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Title1
Source
Abstract
Authors
Keywords
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
Artificial transmutation of the gene.
Science 46, 84-87.
.
Muller, H. J.
1
1
1
1
1
0
  
Food poisoning caused by aerobic sporeforming bacilli
J. appl. Bacteriol.18, 591-595
Hauge S.
bacillus, cereus, sporeformer
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Possibilities of insect control or eradication through the use of sexually sterile males.
J. Econ. Entomol. 48: 459-462.
Knipling, R. F.
SIT irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Potential Usefulness of the sterile fly release method in fruit fly eradiacation programs.
Proc. Hawaii. Acad. sc., (31st Annual Meeting, 1956/6), 17 - 8
Steiner L.F.; Christenson L.D.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Use of gamma radiation for the destruction of wood-boring insects.
Nature 179,670
Bletchly J.D.;Fisher R.C.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Investigations on sterility and deformities of Onthophagus(coleoptera:scarabeidae) induced by gamma radiation.
Ann.Am.Soc. Amer. 50(1):pp.1-9.
Howden H.F.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Current problems in woodworm control. A survey of recent developments.
Ann. Appl. Biol. 46(1):111-117.
Fisher R.C.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Differential response of male and female adults of Trogoderma granarium Everts towards sterilizing doses of gamma-radiation
Nature, vol.183, n.4657, pp.338-339
Femalea are more sensitive (50 Gy)than males (150 Gy)(three times the required dose to sterilize the females)
Carney G.C.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Radiation of Important grain-infesting pests: Order of death curves, and survival values for the various metamorphic forms.
Food Technol 13,pp 58-62.
Nicholas R.C.; Wiant D.E.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
EXPLORATORY STUDIES ON GAMMA RADIATION FOR THE STERILIZATION AND CONTROL OF ANOPHELES QUADRIMACULATUS.
Jour Econ Ent 52: 868
\r\r
Davis, A. N.;Gahan, J. B.; Weidhaas, D. E.;Smith, C. N..
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
EXPLORATORY STUDIES ON GAMMA RADIATION FOR THE STERILIZATION AND CONTROL OF ANOPHELES QUADRIMACULATUS.
Journ. Econ. Ent . 52: 868-870
\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r
Davis A.N.; Gahan J.B.; Weidhaas D.E.; Smith C.N.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
.
J.Sci.Food. Agr. 11,754.
Cornwell P.B.;Bull J.O.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Metodi di lotta vecchi e nuovi sperimentali contro i principali fitofagi dell olivo in Toscana nel 1960. Old and new experimental methods against the principal phytophagous pests of the olive in Tuscany in 1960).
Redia 45, 193-217
Melis A.;Baccetti B.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The possible use of sterile males in controlling or eradicating Queensland fruit fly.
The Technological Use of Radiation, p.130. Australian Atomic Energy Commission
Monro J.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
The effect of neutron irradiation on the fertlity of Tribolium confusum
American Naturalist. 1961; 124-126.
McDonald, D. J.;Long H. C
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Inducing mating and oviposition of the warble flies Hypoderma bovis (L.) and H, lineatum (De Vill.) (Diptera: Oestridae) in captivity.
Can, EntomoL 93: 149-156,
Weintraub, J.
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Insect control by gamma irradiation, a technically feasible process, but is it desirable and can it be applied
Food Irradiation 1(4):A9-A11
Cornwell P.B.
disinfestation, Cereal, commercial feasibility
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Effect of gamma radiation on the reproductive potential of the Mexican fruit fly.
J. Econom. Entomol. 54: 202 - 203
50 Gy to sterilize 12 d old pupae
Rhodes R.H.; Lopez D.F.; Guisa F.E.; Telich J.C.
Mexican fruit fly
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Title
Atti. Assoc. Genet. Ital. 6,285
Frizzi G.;Jolly M.S.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Structure of salivary chromosomes and their contribution to the problem of evolution.
Rc Seminar Fac. Sc. Cagliari 31, 1-
Anopheles atroparvus were irradiated with dosages of 2000 R - 6000 R. the latter produced complete sterility but 3500 R gave the highest rate of chromosome mutations. Both pericentric and paracentric inversions were most frequently found deficiencies and rarely translocations. Most of the inversions were in chromosomes II and III, very few in X.
Frizzi G.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Investigations on the sterilization of pernicious insects with ionizing radiations.
Nuntius radiol. 27, 600-603
Baccetti B.;Carppellini M.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
At. Energy Res.
At. Energy Res. Estab. (Gt. Brit.) Rept.R.4003, 23pp
Pendelbury J.B.;Jeffries D.J.; Banham E.J.;Bull J.O.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effect of radiation on Mexican fruit fly eggs and larvae in grapefruit.
Radioisotopes and Radiation in Entomology (Proceedings Symposium Bombay, 1960), IAEA, Vienna pp.193-202.
Brownell L.E.;Yudelovich M.
Mexican fruit fly, grapefruit, Irradiation
1
1
1
0
1
0
  
Field studies on the release of sterile males for the control of Anopheles quadrimaculatus.
Mosquito News, vol.22, N.3
Pupae, collected daily from laboratory colony so that none were over 24 hours old, were exposed immediately to 12 000 r of gamma radiation in a cobalt-60 source. Within 24 to 48 hours after adults emerged, they were inactivated in a cold room (35 to 40 F) and males were transferred to cages for release in the test area.
Weidhaas, D.E.;Schmidt, C.H.; Seabrook, E.L.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
THE IMPORTANCE OF COMPETITIVENESS OF RADIOSTERILIZED MALES IN MOSQUITO-CONTROL PROGRAMS.
N J Mosquito Extermin Assoc Proc 49:165-168
\r\r\r\r\r
Dame, D. A.;Schmidt, C. H.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Insect Control by Radiation Sterilization in Australia
International Journal of applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol.13, pp.435-439
Waterhouse D.F.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Ips confusus
U.S. At. Energy Comm., Div. Tech.Inform., Biol.Med.N01, TID-4200 (Abstr.KIC139),P.165
Stark R.W.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Eradication of white grub (Melolontha vulgaris F.) by the sterile-male technique.
Radiation and radiosioptes applied to insects of agricultural importance : proceedings of the Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animals Insect Pests. International Atomic Energy Agency. Proceedings series , p. 313-332.
Horber E.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
.
Bull. Biol. France Belg. 97,305
Laviolette P.;Nardo P.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effect of variable dose-rates on radiation damage in the rust-red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst
Radiation and Radioisotops Application to Insects of agricultural Importance.Proc. Symp. Athen 22-26 April 1963. Organized by IAEA/FAO. Vienna 1963
Nair K.K;Subramanyam G.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma radiation on the fertility of the common cattle grub, Hypoderma lineatum (de Villers).
Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 7(5):491-495
At 9–13 days after collection from the backs of cattle as larvae, or 6–8 days before heel flies emerged, pupae of the common cattle grub, Hypoderma lineatum (de Villers), were exposed to 1000, 2500, 5000, or 7500 roentgens of gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Flies from irradiated pupae were mated with those from non-irradiated pupae to determine fertility of the treated individuals. At 5000 and 7500 roentgens both sexes were completely sterilized; at 2500 r females were completely sterilized and males exhibited reduced fertility. 1Roentgen = 9.93 mGy ==10 mGy == Gy/100 1000 R= 10 Gy
Drummond, R. O.
SIT sterility
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Effect of ionizing radiation on insects and other arthropods, p.301 -309
Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to insects of Agricultural Importance. proc. Symp. Athen 22 - 26 April 1963. Vienna, IAEA, 1963
Stone W.E.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma radiation on various stages of three fruit fly species.
J. econ. Entomol.56, 1, 42 - 46
Balock J.W.;Burditt A.K.;Christenson L.D.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Eradication of the melon fly.
