larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hb.) revealed fine structural characteristics of the spermatogonia and spermatocytes similar to those reported by earlier workers. Spermatids possessed dual mitochondrial derivatives in various stages of elongation arranged parallel to the probable axoneme complex. Larvae subjected to gamma -iradiation at 3.5 krad on the 12th day and examined 24 h later [cf. preceding abstract] exhibited early-stage spermatogonia in the process of necrosis and cytolysis. The spermatocytes showed evidence of nuclear damage, but the divisional processes appeared normal. In larvae irradiated at 12.5 krad on the 12th day and dissected 24 h later, obvious cell damage and depletion were observed in both spermatogonia and spermatocyte cysts. Elongating spermatids exhibited mitochondrial derivatives with disordered cristae patterns, but the possible axoneme structure maintained normal morphology. Maturation divisions appeared to have been arrested.
Ashrafi-SH; Roppel-RM
1623
  
1973
International-Journal-of-Applied-Radiation-and-Isotopes. 24: 6, 327-331.
The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, was reared for 1 to 4 generations on irradiated diets of 4 kinds of nutmeat. Nuts were treated with 33, 66 and 100 krad gamma -radiation. Each generation was checked for fertility and fecundity. There was no biologically significant effect on the numbers of progeny or their reproductive ability.\r
Brower-JH; Tilton-EW
1625
  
1973
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 66: 2, 461-462
Laboratory tests were carried out in Georgia on the relative sensitivity of two malathion-resistant strains of Plodia interpunctella (Hb.) to gamma -radiation (from radioactive cobalt (60Co.)). Pairs of adults from each strain were treated at a dose of 5 krad, and their subsequent fecundity was compared with that of untreated pairs. There was no significant difference between the numbers of progeny produced by the untreated malathion-resistant strains and the non-resistant normal control strain. Treatment significantly reduced the number of progeny from each strain, but did not result in significant differences in the number of progeny among the three strains.\r
Brower-JH
1628
  
1973
Annals-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-America. 66: 1, 154-159; 18 fig.; 13 ref.
A survey was made of spermatozoa from spermathecae of Heliothis zea (Boddie), H. virescens (F.), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), Manduca sexta (Joh.) and Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.). Emphasis was laid on the extracellular sheath and tail components of eupyrene (nucleate) spermatozoa, but some observations were made on the nuclei and on apyrene (anucleate) spermatozoa. The eupyrene spermatozoa all had similar components, but the spermatozoa of each species had a characteristic organisation. One exception to the eupyrene sperm similarity was the absence of an intrasheath rod in the spermatozoa Spodoptera. The apyrene sperm were virtually identical in the different species except for varying amounts of material beneath the sheaths. The most subsheath material was found in Manduca apyrene spermatozoa, and the least in Heliothis apyrene spermatozoa.\r
Riemann-JG; Gassner-G III
1686
  
1973
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. 72: 3, 330-335; 16 ref.
A dose of 50 krad gamma -radiation applied to pupae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) at the end of the pupal stage causes the adults to which the pupae give rise to be sterile. It was found in tests that fractionation of this dose (over a period of 2-4 h) in two or three equal parts did not affect the emergence, fertility or length of life of the adults. Treated males were less competitive than normal males at ratios (normal males: normal females: treated males) of 1:1:1, 1:1:5 or 1:1:10, but competitiveness increased at ratios of 1:1:15 and 1:1:20. The addition of sterile females to the competing population increased the level of sterility. There was no recovery of fertility when irradiated males were prevented from pairing until four days after treatment.\r
Wakid-AM; Elbadry-EA; Hosny-MM; Sallam-HA
1696
  
1973
Scientific-Reports-of-the-Faculty-of-Agriculture,-Okayama-University. No. 42, 9-15; 1 fig.; 6 ref.
It is reported in this further part of a series from Japan that substerilised males of Spodoptera litura (F.) derived from pupae that had been irradiated with 12 kR gamma -radiation from a 137Cs source when seven days old were fully competitive with untreated males and that the offspring of substerilised males that had mated with untreated females were sterile.\r
Tsukuda-R; Kiyoku-M
1712
  
