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Any body, form (shape) or structure that deviates from the normal or typical condition (Gordh and Headrick 2001). A form that departs in some striking way from the normal type, occurring either singly, or rarely, at irregular intervals (Torre-Bueno, 1978).
absolute density
Density of a population expressed as an absolute number per ground-surface area or per unit of volume (Pedigo 2002). Density of a population expressed as every individual of a population within a volume of habitat [paraphrased] (Daly et al. 1998).
absorbed dose
Quantity of radiating energy (in gray) absorbed per unit of mass of a specified target (FAO 2006).
absorbed-dose distribution
A representation of the variation of absorbed dose with position in any region of an irradiated object, e.g. within an insect canister exposed to ionizing radiation (Borders 1991).
absorbed-dose mapping
Measurement of absorbed dose within process load [an irradiated material/sample, e.g. insect canister] using dosimeters placed at specified locations to produce a one-, two- or three-dimensional distribution of absorbed dose, thus rendering a map of absorbed-dose values (ISO/ASTM 2004a).
absorbed-dose rate
Quotient of absorbed dose per unit of time, unit: Gy/h (Koelzer 2008, Borders 1991). The absorbed-dose rate is often specified in terms of its average value over longer time intervals, e.g. in units of Gy/min or Gy/h (ICRU). The absorbed dose in a material per incremental time interval, i.e. the absorbed-dose rate is the quotient of dD by dt. SI Unit = Gy•s-1 (ICRU) (ISO/ASTM 2004a).
See ‘electron accelerator’.
accessory gland
Any secondary gland of a glandular system (Resh and Cardé 2003, Gordh and Headrick 2001). A secretory organ associated with the reproductive system (Borror et al. 1989, Leak 1999, Wall and Shearer 1997). Glandular structure associated with the spermatheca that produces a material that accompanies the sperm during ejaculation (FAO/IAEA/USDA 2003). Male accessory gland = Secretory gland associated with the male reproductive tract that produces seminal fluid and the structural components of the spermatophore (Resh and Cardé 2003, Gordh and Headrick 2001). See ‘spermatheca’, ‘spermatophore’, ‘refractory’.
Habituation/adjustment of an organism to different environmental conditions (Gordh and Headrick 2001, Resh and Cardé 2003). A process that gradually shifts the optimal performance of insects from the extreme limits to the preferred range of colonization. Acclimatization occurs within variable time limits, which are very much shorter than the evolutionary time scale (C. Calkins, personal communication). See ‘colonization’.
Designating a chromatid or a chromosome that lacks a centromere (King et al. 2006). This condition may arise in an inversion heterozygote as a result of crossing over between a normal and an inverted segment that does not include the centromere (Schlindwein 2006). A chromosome, or chromosome fragment, that lacks a centromere (Hoy 2003). See ‘centromere’, ‘dicentric’, ‘monocentric’, ‘holokinetic’, ‘monokinetic’.
Referring to meiosis without chiasmata. In those species in which crossing over is limited to one sex, the achiasmate meiosis generally occurs in the heterogametic sex (King et al. 2006). No cross-shaped union of chromosomes during nuclear division (Leak 1999).
acoustical signal
An insect communicating with another using sound (Sivinski et al. 1989). See ‘chemical communication’.
acrylamide gel
Acrylamide or acrylamide monomer is the trivial name for propenamide, a water-soluble solid that is highly toxic and irritant, and readily polymerizes under the action of UV light or chemical catalysts into polyacrylamide (Oxford 2006). Polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing a monomer (acrylamide) with a cross-linking agent (N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide) in the presence of a polymerizing agent. An insoluble three-dimensional network of monomer chains is formed. In water, the network becomes hydrated. Depending upon the relative proportions of the ingredients, it is possible to prepare gels with different pore sizes. The gels can then be used to separate biological molecules like proteins of a given range of sizes (King et al. 2006). See ‘gel electrophoresis’.