Agric. Res., London, 12, 2, 5
Anonymous
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The effects of gamma radiation on the ovaries of Dacus oleae Gmel.
p. 387-411 in " Radiation and Isotopes Applied to Insects of Agricultural Importance. proceedings of a symposium, Athens, 22-26 April 1963. Vienna, international atomic Energy Agency.
Baccetti B.;De Dominicis R.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sterlization of Dacus oleae by gamma radiation.
p.413-424, in Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to insects of Agricultural Importance. proceedings of a symposium, Athens, 22 - 26 April 1963. Vienna, IAEA.
Thomou H.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Differential radiosensitivity as an explanation for so-called recovery in drosophila sperm.
Genetics 50: 173-179.
Trout W. E.
Irradiation genetics
1
1
1
1
1
0
  
Insect control by radiation and radioisotopes
USAEC Division of Technical Information Extension, Washington, D.C. 32 pp.
USAEC
disinfestation
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
FIELD BEHAVIOR OF SEXUALLY STERILE ANOPHELES QUADRIMACULATUS MALES
Mosquito News 24:6-14
Dame D.A.;Woodard D.B.; Ford H.R.;Weidhaas D.E.
Behavior, biology and ecology, Sex, Anopheles
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
FIELD BEHAVIOR OF SEXUALLY STERILE ANOPHELES QUADRIMACULATUS MALES.
Mosquito News 24:6-14
\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r
Dame, D. A.;Woodard, D. B.; Ford, H. R.; Weidhaas, D. E.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Radiosterilization vs. chemosterlization in house flies and mosquitoes
J.Econ. Entomology, vol.57, n.5753-754
Mosquito pupae at least 24 h old were treated with 10 000 or 12 000 r from a cobalt source supplying 736 +/- 33 r/min.
Schmidt, C. H.; Dame, D. A; Weidhaas, D.E.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Weight and Blood Volume Changes Induced by Irradiation of the American Cockroach.
Radiation research 25:514-525.
<a href="http://www.jstor.org/pss/3571766">Abstract</a>
Wharton DRA;Wharton Martha;Lola John
Irradiation, Ionizing radiation, Periplaneta americana
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Melon fly eradication by overflooding with sterile flies.
J.Econ.Entomol. 58, 3, 519 - 522
Steiner L.F.; Harris E.J.; Mitchell W.C.; Fujimoto M.S.; Christenson L.D.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The effect of gamma radiation on the biology and behavior of adult Ips confusus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).
Can.Entomol.98 (1):1-10
Sterilisation of newly emerged males and females of the bark beetle I. confusus was almost complete at doses of 75 and 100 Gy respectively.Gallery establishment was affected above 150 Gy. Longevity was affected of 50 Gy. At 75 Gy the LT50 for males was 11.5 days compared with 29 days for controls. Significant F2 population reduction in logs could be achieved at dosages between 60 and 75 Gy.
Wood D.L.;Stark R.W.
Ips confusus, bark beetles, log timber irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Use of alternative biological control schemes
Proceedings of the FAO Symposium on Integrated Pest Control, Pt.2,Rome, Italy. 11-15 October 1965. Rome FAO 1966, 183p
Horber E.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Dosimetry,tolerance, and shelf life extension related to disinfestation of fruits and vegeteblaes by gamma irradiation.
p.58-60 of "6th Annual AEC Food Irradaition Contractors Meetings, Washington, D.C. USA 3-4 October 1966" Conf.-661017, Division of Isotopes Development (AEC), Washington, D.C. 1966 216p.
Brewbaker J.L.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The effect of dose rate on the response of Tribolium confusum Duv., Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) and Sitophilus granarius (L.) to 60Co gamma radiation.
The Entomology of radiation disinfestation of grain : a collection of original research papers / edited by P.B. Cornwell. p. 177-185.
Jefferies, D.J.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Engorgement and reproduction of lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum L.) treated with gamma radiation.
Int. J. radiat. Biol. 10, 183-188
Irradiation of both sexes with 2500 R or more prevented reproduction.
Drummond R.O.; Medley J.G.; Graham O.H.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Gamma radiation as a quarantine treatment for Hawaiian fruit flies
Journal of Economic Entomology. 59: 202-204.
Gamma rays from a cobalt-60 Source were applied to egg and larval infestations of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel; melon fly, D. cucurbitae Coquillet; and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in various fruits and vegetables to investigate such radiation as a quarantine treatment for fresh commodities. A dosage of 10 kr generally prevented immature stages of fruit flies from developing to adults. Dosages over 100 kr failed to fully prevent pupation. Mortalities were converted to probits, and LD99.9 and LD99.9968 determined for the oriental fruit fly and the melon fly. Solo papayas, tomatoes, cucumbers, bananas. litchis, and ripe mangoes tolerated dosages between 25 kr and 100 kr without losing commercial acceptability. Most varieties of avocados and mature green Haden mangoes were injured by 25 kr.
Balock JW;Burditt AK Jr;Seo ST;Akamine EK
Disinfestation treatment, Hawaiian fruit flies, Irradiation
1
1
1
0
1
0
  
Control of the Queensland fruit fly by gamma irradiation
Journal of Economic Entomology, 59: 884-888.
Macfarlane JJ
Tephritid, Bactrocera tryoni, irradiation mortality
1
1
1
0
1
0
  
.
6th Annual AEC Food Irradiation Contractors Meeting, Washington, D.C., 3-4 Oct.1966. p.69-70
Mayer E.L.; Tilton W.; Laudani H.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma radiation on the grain mite, Acarus siro.
J.Econ. Entomol. 59, 4 pp.976-980
Burkholder W.E; Tilton E.W.; Cogburn R.R.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Studies on the eradication of Anopheles pharoensis Theobald by the sterile-maletechnique using cobalt-60. I. Biological effects of gamma radiation on the different developmental stages.
J Econ Entomol Jun;59(3):672-8
\r\r\r
Abdel-Malek AA; Tantawy AO;Wakid AM.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Studies on eradication of Anopheles pharoensis by the sterile-male technique using cobalt-60. II. Induced dominant lethals in the immature stages.
J Econ Entomol 59(6):1392-4
\r\rStudies on eradication of Anopheles pharoensis by the sterile-male technique using cobalt-60. II. Induced dominant lethals in the immature stages.\r\r\r\r
Tantawy AO; Abdel-Malek AA;Wakid AW.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Control of fruit flies by gamma rays.
Fd irradiation, 6,3, A28- A32
Huque H.; Ahmed H.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Gamma radiation-induced dominant lethality to the sperm of the olive fruit fly.
Tzanakakis M.E.;tsitsipis J.A.;Papageorgiou M.;Fytizas E.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Research activities of the association euratom-Ital.
Atompraxis 12, 231-236
Zeeuw D.de
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sterile flies used. enemy of olives subjected.
Nat. Hist., N.Y., 75, 3, 30-35
Whitney D.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
An attempt to eradicate a larval population of Melolontha vulgaris F. by the release of X-radiated males.
Waldhygiene 6,6,161-170
Hober E.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Laboratory experiments to control the cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha L.) by the sterile male technique.
Acta phytopath. hung.2,3,pp211-217
Jermy T.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Prospects of integrated microbial and radiation control of harmful insects.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 293-297.