1973
Scientific-Reports-of-the-Faculty-of-Agriculture,-Okayama-University. No. 42, 1-8; 3 fig.; 4 ref.
In further investigations of the sterilising effects of gamma -radiation from radioactive caesium (137Cs) on insects [cf. RAE/A 63, 730, etc.], larvae of an inbred line of the tobacco cutworm [Spodoptera litura (F.)] were reared on an artificial medium, and male pupae derived from these larvae were irradiated with substerilising doses of 12 kR. Males and females from another line that had been fed as larvae on leaves of taro [Colocasia esculenta] were not treated. When groups of two substerilised adult males and one untreated male were confined with one untreated female, more than 41.7% of the eggs laid hatched. For four substerile and one untreated male with one female, 5.6% hatched. It is concluded that treated males were fully competitive. The number of eggs laid in the test group was lower than for no treatment.\r
Kiyoku-M; Tsukuda-R
1713
  
1973
Annals-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-America. 66: 6, 1278-1280; 12 ref.
The ovipositional response of untreated females of Trichoplusia ni (Hb.) that had mated with unirradiated or irradiated males, the F1 male progeny from irradiated males, or castrated males was studied. Females that mated with irradiated males or the male progeny of irradiated males deposited fewer eggs than females that mated with untreated control males, when all females had received a normal quantity of eupyrene and apyrene sperm. Irradiated males and the F1 male progeny of irradiated males that transferred an apparently normal sperm complement elicited significantly better oviposition from untreated females than did treated males that transferred mostly apyrene sperm, only apyrene sperm or no sperm. Males in the latter categories elicited a better ovipositional response from the untreated females than was observed in virgin females. Normal eupyrene sperm and possibly at least one accessory fluid are required to initiate a completely normal oviposition response in females. The accessory secretion triggers a significant increase in oviposition, but the greatest increase occurs when males contribute normal amounts of eupyrene sperm. The initiation of oviposition and female receptivity may be closely related in this species.\r
Karpenko-CP; North-DT
1733
  
1973
Annals-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-America. 66: 2, 292-297; 2 fig.; 15 ref.
Fertilised eggs of Trichoplusia ni (Hb.) can be differentiated from those that are unfertilised by dechorionating them with 3% sodium hypochlorite, because unfertilised eggs dissolve while fertilised eggs 1 h after oviposition (and a few developing parthenogenetically) remain intact. The resistance of fertilised eggs is attributed to changes in the vitelline membrane, which requires oxygen, and is correlated with the onset of telophase II of meiosis. Also, after fertilisation, a protective layer forms on the surface of the vitelline membrane that prevents staining of the membrane after dechorionation by Nile blue, Sudan black B and osmic acid. This protective layer can be extracted with either xylol or chloroform. Equations were derived to calculate the percentage of fertilised eggs, of eggs fertilised by sperm bearing dominant lethal mutations, of unfertilised eggs, and of eggs developing parthenogenetically from females mated to males treated with sterilants.\r
Ercelik-TM; Adams-TS; Holt-GG; Nelson-DR
1736
  
1973
Environmental-Entomology. 2: 1, 118-124; 14 ref.
When male pupae of Trichoplusia ni (Hb.) were irradiated with 15 krad gamma -radiation, the dose that effectively induces sterility in the progeny, the performance of emerging adults was inferior to that of males irradiated similarly as adults. However, when the dose was fractionated, that is, applied over several successive days, the performance of emerging adults was comparable to that of males exposed as adults to an unfractionated dose and the performance of the F1 progenies did not differ. Thus, the male parents were about 50% sterile, the F1 males were about 90% sterile, and the F1 females were about 80% sterile. Adult females from pupae irradiated with the fractionated dose were 100% sterile.\r
Toba-HH; Kishaba-AN
1738
  
1973
Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 66,6:1277-1280.
.
Karpenko, C.P. and North, D.T.
1745
  
1973
International-Pest-Control. 15: 2, 4-6; 3 fig.; 5 ref.
In further investigations in Pakistan on the effects of exposure of eggs of Schistocerca americana subsp. gregaria (Forsk.) to gamma -radiation from a 60Co source [cf. RAE/A 54, p. 145], lower doses were applied and it was found that a dose of 1 kR prevented embryonic development when applied to eggs 1-7 days old. For eggs 9 and (in brackets) 11 days old and irradiation with doses of 1, 2.5, 5 and 7.5-10 kR the percentages that hatched averaged 45 (77), 27 (56), 1.8 (22) and 0 (6), respectively.\r
Huque-H; Ahmad-CR; Alam-MS
1775
  