adenotrophic viviparity
A method of viviparous reproduction restricted to pupiparous Diptera. The egg hatches inside the mother and the larva feeds on uterine secretions produced by the mother. Pupation occurs shortly after larviposition (Gordh and Headrick 2001, Leak 1999). Reproduction in which the female gives birth to a larva which developed and has been nourished within the mother’s uterus (Leak 1999). The production of live offspring, where eggs are retained within the female oviduct until the larvae are mature at which stage they are laid and immediately pupate (Wall and Shearer 1997). A phenomenon in certain insects whereby the larvae are retained in the parent’s body after hatching, develop by feeding on ‘uterine’ secretions, moult twice and are finally deposited in a mature state ready for pupation (Leftwich 1976). See ‘gestation’, ‘larviposition’, ‘larviparous’, ‘viviparous’.
Any ingredient that improves the properties of a pesticide formulation (Pedigo 2002). Any ingredient that improves the solubility or handling properties of a pesticide formulation. Adjuvants are sometimes called “stickers” or “spreaders” (Gordh and Headrick 2001). An additive used in conjunction with an active substance, e.g. a biopesticide, to enhance its performance (Coombs and Hall 1998). Chemical combined with insecticide to improve its storage, safety, or effectiveness (Daly et al. 1998). A spray additive to improve either physical or chemical properties (Hill 1997). See ‘chemical control’.
A substance, e.g. pesticide, that kills the adult stage of a pest or parasite (NAL 2008). See ‘larvicide’, ‘parasiticide’, ‘trypanocide’.
advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR)
A radiometer is an instrument for detecting or measuring radiation (Oxford 2008). The AVHRR is located on a satellite circling the earth (Cox and Vreysen, this volume).
aerial release
Release of insects, e.g. sterile insects, from the air using aircraft. Refer to Dowell et al. (section 5.3.) (this volume). See ‘release’, ‘ground release’, ‘static release’.
aerial spray
Pesticide spray treatment of land from the air using aircraft. Refer to Mangan (this volume). See ‘ground spray’, ‘sequential aerosol technique (SAT)’, ‘chemical control’.
African animal trypanosomosis (AAT)
African animal trypanosomiasis [trypanosomosis] (AAT) is a disease complex caused by tsetse-fly-transmitted Trypanosoma congolense Broden, T. vivax Ziemann, or T. brucei brucei Plimmer and Bradford, or simultaneous infection with one or more of these trypanosomes. African animal trypanosomiasis is most important in cattle, but can cause serious losses in pigs, camels, goats, and sheep. Infection of cattle by one or more of the three African animal trypanosomes results in subacute, acute, or chronic disease characterized by intermittent fever, anemia, occasional diarrhea, and rapid loss of condition, and often terminates in death. In southern Africa the disease is widely known as nagana (USAHA 1998). Tsetse-transmitted [Glossina] trypanosomiasis is an infectious disease unique to Africa and caused by various species of blood parasites. The disease affects both people [Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness] (Pentreath and Kennedy 2004) and animals [Animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT) or nagana], and occurs in 37 sub-Saharan countries covering more than 9 million km2, an area which corresponds approximately to one-third of the Africa's total land area. The infection threatens an estimated about 50 million head of cattle. Every year, AAT causes about 3 million deaths in cattle while approximately 35 million doses of trypanocidal drugs are administered. Nagana has a severe impact on agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa (PAAT 2008a; Shaw 2004; Taylor and Authié 2004; Feldmann et al., this volume). There now exists a reasonable collection of methods and reagents from which scientists in well-equipped laboratories may choose the one most appropriate for diagnosis of trypanosomiasis in an given situation (Eisler et al. 2004). See ‘trypanosomosis’.
age structure
Characteristic of a population relating to the age of the individuals in the population. Synonym for age distribution — the distribution of age classes within a population at a particular time; the proportion of individuals of an age class present in a population at any given time (Gordh and Headrick 2001). The proportion of individuals in different age classes of a population at any given time (Pedigo 2002). See ‘population ecology’, ‘population dynamics’, ‘population process’.