This paper is a ?theoretical insect pathology? consideration of the prospects of integrated microbial and radiation control of harmful insects. While considering this topic our attention is directed first to the possible applications of the radiation sterilizing method of population suppression. The exploratory investigations of this subject have shown that ionizing radiation will induce sterility but there is considerable variation in the amounts needed. The research also suggests that radiation damage may in some cases prevent application of the method to some insects. In nature some insects appear to be so abundant that the use of the sterile-male technique may not be feasible without first processing the geographically isolated and nonisolated infested area with other control measures to bring wild populations ?within reach?. Such a situation can be approached from two angles. The population may be controlled by means of well-tried microbial pathogens. Also, the release of sterile male insects carrying parasites or pathogens has control possibilities. In such a situation an intensified search has to be made for those pathogens that are nonvirulent when present in or on the adult, but are highly virulent to the larvae. Coelomomyces and Thelohania are probably of this category.\r\n\r\nThe increased susceptibility of irradiated insects to pathogens is opening a new field of investigation. The life span of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum beetles was shortened considerably when the test insects received Bacillus thuringiensis immediately and after an interval of 24 and 144 hours following exposure to X-rays. The life span of the irradiated beetles was somewhat shortened by the presence of Farinocystis tribolii, Nosema whitei, and Adelina tribolii, protozoan parasites in the fat body of the test insects.\r\n\r\nThere are promising prospects of evolving, through irradiation, new strains of pathogens of high virulence. Already strains of increased virulence of Beauveria bassiana and Aspergillus flavus have been evolved by means of ionizing radiation. There is economic feasibility in using gamma radiation from cobalt-60 in the control of diseases of the honey bee, and in the sterilization of honey. The use of radiation as an insect repellent and the behavioral aspects of radiation on insects is a fascinating field of future investigation. Examples of this phenomenon are cited.
Jafri R. H.
Irradiation, insect
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
the influence of dose-rate of gamma-irradiation on the reproducing capacity of adult females of Tribolium confusum duval
Meded. Rijksfac. LandbWet. Gent. 32: 3-4, 890-903
Vereecke, A.; Pelerents C.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The introduction of dominant lethal mutations in insects by ionising radiation and chemicals-as related to the sterile male technique of insect control.
pp. 617-650. In Wright JW, Pal R (eds.) Genetics of insect vectors of disease. Elsevier Amsterdam.
LaChance L. E.
SIT irradiation mutation genetics
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Studies on the application of the sterile method in the tick Ornothodoros tholozani.
Entomologia Experimentalis & Applicata, 10, 143-152
Nymphs are prevented from molting at doses sup ot equal to 2000 Rontgen if exposed before feeding. Both sexes emerging from nymphs irradiated by > 2000 rontgen, two weeks later after feeding, are sterile. These males are not competitive due to lack of sperm. Females become sterile after irradiation by >2000 Rontgen, whereas males require 16 000 Rontgen in order to induce 99% dominant lethality. They are effective in competing with normal males.
Galun R.;Warburg M.;Avivi A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effect of Gamma radiation and chemosterilants on the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.
Jap.J.Sant. Zool.,18:2-3, pp.126-129
Sterilizing effectiveness of gamma radiation with C-60 or chemosterilant on the engorged female cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, was determined. Doses of 10 to 100 kr were inhibitory to oviposition. A 50% hatchability was shown by eggs deposited by females irradiated at a dose of about 0.5 kr.
kitaoka S.;Morii T.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Radiation cytogenetics of the yellow-fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and the plant genus Collinsia.
Final report, April 1967--September 1977,9 p
The major objectives of the project on Aedes aegypti, which is one of the most important disease vectors of man, were to study the cytogenetic effects of radiation and certain chemical mutagens, the genetics of radiation-induced chromosomal rearrangements with particular attention to reciprocal translocations, and the possibility of using translocations for genetic control of natural populations. Results reported on work done during the years 1967 and 1977 show these objectives have been mostly accomplished
Rai, K.S
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of ionising radiation on Dacus zonatus fruit fly eggs and larvae in situ
Pakistan Journal Science. 19: 233-238.
Haque H;Ahmad R
Tephritid, Irradiation
1
1
1
0
1
0
  
Male competitiveness in irradiated and non-irradiated Acarus siro L.
Bull Entomol. Soc. Am. 13(3), p.194.
Brown G.A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Studies on the eradication of Anopheles pharoensis Theobald by the sterile-male technique using cobalt-60. VI. Sperm activity in males irradiated with the sterilizing dose.
J Econ Entomol 60(5):1300-2
\r
Abdel-Malek AA; Tantawy AO;Wakid AM.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Radiation-induced sterilization
<i>in</i> Pest Control, edited by Kilgore W.W. and Doutt R.L.. Academic Press, NY, London, 1967
LaChance L.E.; Schmidt C.H.; Bushland R.C.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
A cytological study of the effects of radiation on the development of the reproductive organs of two species of fruit flies, Dacus oleae and Ceratitis capitata.
CRP, contract 169, p79-81. Technical report 74. Vienna, Intenational atomic Energy Agency, 223p
Baccetti B.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Irradiation of Queesland fruit fly pupae to meet quarantine requirement.
J. Econ. Entomol. 61(6):17211726
Shipp E.;Osborn A.W.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Induced sterilization and control of insects.
Annual Review of 339 Entomology 14: 81-102.
Proverbs M. D.
Irradiation SIT
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Susceptibility of long headed flour beetle, Latheticus oryzae to gamma radiation.
Nuclear Science and Aplications, 5(A),
Ahmed, M. and Bhuiya, A.D.
Latheticus oryzae
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Biology of the Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts, an important stored grain pest of East Pakistan
Nuclear Science and Applications, 5(A).
Rahman, R.; Hossain, M.M.; and Ahmed, M.
Trogoderma granarium
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
EFFECTS OF X-IRRADIATION OF DIFFERENT STAGES OF EMBRYONATED EGGS OF ANOPHELES MACULIPENNIS ATROPARVUS (DIPTERA- NEMATOCERA).
Parassitologia 11:171-176
\r\r
Lecis, A. R.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Cytotoxic effects of tepa on the males of Dacas oleae.Effets cytotoxiques du tepa sur les males de Dacus oleae.
Rijksfaculteit der Landbouwwetenschappen: Twenty-first International Symposium on Phytopharmacy and Phytiatry, 6th May 1969.: Eenentwintigste Internationaal Symposium over Fytofarmacie en Fytiatrie, 6 Mei 1969. Mededelingen-Rijksfakulteit-Landbouwwetenschappen-Gent. , 34: 3, 637-642
Following experiments on the cytotoxic effects of tepa on females of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) in Greece [cf. RAE/A 58, 2930, etc.], a similar test was carried out with males one day old, to which tepa at various concentrations was offered in sugared water for 24 h. Degeneration of spermatagonia and spermatocytes was induced by concentrations of 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05% tepa, (though not by 0.025%), but the shape and motility of the spermatozoa were not affected. The commencement and completion of the cytotoxic effects occurred soonest at the highest doses; spermatagonia were destroyed in 5, 8 and 8-11 days after treatment at the three concentrations, respectively. The sexual vigour of treated males was unaffected. Spermatozoa formed during the pupal stage were emitted during the first 5-6 matings, and the complete elimination of genetic cells resulted in a 30-40% reduction of testis size in treated as compared with untreated males.\r
Fytizas-E
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Some effects of gamma-ray radiation on cattle ticks, Haemaphysalis longicornis and Boophilus microplus.
Research Reports of the Office of Rural Development, Korea. Veterinary Series, 1971, Vol.14, pp.63-67
Han, T. W.;Suh, M. D.;Kim, B. J.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Changes in survival and tolerance levels in a radiation-resistant strain of Aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) during 90 generations.
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. (15 Nov 1971). v. 64(6) p. 1247-1249
Stahler, N
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Studies on the application of the sterile-male technique for the control of the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.).
Revista Peruana de Entomologia, Vol.14, pp.66-86
The authors review work in Peru in 1968-70 on the feasibility \r of using the sterile-male technique for the control of \r Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) on fruit trees there. Details \r are given of the methods used to rear, irradiate (with gamma -\r radiation), label (with fluorescent powder) and release the \r fly. Field work was carried out in the Valleys of Chillon and \r Ica to evaluate the populations of wild flies, and small-scale \r field releases of sterile individuals were begun in 1970.
Gonzalez B., J.; Vargas V., C.; Jara P., B
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Estudios sobre la aplicacion de la tecnica de machos estriles en el control de la mosca sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha farterculus (Wied.).