1973
J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol.  v. 30(1) p. 163-177
.
Coggins, P.B.
1779
  
1973
J-Econ-Entomol. v. 66 (2) p. 475-477.\r
\r\r
Bartlett,-A.C.;Staten,-R.T.;Ridgway,-W.O.;Lanham, Md
1819
  
1973
Environmental-Entomology. 2: 4, 653-658; 30 ref.
When adult males of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) less than 24 h old were irradiated with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 or 12.5 krad gamma -radiation from a 60Co source and caged with virgin untreated females, the ability of the treated males to mate and transfer eupyrene sperm appeared to be unaffected, but fertility was reduced. Survival of the immature stages of the F1 progeny was significantly decreased by all doses applied to the P1 males, and the sex ratio of the F1 generation was significantly skewed in favour of the males except at the lowest dose. When adult F1 males and females were outcrossed to untreated males or crossed with unrelated F1 adults, the F1 males mated but often failed to transfer normal quantities of eupyrene sperm; this effect was related to the dose received by the P1 male. Thus, fertility of the F1 males and females was significantly less than that of the control insects, at all doses to the P1 male above 2.5 krad. At doses of 7.5 krad and above, the F1 males mated more often than the control insects. In control programmes that produced partial sterility in irradiated males, thus introducing conditional lethal mutations into the native population, doses below 7.5 krad should be considered, because at higher doses lack of sperm transfer and lower fertility of the F1 males would not favour the incorporation of the released genotype into the native population.\r
LaChance-LE; Bell-RA; Richard-RD
1823
  
1973
Environmental-Entomology. 2: 1, 97-100; 1 fig.; 12 ref.
Mass-reared females of the Phoenix PPD strain of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.), irradiated with doses of up to 40 krad gamma -radiation from a 60Co source, were assessed for attractiveness in field traps, mating ability and length of life. The data indicated that females irradiated with 10 or 25 krad were fully as attractive to native males as unirradiated females in the field. Hexalure [(Z)-7-hexadecenyl acetate] (25 mg/trap) was more attractive to native males than 1-5 virgin females in the field. Although females irradiated with a sterilising dose of 30 krad mated as frequently as unirradiated females, a significant reduction (30%) in their ability to receive sperm in their spermathecae occurred in single matings with unirradiated males. The length of life of males and females irradiated with 10 or 25 krad was not significantly different from that of unirradiated moths. The average times to reach 50 and 90% mortality for females kept at 30 deg C were 20 and 24 days, respectively.\r
Flint-HM; Staten-RT; Bariola-LA; Palmer-DL
1827
  
1973
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 66: 2, 475-477; 10 ref.
Exposure of eggs of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) in laboratory tests in Arizona in 1971 had no effect on subsequent egg hatch at doses of 0-32 krad, but significantly reduced the development and emergence of adults at doses above 4 krad. Also, when the resultant adult males were mated with normal females, 90% fewer offspring were produced at all doses as compared with untreated examples. The sterility produced was, generally, the result of lack of mating ability; at 2 krad, only 33% of the males transferred spermatophores, and at 4 krad none did so.\r
Bartlett-AC; Staten-RT; Ridgway-WO
1828
  
1973
Environmental-Entomology. 2: 2, 173-176; 1 fig.; 11 ref.
When adults of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) irradiated with a substerilising dose (10 krad) of gamma -radiation were released in field cages and in a 5-acre field of cotton in California, larvae with chromosomal aberrations that could cause sterility in the adults were found in both cages and the field. Also, when 3500 partially sterile adults of mixed sex were released in a 1/200-acre cage over a 7-week period, larvae were too few in number to cause significant damage to the cotton. Of 743 males recaptured after releases in the field, 34% were recaptured 2 days after release.\r
Bariola-LA; Bartlett-AC; Staten-RT; Rosander-RW; K
1829
  
1973
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 66: 3, 731-733; 1 fig.; 8 ref.
\rWhen late fourth-instar larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) were exposed to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) at doses of 0-32 krad in laboratory tests in Arizona, 40% of male larvae exhibited chromosomal damage following treatment at 2 krad and 100% of examined spermatogonial divisions showed chromosomal damage after treatment at 5 krad or higher. The percentage of morphologically normal adults mating was reduced by 85% or more following exposure to doses above 4 krad for males and 2 krad for females. Some F1 progeny were produced from crosses between treated and untreated insects, but numbers wee generally lower than those produced by crosses between untreated insects. Sterility was present in F1 larvae, and subsequent egg production was reduced. Chromosomal aberrations present in F1 progeny also occurred in F2 progeny but at a lower rate.\r
Bartlett-AC; Lewis-LJ
1830
  