A group of individuals of one species gathered in one place or small area (Gordh and Headrick 2001). See ‘clumped distribution’.
aggregation pheromone
Chemical compounds synthesized and released by members of a species and which attract members of the same sex or same species to the source of the pheromone (Gordh and Headrick 2001).
Filtration is the process of removing particles from a moving fluid by passage through small openings. In most filtering operations of environmental significance the mechanism is less that of physical straining than of compaction and adsorption onto surfaces of the filter medium (Pfafflin et al. 2008). Filtration of air in an insect rearing facility to remove microbial contaminants and insect diseases, e.g. bacteria, fungi and viruses, and particles, e.g. moth body scales, and hazardous or irritating chemicals that are health hazards to workers. Filters may be coarse, fine (see HEPA) or designed to remove particular chemicals or materials from the air (Dyck 2010, Oborny 1998). See ‘sanitation’.
alkylating agent
A compound causing the substitution of an alkyl group (usually methyl or ethyl) for an active hydrogen atom in an organic compound. Many chemical mutagens are alkylating agents (King et al. 2006). Any of a group of chemical compounds that react with another compound so as to introduce an alkyl group into the second compound (Oxford 2006). See ‘mutagen’.
A shorthand form of allelomorph, one of a series of possible alternative forms of a given gene, differing in DNA sequence, and affecting the functioning of a single product (RNA and/or protein) (King et al. 2006). Any of the forms of the same gene that occur at the same locus on a homologous chromosome but differ in base sequence (Oxford 2006). One of several alternate forms of a gene occupying a given locus on a chromosome or plasmid (Viljoen et al. 2005). One of two or more alternative forms of a gene at a particular locus. If more than two alleles exist, the locus is said to exhibit multiple allelism (Hoy 2003). Form of a gene. Genes are considered allelic when they occur in the same position on members of a chromosome pair (Resh and Cardé 2003). Mutually exclusive form of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous chromosomes, and governing the same biochemical and developmental process (NAL 2008). See ‘gene’.
An immune hypersensitivity response to an agent that is non-antigenic to most of the individuals in a population (King et al. 2006). A state of altered (usually increased) reactivity of the body to foreign material (Oxford 2006). See ‘rearing facility’, ‘occupational health’.
Pertaining to a species with origin in one area but which occurs in other areas (Gordh and Headrick 2001).
A substance transmitted in chemical communication between individuals of different species that benefits the sender or both the sender and receiver (Daly et al. 1998, Jolivet 1998). A chemical substance, produced or acquired by an organism, which, when it contacts an individual of another species in the natural context, evokes in the receiver a behavioural or physiological reaction adaptively favourable to the emitter (Coppel and Mertins 1977). An allelochemic that induces a response in an individual of another species, e.g. an insect, that is beneficial to the emitting organism. Many allomones are essentially defensive, i.e. toxic or repugnant to potential attackers. However, a scent that attracts bees and therefore facilitates pollination is also an allomone (Maxwell and Jennings 1980). See ‘kairomone’, ‘parapheromone’, ‘pheromone’, ‘synomone’, ‘semiochemical’.
Allelic form of an enzyme (Krafsur, this volume). Allelic form of an enzyme that can be distinguished by electrophoresis, as opposed to the more general term isozyme (King et al. 2006). Any enzyme variant produced by a particular allele (Oxford 2006). Allozymes are a subset of isozymes. Allozymes are variants of enzymes representing different allelic alternatives of the same locus (Hoy 2003, King et al. 2006). A particular variant of an enzyme (Resh and Cardé 2003). Alternative enzyme forms encoded by different alleles at the same gene locus (Gordh and Headrick 2001). An allozyme differs in amino acid sequence from other forms of the same enzyme and is encoded by one allele at a single locus (NAL 2008). See ‘genetic marker’, ‘restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)’, ‘randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)’, ‘microsatellite’, ‘mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)’.
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