Rev. Peruvuana Entomol. 14: 77-83
Gonzales B.J.;Vargas C.; Jara B.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Research on the sterilization with radiation for the control of the ''southamerican fruit fly'' anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.). Progress report, July 1969--September 1970
Report, 30 Apr 1971. 48 p
Gonzalez Bachini, J.E
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Life table studies of Aedes albopictus (Skuse)
Symposium of the sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970,International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Proceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Athens, 14-18 September 1970. Vienna. IAEA. 1971. p.131-143. Proceedings series
Symposium of the sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970,International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterility principle for insect control or eradication. \rProceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Athens, 14-18 September 1970. Vienna. IAEA. 1971. p.131-143. Proceedings series
Chan, Kai-Lok
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Development of eggs laid by females of Dacus oleae sterilised by tepa.Evolution des oeufs pondus par des femelles de Dacus oleae sterilisees par le tepa.
Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen: 23rd International Symposium on Phytopharmacy and Phytiatry, May 1971.: 23ste Internationaal Symposium over Fytofarmacie en Fytiatrie, Mei 1971. Mededelingen-van-de-Faculteit-Landbouwwetenschappen-Rijksuniversiteit-Gent. 36: 3, 945-949
Fytizas-E
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Disinfestation of Fruit by Irradiation
Proceedings Panel Honolulu, 1970, IAEA, Vienna 177pp.
Proceedings of an expert panel meeting on irradiation as a quarantine treatment.
International Atomic Energy Agency
Irradiation
1
1
0
0
1
0
  
Sidelights on the sexual behaviour of Dacus oleae Gmelin (Diptera, Trypetidae) in the laboratory
Redia. 52: 201-230;
The sexual biology of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) was studied in the laboratory in Italy with a view to possible control by the sterile-male technique. The interval between adult emergence and sexual maturity decreased as temperatures rose and photoperiod increased. Most flies paired at light intensities below 300 lux, although mating was possible from 700 lux downwards. The degree of relative humidity had no effect. Virgin flies mated sooner with older, already mated partners than with other virgin adults. Most males mated 23-26 times. About half the females tested mated only once and most of the rest 2-4 times, at intervals varying inversely with the degree of heat and duration of photoperiod; they were more ready to accept a subsequent mating within a short than a long interval from the previous one. Fecundity was greatest in females paired with males that had alredy mated 9-12 times, and fertility was greatest in females paired with males mated 13-16 times. Artificial interruption of copulation showed that a normal hatching rate was possible after a mating period lasting 60 min but that the rate was reduced by 57-80% if mating was interrupted after 15-30 min. In tests using some irradiated males in which either sterile or no spermatozoa were being produced, it was found that during copulation the male transmitted to the female a factor present in the seminal fluid but distinct from the spermatozoa, which stimulated oviposition and rendered the female unreceptive to further matings at least for a time.
Cavalloro-R;Delrio-G
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Competition of tepa-sterilized and normal Dacus oleae males
Annales-de-l'Institut-Phytopathologique-Benaki., 10: 2, 210-216
Sterilisation of male insects by tepa can result in aspermia, sperm inactivation or genetic aberrations in the sperm [cf. RAE/A 56, 1801], but only the last is considered desirable in the case of Dacus oleae (Gmel.). Laboratory tests were carried out in Greece to determine, by microscopic examination of testes, spermathecae and ovarian eggs, whether it was possible to distinguish between sperm inactivation and insemination of ova by sterilised spermatozoa, and also whether the sexual competitiveness of males was adversely affected by tepa administered in food either once at 0.1% or every eight days at 0.01%. Neither method of treatment affected male sexual vigour, although the single massive dose caused nutritional disturbances and a steady decline in the number of spermatozoa emitted during the 7th-14th matings. Sperm motility was not impaired by repeated small doses of tepa although the males remained sterile for 30 days. Ovarian eggs inseminated by sterile spermatozoa formed a zygote [cf. 57, 594] and developed further either than those of females mated but not inseminated (owing to sperm inactivation) or than those of virgin females.
Fytizas-E
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
The present state of biological control and the possibilities of its use in problems concerning olives.
Annali-della-Facolta-di-Scienze-Agrarie-della-Universita-degli-Studi-di-Napoli,-Portici. publ. 1972, 5: 145-160
In this paper, which was read at a meeting at Granada, Spain, in 1971, the author reviews the advantages of the use of biological and other non-chemical measures against insect pests and outlines the work done, particularly during the last two decades, on the use of natural enemies and sterile-release methods for the control of olive pests, with particular reference to Dacus oleae (Gmel.), Prays oleae (Bern.) and Saissetia oleae (Ol.), which are the main pests of olive in Spain. The principal parasite reared for release against D. oleae is Opius concolor Szepl. It is currently being reared in Italy, France, Greece, Yugoslavia, Spain and the Lebanon. Liberations have been made in Italy (including Sicily), Greece and Yugoslavia and preliminary releases have been made in Spain. Chelonus elaeaphilus Silv. appears the most promising of the parasites of P. oleae, and once problems of mass-rearing had been overcome [cf. RAE/A 57, 2674] the parasite was released in France and Greece, affording encouraging results. Ageniaspis fuscicollis var. praysincola Silv. and a species of Trichogramma also appear promising against P. oleae [58, 3071]. Numerous indigenous parasites and predators attack S. oleae in Spain, but they do not hold it in check satisfactorily. Attempts are being made to introduce Metaphycus helvolus (Comp.) into Europe from California, where it affords good control of this Coccid. ADDITIONAL ABSTRACT: The importance of insect pests in Spanish olive plantations is discussed and progress in biological control of Dacus oleae (by Opius concolor), Prays oleae (by Chelonus eleaphilus, Ageniaspis fuscicollis praysinicola and a Trichogramma sp.) and Saissetia oleae (by Methaphycus helvolus), is reported.
Fimiani-P
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Possibilities of integrated control of Dacus oleae(Gmelin) au moyen de methodes autocides et chimiques
Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970: International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Proceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Athens, 14-18 September 1970. Vienna. IAEA. 1971. p. 55-65.
\r
Orphanidis, P.S. Kalmoukos, P.E.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effect of gamma radiation on the reproductive organs of Dacus zonatus (Saunders)
Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Athens, Greece. 14 Sep 1970. Sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Proceedings of a symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Athens, 14-18 September 1970. Vienna. IAEA. 1971. p. 31-36.
Huque, Heshamul
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Dietary and density dependant factors in the induction of population auticide of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum
Environmental Entomology. 1972; 2:75-76
Kinkade, M. L.;Erdman H. E
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Sterilization of the Mediterranean fruit fly with gamma radiation: effect of male competitiveness and change in fertility of females alternately mated with irradiated and untreated males.
Journal of Economic Entomology 65: 1-6.
Hooper, G. H. S.
Medfly tephritidae SIT irradiation Ceratitis
1
1
1
1
1
0
  
Genetic control of insect populations.
Science 178: 346 1164-1174.
Smith RH, and RC.von Borstel.
Genetics SIT
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Experimental demonstration of holokinetic chromosomes, and of differential radiosensitivity during oogenesis, in the grass mite, Siteroptes graminum (Reuter)
J. Exp. Zool. (Oct 1972). v. 182(1) p. 69-94
Cooper, R.S
chromosomal aberrations; gamma radiation; genetic radiation effects; irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma radiation on the spider mite Tetranychus arabicus Attiah. III. Irradiation of deutonymphs
Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, Vol.71, No.4, pp.406-409, 14 ref
The average number of eggs \r\n laid/female fell from 97.69 to 12.92 at 30 krad, and there was \r\n a corresponding fall in egg viability from 99.62% to nil.
Elbadry, E. A.;Wakid, A. M.; Elaal, M. A. Abd
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Suppression of the reproductive potential of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus arabicus Attiah by gamma irradiation.
Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, Vol.79, No.4, pp.223-226, 13 ref
Wakid, A. M.;Elbadry, E. A.;Abd Elaal, M. A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma radiation on the spider mite Tetranychus arabicus Attiah. II. Irradiation of larvae
Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie Animale, Vol.4, No.3, pp.379-383
A dose of 15 krad reduced the viability of the eggs by \r\n 25%. A dose of 10 krad considerably shortened the length of \r\n adult life. No males completed their development to the adult \r\n stage after exposure as larvae to 25 krad.
Wakid, A. M.;Elbadry, E. A.;Elaal, M. A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma radiation on the fertility of the spider mite Tetranychus arabicus Attiah.
Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie Animale, Vol.4, No.3, pp.375-378, 7 ref
The total production of eggs decreased as the \r\n dose increased from 8 to 30 krad. Males were sterilised by \r\n exposure to 28 krad; exposure to 8-60 krad apparently induced \r\n dominant lethal mutations in the sperm and exposure to 80, 100,\r\n 120 or 140 krad was injurious to or inactivated the sperm
Wakid, A. M.;Elbadry, E. A.;Elaal, M. A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Studies on the mating competitiveness and restoration of sperm viability in the gamma-irradiated population of Tetranychus arabicus Attiah (Acarina: Tetranychidae).
Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, Vol.71, No.2, pp.178-181, 9 ref
Groups of 25 adult males of Tetranychus arabicus Attiah were \r\n exposed to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) at a\r\n dose of 30 krad and confined with groups of 15 untreated \r\n females. The numbers of eggs laid were recorded at intervals of\r\n two days and the percentages that hatched were noted. After \r\n four days, the treated males were replaced by 25 untreated or \r\n 25 treated males, and observations were continued for a further\r\n six days.
Elbadry, E. A.;Wakid, A. M.;Abd Elaal, M. A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma radiation on a spider mite, Tetranychus arabicus. 1. Irradiation of eggs.
Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol.65, No.4, pp.947-950
Eggs of Tetranychus arabicus Attiah 1 and 4 days old were \r\n exposed to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) in \r\n the laboratory in Egypt. The younger eggs were considerably \r\n more susceptible to treatment than the older ones. Doses of \r\n 9052 and 70 000 rad almost completely prevented hatching in the\r\n two groups, respectively. Unfertilised eggs were, generally, \r\n more sensitive to treatment than fertilised eggs (regardless of\r\n age).
Elbadry, E. A.;Elaal, M. A. A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma radiation on the biology and population suppression of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch
Hilgardia v. 41(12) p. 299-342
Neson R.D.;Stafford M.
Two spotted mite, spider mites, Tetranychus urticae
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Translocation homozygotes in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti
J. Hered. (1972). v. 63 p. 158-166
Lorimer, N.; Hallinan, E.; Rai, K.S
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Application of radiation-induced translocations for genetic control of Aedes aegypti
Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. Genetics and our health. Proceedings of the seminar, New Delhi, 5-8 April 1971. New Delhi. Indian Council of Medical Research. 1972. p. 77-94
Rai, K.S.; McDonald, P.T.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Developmental effects of ionizing radiation in Aedes aegypti
J. Med. Entomol. (30 Sep 1972). v. 9(5) p. 468-478
Asman, M.; Rai, K.S
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Radiation-induced paracentric inversion in Aedes aegypti (L.). Cytogenetic and interchromosomal effects
J. Hered. (1972). v. 63(5) p. 247-255
McGivern, J.J.; Rai, K.S
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Observations on sterilization of Anopheles (C.) albimanus.
Mosquito News, Vol.32, No.4, pp.574-579,
Pupae of Anopheles albimanus Wied. not more than 24 h old were \r\n exposed to X-rays at doses of 2000-8000 R. The mortality of the \r\n resulting adults was negligible, and the insemination rates in \r\n crosses between treated or untreated females and treated or \r\n untreated males were normal except when both sexes had received \r\n 8000 R. The egg production of treated females was greatly \r\n reduced. When males that had received 5000, 6000, 7000 or 8000 \r\n R were mated with untreated females, the infertility rates \r\n (adjusted for results with untreated males) of the eggs were \r\n 84.3, 82.9, 88.7 and 100%, respectively
Ali, S.R.; Rozeboom, L. E.; Lapasatukul C
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Disinfestation of dried dates by gamma radiation.
Proceedings of First Scientific Conference, Scientific Research Fiundation, Baghdad, 264-271.
Ahmed, M.S.H.; Ouda, M.A.; Lamooza, S.B.; and Al-H
Dried dates
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Disinfestation of dry dates by gamma radiation: killing effescts of radiation on immuture stages of Oryzaephilus surinamensis
Nuclear Research Institute Report B-19. Tawaitha, Baghdad, Iraq Atomic Energy Commission.
Ahmed L.; M.S.H.; Ouda, M.A.; Lamooza, S.B.
Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Dried dates
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Production of reciprocal translocations in Anopheles gambiae species A.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 66(1):22-3
\r\r\r\r
Krafsur ES.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Current status and prospects of applying the sterile-insect release method against Dacus oleae.
Food and Agriculture Organization; International Atomic Energy Agency: The sterile-insect technique and its field applications. Proceedings of a panel on the practical use of the sterile-male technique for insect control organized by the Joint FAO-IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and held in Vienna, 13-17 November . 1974, 109-115
The author reviews and discusses information, some of it unpublished, obtained during recent work in various countries in connection with the application of the sterile-male release method for the control of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) on olive. The topics dealt with include the mating frequency of the females, the sequence of sperm utilisation by females that have paired more than once, the sterilising dose of gamma -radiation, the mating competitiveness of sterilised males, the failure to develop an inexpensive mass-rearing method, and field studies on the optimum ratio of sterile to wild flies, the dispersal and behaviour of released flies and chemical control measures capable of reducing wild population rapidly before or during releases. He considers that the data discussed suggest that pupae should be irradiated as late as possible in the pupal stage, that field releases should begin well ahead of the fruiting season (preferably in late winter) and be made at short intervals, and that the release points should not be more than 200 m apart. He emphasises that much more information is required, particularly on the dispersal and possible migration of wild fly populations.
Tzanakakis M.E.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sterilisation of males of Dacus oleae by tepa in split doses.Sterilisation des males de Dacus oleae par le tepa a doses fractionnees.
Phytopharmacy and Phytiatry, 9th May 1972.: Vierentwintigste International Symposium over Fytofarmacie en Fytiatrie, 9 Mei 1972. Mededelingen-Fakulteit-Landbouwwetenschappen-Gent. 1972, 37: 2, 760-764
In further tests on the sterilising effect of tepa administered to adults of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) [cf. RAE/A 63, 1248, etc.], the cytotoxic effect on males of a single dose of 0.1% or 0.005% tepa [cf. 61, 4866] was circumvented by splitting the dose into several smaller ones administered in sugar solutions at intervals of two days. It was found that two 24-h periods of ingestion of 0.05% tepa, or four periods at 0.025%, had sterilising effects similar to those of one dose of 0.1% during the 40 days of the test and that two periods at 0.0025% kept sterility below 20% for about five days longer than did a single dose of 0.005%. It is concluded that genetic effects of multiple weak doses of tepa accumulate in the body of treated flies.\r
Fytizas-E
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Sexual competitiveness of gamma -ray sterilized males of Dacus oleae. Mating frequency of artificially reared and wild females.
Environmental-Entomology. 1: 4, 490-497
In tests in Greece, wild adults of Dacus oleae (Gmel.), reared in the laboratory on olive fruits (W) and flies reared on artificial diet (AD) were mixed in various strain and sex ratios as soon as they were sexually mature. In some experiments, the AD males were sterilised by 60Co gamma -radiation, receiving 8 krad either as advanced pupae or as young adults. Length of life was practically the same for normal W and AD flies of both sexes and for males irradiated at the adult stage, but was slightly decreased in males irradiated at the pupal stage. Most of the observed matings were recorded during the last hour of artificial twilight at the end of the photophase. The intermating period (derived from the number of matings with either W or AD males at the time of maximum mating activity) of W females was much shorter than that of AD females. On the average, 6-10 days (W females) and 12-18 days (AD females) were needed for a new mating during the first 35 experimental days. Intermating periods were much longer as the flies grew older. When normal W and AD males competed for W females, they were nearly equal, but AD males irradiated at the pupal stage were fully competitive only during the first week. Subsequently, they were less active than W males by a factor of 3-4 or even more. Egg hatching was markedly reduced only during the first 4 weeks. When AD males were irradiated as adults, their competitiveness improved strikingly, approaching that of normal males. Egg hatching remained low according to the ratio of males throughout the experiment.