1973
Journal of Plantation Crops 1, 141-145.
Rahalkar GW;Harwalkar MR;Rananavare HD;Shantaram K;Ayengar ARG
Radiation
3234
  
1973
Turrialba 23: 48-51
.
KATIYAR, K. P.
Entomology
3380
  
1974
Journal Economic Entomology. 67: 504-505.
Seo ST;Kobayashi RM;Chambers DL;Steiner LF;Lee CYL;Komura M
Mango seed weevil, mangoes, quarantine disinfestation, Irradiation
64
  
1974
Proceedings Florida State Horticultural Society. 87: 386-390.
Burditt AK Jr.;Von Windeguth DL;Knight RJ Jr.
Tephritid, Experimental methods, Irradiation
78
  
1974
Acta Aliment. Acad. Sci. Hung. 3(4): 431-436.
Ahmed MSH;Ouda NA;Lamooza SB;Al-Hassany IA
disinfestation, stored date pests
325
  
1974
Journal Stored Products. Research 10(2): 129-13.
Brower JH
disinfestation, Tribolium castaneum
326
  
1974
International Journal Applied Radiation Isotopes. 25(7): 301-305.
Tilton EW;Brower JH;Cogburn RR
disinfestation, wheat flour, packaging material
327
  
1974
Proceedings symposium on radiation processing of food and agricultural products pp. 211-221.
Tsvetkov D;Atanasov KH;Berberov D
disinfestation, stored grain pests
329
  
1974
Shokuhin Shosha (Food Irradiation, Japan) 9(1/2): 82-83.
Aoki S;Watanabe H;Sato T;Hoshi T;Tanaka S;Takano H;Umeda K
disinfestation, irradiator, Rice, sensory properties
349
  
1974
Sterility Principle for Insect Control. Proceedings Symposium Innsbruck, 22-26 July, 1974, IAEA, Vienna, pp. 529-535.
Amouko-Atta B;Partida GJ
Cadra cautella, Ephestia cautella
369
  
1974
Journal Economic Entomology 67: 74-81
Highland HA;Wilson R
packaging, lesser grain borer, resistance to penetration
378
  
1974
Hortscience 7: 125-126.
Kamali AR;Maxie EC;Rae HL
Avoocado, irradiation injury
449
  
1974
Symposiumon the sterility principle for insect control. Innsbruck,Austria. 22 Jul1974
\r \r\r\r\r                         \r                    
Amoako-Atta B.;Partida G.J.
496
  
1974
Indian Society for Nuclear Techniques in Agriculture and Biology, Newsletter (Sep 1974). v. 3(3) p. 50-51
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the ratio of 1:200 (normal : sterile) adults of Tribolium castaneum in the presence of larger quantities of wheat flour and grain in glass jars, G.I. Bins and mud structures. Studies revealed that the ratio of 1:200 was effective in suppressing the multiplication of normal insects provided that the initial population was low, suggesting thereby that optimum population density of sterile insects to be released vis-a-vis the level of normal population and the quantity of food present needs to be carefully worked before this method of pest control is tried on a large scale. Tribolium castaneum adults used in these experiments had been rendered sterile by exposure to 10 krad of gamma radiation at a dose rate of 5 krad/min. (author)
Wadhi S.R;Sethi G.R.;Prasad H.
566
  
1974
Proceedings of a panel on the practical use of the sterile-male technique for insect control organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and held in Vienna, 13-17 November 1972., Vienna 1974, pp.21-25
Males irradiated at dose which induces 99% dominant sterility are fully competitive for 2-3 weeks after which they become aspermic.  Aspermia occurs also when the irradiated dose is lowered to the level producing only 70% dominant lethals.  Female soft ticks cease to lay eggs after exposure to 3-4 kR.  This dose does not reduce their mating capacity.
Galun, R.;Warburg, M.;Sternberg, S.
588
  
1974
Israel Journal of Entomology, Vol.7, pp.109-115,
Females of Argas persicus (Oken) ceased to lay eggs after \r\n          exposure to irradiation with 3 kR. Irradiation with 4 kR did \r\n          not reduce their mating capacity, and