Economopoulos-AP
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Mating competition of irradiated and normal males with normal females of the Queensland fruit fly, Dacus tryoni (Frogg.).
Nucleus 9: 1-2, 107-110
\r\r
Bhatti-MA;Shipp-E
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Comparative gamma radiation sensitivity of Tribolium madens (Charpenter) and T. castaneum (Herbst).
J.Stored Prod.Res. vol.9, pp.93-100
Brower J.H.;Tilton E.W.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effect of irradiation on mating competitiveness of the male tick Argas persicus (Oken)
J. Med. Ent. vol.10, no.2:137-142
Both male and female Argas persicus mated more than 10 times,. Males irradiated at doses which induce 99% dominant lethals (12KR) were fully competitive for the first 2-3 weeks after exposure, then became aspermic. Decreasing the irradiation dose to 3KR increased the fertility.
Sternberg S.;Peleg B.A.;Galun R.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Studies on hybrid sterility of single, double and triple chromosome mutation heterozygotes of Tetranychus urticae with respect to genetic control of spider mites
Entomol. Exp. Appl. v. 16(3) p. 389-394
Overmeer, W.P.J.;Zon, A.Q. van
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Radiation sterilization of Aedes aegypti in nitrogen and implications for sterile male technique
Nature (London). (10 Aug 1973). v. 244 (5415) p. 368-369
Hallinan, E.; Rai, K.S.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sex-linked translocations, semisterility and linkage alterations in the mosquito Aedes aegypti
Can. J. Genet. Cytol. (Mar 1973). v. 15(1) p. 9-20
Bhalla, S.C.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
): Investigation on the sterilization with radiations for the control of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.). Progress report, October 1970--December 1971
Report, May 1973. 31 p
Gonzalez Bachini; J.E. Pantigoso, B.J
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Investigation on radiation sterilization for the control of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.). Progress report, January--December 1972. Investigaciones sobre sterillizacion con radiaciones para el control de la mosca sudamericana de la fruta Anastropha fraterculus (Wied.). Informe de Progresso, Enero-Diciembre 1972
Report, May 1973. 11 p
Gonzalez Bachini; J.E. Pantigoso, B.J
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sensitivity of Tenebrio molitor and T. obscurus to gamma irradiation
Journal of Economic Entomology 66: 1175-1179
Brower, J.H.; Elaal, M. A. Abd
Tenebrio molitor, Tenebrio obscurus
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Influence if ionizing radiation on reproduction and mortality of the flour mite (Acarus siro L.)
Folia Biologica (Krakow), v.21, p.77-84
Jonczy J.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Field studies on insect sterilization with mosquitoes, house flies and stable flies.
Computer Methods and Application of the Sterile Male Technique. Proceedings of a Panel Meeting Organized by Joint FAO/IAEA Division, 13 - 17 December 1971, Vienna.
Weidhaas D.E.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Respiration and nutrition of radiation-sterilized female Dacus cucumis (Diptera:Tephritidae).
Entomologia-Experimentalis-et-Applicata. , 16: 4, 433-444
Details are given of studies in Australia to investigate the metabolic activity and nutrition of the adults of Dacus cucumis French after exposure as pharate adults (eight days after puparium formation) to doses of gamma -radiation between 10 krad (the sterilising dose) and 80 krad. No differences were detected between the oxygen consumption of irradiated flies and that of normal flies or between the flies irradiated at different doses. The carbohydrate intake and the initial body weights were lower in irradiated flies than in normal ones. However, those exposed to 10 krad accumulated a greater volume of fat-body than normal flies, presumably because there was no vitellogenesis. Flies exposed to 40 krad accumulated fat-body at a rate that was initially slower than the rate observed in the flies exposed to 10 krad; this may be attributable to an initial hormonal disturbance caused by exposure to the higher dose. No degenerative changes were noted in the midgut of the flies exposed to 10 or 40 krad. The protein intake of these flies was similar to that of normal flies.
Bailey-P
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Increase of the fertility of the eggs of Dacus oleae Gmelin in permanent cultures.
Note-ed-Appunti-Sperimentali-di-Entomologia-Agraria.14: 3-12
Further work was carried out in Italy to improve methods of mass-rearing Dacus oleae (Gmel.) for the purpose of control by the sterile-male technique. Adults were kept in fine-mesh cages, with a water-trough beneath into which the eggs fell [cf. RAE/A 57, 503]. In view of the increased hatching rate obtained when wax fruits were provided as oviposition sites [cf. 59, 592, 4016], green glass marbles were placed in some of the cages and olives modelled out of green paraffin wax in the others. The results were similar for the two types of artificial fruit, and the marbles are preferred as being cheaper and easier to obtain. The hatching rate was over 30% higher in eggs found below the marbles than in eggs laid in other parts of the cage or in cages without artificial fruits, although the numbers of eggs laid in cages with and without fruits were substantially the same. The ovipositing females attempted to penetrate the marbles with the ovipositor, and the influence of the effort involved (possibly causing the release of more sperm from the spermatheca into the eggs) on egg fertility is discussed. The hatching rate was slightly lower in cages containing 100 pairs of adults than in those containing 20 pairs. A more important factor affecting viability was the length of time for which the eggs remained in the water-trough; a reduction was observed in the hatching rate of eggs submerged for more than 4 h. A simple device is illustrated by which the eggs were automatically flushed out of the trough and filtered at intervals of 2 h.
Cavalloro-R;Delrio-G
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Chromotropic methods for investigating adult populations of Dacus oleae Gmelin.
Note-ed-Appunti-Sperimentali-di-Entomologia-Agraria. 14: 13-29
An account is given of developments in the Liguria area of Italy on the study of the adult behaviour of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) with a view to obtaining information required for the implementation of biological control measures. Owing to the comparatively poor results afforded by chemical attractants and the good results obtained in attracting Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) by means of coloured surfaces coated with adhesives [cf. RAE/A 60, 1712; 62, 4301], similar tests were carried out with D. oleae. Yellow proved to be the most attractive colour, followed by orange and then red. Good results were obtained from both two- and three-dimensional trap-shapes, and the simplest ones were adopted, which were rectangles of cardboard or brass painted with fluorescent yellow pigment; the brass ones proved easier to hang in the trees and less susceptible to wind damage. The adhesive was of the non-drip type and therefore remained effective at high temperatures. Adults sterilised with 12 krad gamma -radiation and marked with fluorescent pigment were released, and 33% were recaptured. The most effective traps were those hung in the outer part of the trees. Flight was affected by weather, and no flight occurred at temperatures below 14 deg C. The adults moved across adjacent trees, even of species other than olive, but did not cross wide gaps in the vegetation such as that afforded by a road. Marked males and females were recaptured in equal numbers but indigenous females more than males, which indicated that the traps were equally attractive to both sexes but that females predominated in the wild population; this may have been due to a greater capacity for dispersal observed in the males.
Girolami-V;Cavalloro-R
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
New directions in the control of Dacus oleae Gmelin: preliminary trials and prospects of biological and demo-ecological studies in northern Italy.
Redia. 54: 73-82
Facilities have been set up for field and laboratory studies on Dacus oleae (Gmel.) on olive in a new area, round Lake Garda in northern Italy which is close to the northern limit of distribution of the pest; the object is to study its life-cycle and population dynamics in the field by means of bait-traps and its sexual behaviour and response to temperature changes in the laboratory, with a view to possible releases of sterile or substerile adults as a means of control. Details of the catches in 1968 in traps baited with hydrolysed protein (Staley no. 7), diammonium sulphate or trimedlure, placed at three different heights in the trees in four different localities, are shown in a table. The results were rather poor, but indicated that diammonium sulphate was the most attractive bait and that adults begin to appear in August, with a peak in November, and seem to prefer the upper part of the tree. It is suggested that the low numbers caught may have been due to overwintering of many of the larvae and adults in the large numbers of olives that remained unharvested on the trees through the winter of 1968-69 owing both to labour shortage and to the late ripening of some olive varieties recently introduced from Tuscany. In the laboratory work, it is proposed to supplement previous studies [cf. RAE/A 62, 912] and those being carried on concurrently in other areas with further comparative investigations into the sexual activity of normal and irradiated adults, completely and partially sterilised adults, and sterilisation by irradiation and other methods, and also into the effectiveness as control agents of irradiated males alone or together with irradiated females; no results are available at present.
Zangheri-S;Cavalloro-R;Masutti-L;Girolami-V
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Radiosterilisation of Dacus oleae Gmelin and prospects of control by means of the sterile-male technique
Redia. 54: 153-167
As a result of laboratory studies at Ispra in north-west Italy on the sensitivity of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) at various development stages to gamma -radiation, the doses resulting in mortality and sterility were ascertained, and considerable differences were observed between the sensitivity of pupae and of adults. For males irradiated within 24 h after adult emergence, the dose giving 98% sterility proved to be 16 krad, but the corresponding dose for male pupae treated three days before adult emergence was 7 krad. Substerilising doses, which permitted the treated males to be more sexually competitive than totally sterilised ones, were 12 krad for newly emerged adults and 7 krad for pupae. The best proportion of sterile flies in a population, for sexual competition, was found to be eight sterile males (treated in the pupal stage) to one normal pair. The fecundity of normal females that mated more than once [cf. RAE/A 62, 912] was always reduced by pairing with both treated and normal males, whichever type of male came first [cf. 62, 1195]. Field tests with a caged olive tree confirmed the effectiveness of the sterile-male technique for the control of D. oleae.
Cavalloro-R;Delrio-G
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sexual competitiveness of metepa-sterilized males of Dacus oleae.
Environmental-Entomology. 2: 5, 731-736
In tests in Greece, metepa-sterilised males of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) mixed at different ratios with normal males were allowed to compete for normal females. Sexual competitiveness of the sterile males was compared with that of normal males on the basis of mating activity and egg hatching. The effect of competition stress on mortality was also examined.Mortality of the sterile males was lower than that of normal males when competition stress was absent, but mortality of sterile males competing with normal males in ratios of 1:1 and 2:1 was higher than that of normal males. At 4:1, sterile males show the same low mortality as irradiated males caged alone. Mortality of normal males was not affected by competition stress, and that of normal females introduced into the male cages every week for mating was the same for all experiments during the first two weeks. During the following weeks, it was higher when females mated with normal males or when they were outnumbered by males by a factor of at least 5.The mating competitiveness of sterile males was the same as that of normal males. On average, more than 72% of all matings of both sterile and normal males caged separately occurred during the first day of their contact with females. The percentage of sterile males caged alone that mated was lower than that of normal males caged alone during the first week and higher during the third week. The competitiveness of sterile males as shown by egg hatching was the same as that of normal males in all cases except during the first week and then only when they were present in a 1:1 ratio.
Haniotakis-GE
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Economical rearing of larvae of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae, on a liquid diet offered on cotton towelling.
Entomologia-Experimentalis-et-Applicata. 16: 2, 292-293
A method was developed in Greece for the rearing of larvae of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) in the laboratory that is expected to reduce the cost per pupa to about one-tenth of that of current methods in which a solid diet is used [cf. RAE/A 58, 2008]. A liquid diet prepared from 100 ml of a preservative solution (0.2% methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, 0.05% potassium sorbate and 4% 2N hydrochloric acid), 12 g brewer's yeast, 2.75 g sucrose, 4 g soy-bean hydrolysate. 2.75 g olive oil and 2 ml Tween 80, all of which are blended together for 1 min, is poured on to heat-sterilised deep-piled cotton towelling at a rate to give about 2-4 g diet/20 cm2 towelling. The diet is essentially the same as Diet N [cf. loc. cit.], with the omission of the costly cellulose powder, agar and roasted groundnuts. The liquid diet is easier and therefore less costly to prepare, and 10-20 pupae/g liquid have been obtained, as compared with 1-2 pupae/g solid diet. Eggs can be seeded directly on to the towelling soon after they are laid; the larvae burrow in the pile and select the degree of moisture appropriate to the requirements for food uptake and respiration in each developmental stage. The mean weight of the pupae compares well with that of pupae reared on Diet N.
Mittler-TE;Tsitsipis-JA
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The role of the sterile male technique in integrated control.
Bulletin,-Organisation-Europeenne-et-Mediterraneenne-pour-la-Protection-des-Plantes. , 3: 3, 77-83
The author reviews instances in which the release of sterile insects has been integrated with other measures for the control of pest species. The species concerned are Dacus dorsalis Hend. on islands to the south of Japan, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) on the Italian island of Procida, Cydia (Laspeyresia) pomonella (L.) in the Wenas Vallley of Washington (United States) and Anthonomus grandis Boh. in the southern part of Mississippi (United States)\r
Moore-I
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Retention of eggs in virgin females of Dacus oleae.
Fakulteit van de Landbouwwetenschappen, Gent. : Gent, Fakulteit van de Landbouwwetenschappen: 25th International Symposium on Phytopharmacy and Phytiatry, 8th May 1973. I; II.: 25e Internationaal Symposium over Fytofarmacie en Fytiatrie, 8 Mei 1973. I; II. Mededelingen-Fakulteit-Landbouwwetenschappen-Gent. , 38: 1121-1125
Oogenesis in virgin females of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) and in those that had paired was studied in the laboratory in Greece in connection with studies on the effects on the females of mating with males that had not only had their sperms inactivated but had also lost some of their sexual vigour through artificial sterilisation. Virgin and mated females were kept with artificial fruits and dissected after 22 or 70 days of adult life. Examination of the ovaries on the 22nd day showed that virgins laid only a third of the number of eggs laid by mated females; that the number of ovarioles in which vitellogenesis was in progress or had not yet begun was about the same in both virgin and mated females; but that the formation of the chorion appeared to be affected by the absence of seminal fluid, since the number of fully developed ovocytes in virgins was only half that in mated females. Examination of ovaries on the 70th day revealed a greater number of developed ovocytes in virgin than in mated females, and numbers of ovocytes before and during vitellogenesis that were similar in both groups; this can only be explained by assuming a high rate of retention of developed oocytes in virgins. By the 70th day of adult life, the occurrence of degenerated ovocytes was 27 times more frequent in virgin than in mated females and was correlated with the number of developed ovocytes retained in the ovaries. It is concluded that the ovaries in D. oleae remain functional until an advanced age, and that the absence of effectual mating affects the mechanism of oviposition more than the formation of ovocytes; degeneration may result either directly from the absence of mating or from the build-up of ovocyte numbers in the ovaries.
Fytizas-E;Mourikis-PA
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sex pheromone production in irradiated males of Dacus (Strumeta) tryoni.
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 66: 1, 62-64
\r
Fletcher-BS;Giannakakis-A
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Mating competition between radiosterilized and normal males of fruit fly, Dacus zonatus Saunders.
International-Journal-of-Applied-Radiation-and-Isotopes. 24: 9, 497-500
Studies were carried out in the laboratory in Pakistan to compare the mating competitiveness of normal males of Dacus zonatus (Saund.) with that of males that had been sterilised by exposure as pupae seven days old to a dose of 9 krad from radioactive cobalt (60Co). Between 1 and 16 sterilised males were confined with a single normal male and a single normal female. The percentages of viable eggs obtained ranged from 52 at a ratio of 1:1:1 to 0 at a ratio of 16:1:1. No significant reduction in viability was obtained when sterile males outnumbered normal ones by 1-12. However, at a ratio of 14:1:1, 97% of the eggs failed to hatch and none of the pupae to which the larvae gave rise completed development to the adult stage. When one normal male was confined with one normal female, 88.4% of the eggs were viable.\r
Huque-H;Alam-MS;Ahmad-CR
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Further studies on the use of sterile male release technique against rust red flour
Indian Society for Nuclear Techniques in Agriculture and Biology, Newsletter (Sep 1974). v. 3(3) p. 50-51
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the ratio of 1:200 (normal : sterile) adults of Tribolium castaneum in the presence of larger quantities of wheat flour and grain in glass jars, G.I. Bins and mud structures. Studies revealed that the ratio of 1:200 was effective in suppressing the multiplication of normal insects provided that the initial population was low, suggesting thereby that optimum population density of sterile insects to be released vis-a-vis the level of normal population and the quantity of food present needs to be carefully worked before this method of pest control is tried on a large scale. Tribolium castaneum adults used in these experiments had been rendered sterile by exposure to 10 krad of gamma radiation at a dose rate of 5 krad/min. (author)
Wadhi S.R;Sethi G.R.;Prasad H.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Comparative Volatilization of Three Lures for Male Tephritids in Hawaii: Methyl Eugenol (Oriental Fruit Fly), Cue-Lure (Melon Fly), and Trimedlure (Mediterranean Fruit Fly)
Environmental Letters, 0013-9300, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 47 ? 52
Volatilization of cue-lure, methyl eugenol, and trimedlure, the synthetic lures for male melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, oriental fruit flies, D. dorsalis Hendel, and Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), respectively, was found to take place at different rates: cue-lure showed a low level of volatility; trimedlure is comparatively very volatile; methyl eugenol is intermediate but was more similar to cue-lure than to trimedlure. Traps baited with even trimedlure would need only infrequent servicing if a lure reservoir were incorporated with the wick, and if the reservoir were made large enough to contain adequate supplies of trimedlure.
Keiser Irving; Richard M. Kobayashi ; Doris H. Miyashita ; Ernest J. Harris ;Derrell L. Chambers
Oriental fruit flies; melon flies; Mediterranean fruit flies; cue-lure; trimedlure; methyl eugenol; tephritids of Hawaii
0
0
1
0
0
0
  
Mediterranean fruit fly: Laboratory and field evaluations of synthetic sex pheromones
Environmental Letters, Volume 7, Issue 1, pages 47 - 52
Volatilization of cue-lure, methyl eugenol, and trimedlure, the synthetic lures for male melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, oriental fruit flies, D. dorsalis Hendel, and Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), respectively, was found to take place at different rates: cue-lure showed a low level of volatility; trimedlure is comparatively very volatile; methyl eugenol is intermediate but was more similar to cue-lure than to trimedlure. Traps baited with even trimedlure would need only infrequent servicing if a lure reservoir were incorporated with the wick, and if the reservoir were made large enough to contain adequate supplies of trimedlure.
Ohinata Kiichi; Martin Jacobson ; Susumu Nakagawa ; Martin Fujimoto ;Harold Higa
Oriental fruit flies; melon flies; Mediterranean fruit flies; cue-lure; trimedlure; methyl eugenol; tephritids of Hawaii
0
0
1
0
0
0
  
The sterile-insect technique and its field applications.
Proceedings of a panel on the practical use of the sterile-male technique for insect control organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and held in Vienna, 13-17 November 1972., Vienna 1974, pp.21-25
Males irradiated at dose which induces 99% dominant sterility are fully competitive for 2-3 weeks after which they become aspermic. Aspermia occurs also when the irradiated dose is lowered to the level producing only 70% dominant lethals. Female soft ticks cease to lay eggs after exposure to 3-4 kR. This dose does not reduce their mating capacity.
Galun, R.;Warburg, M.;Sternberg, S.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The use of sterile females for the control of the tick Argas persicus (Oken).
Israel Journal of Entomology, Vol.7, pp.109-115,
Females of Argas persicus (Oken) ceased to lay eggs after \r\n exposure to irradiation with 3 kR. Irradiation with 4 kR did \r\n not reduce their mating capacity, and they mated 14 times on \r\n the average
Galun, R.;Sternberg, S.;Mango, C.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
): Investigation on radiation sterilization for the control of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.). Progress report, January--December 1973. Investigaciones sobre sterillizacion con radiaciones para el control de la mosca sudamericana de la fruta Anastropha fraterculus (Wied.). Informe de Progresso, Enero-Diciembre 1973
Report, May 1974. 6 p
Gonzalez Bachini; J.E. Pantigoso; B.J. Vargas Varg
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Radioprotective effects and toxicity of dimethyl sulphoxide on panirradiated adult males of Anopheles mac. atroparvus (Diptera: Nematocera). Effetti radioprotettivi e tossicita del DMSO su maschi adulti panittadiati di Anopheles maculipennis atroparvus (Diptera: Nematocera).
Rivista-di-Biologia. 67: 3, 319-329
Radioprotective effects and toxicity of dimethyl sulphoxide on panirradiated adult males of Anopheles mac. atroparvus (Diptera: Nematocera). Effetti radioprotettivi e tossicita del DMSO su maschi adulti panittadiati di Anopheles maculipennis atroparvus (Diptera: Nematocera).\r
Lecis-AR;Orru-G
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Mosquito control
Proceedings of the International Seminar on Mosquito Control held at the University of Quebec at Trois-Rivieres, Quebec, Canada, May 8-9-10, 1973. , 207-222; 22 ref. Quebec University.; Quebec; Canada
The principles of the genetic control of insect populations by radiation are outlined, and some studies on the development of the method in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles pharoensis Theo. and field trials with A. quadrimaculatus Say and Aedes aegypti are reviewed. Factors influencing the success of control attempts are discussed, and brief mention is also made of genetic manipulation. It is concluded that the correct dose of radiation must be used, perhaps under anoxic conditions, to produce either a high degree of dominant lethals or inactive sperm in male mosquitos for release, and if the pupae are irradiated, exposure should be made at the late pupal stage; information on the dispersal or migratory habits of the species must be available so that the irradiated males can be placed in positions to reach wild females; and care must be taken to ensure that released males are competitive with wild ones, timing of releases as well as mating ability being important in this connection. If populations are high, conventional methods of control should be used in conjunction with sterile releases to reduce the numbers to levels that can be equalled and surpassed by released males. Miscellaneous
Baldwin-WF;;Aubin, A.; Bourassa, J. P.;Belloncik, S.; Pellissier, M.; Lacoursiere, E.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Characteristics of replication and radiation response of Aedes Albopictus cell line in vitro
Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA), Report: 1974. 88 p
The radiosensitivity of the line of Aedes albopictus cells was investigated by scoring x-ray-induced chromosome aberrations as a function of dose and of time after irradiation as well as the modification by dose fractionation. In order to obtain these data, a series of studies, e.g., karyotype, cell life cycle, radiation- induced mitotic delay, and frequency and type of spontaneous aberrations, were carried out. Cells from this line had three pairs of chromosomes as a stem line chromosome number. The morphology of the chromosomes is metacentric. Somatic pairing between homologous chromosomes was observed as a common event and there was a high frequency of achromatic gaps on the chromosomes. These observations are in good agreement with those made in other laboratories. The generation time of A. albopictus cell line was approximately 32 hours, in which G1, S, and G2 phases were 21/2, 24 and 51/2 hours respectively. This generation time is in agreement with the population doubling time observed in our cell growth studies. By contrast, in most mammalian cells, G1 usually is the longest phase and S is comparatively short. Dose fractionation studies indicated that A. albopictus cells in culture may have a faster chromosome repair system than mammalian and other cell systems. This may, at least in part. Explain the difference in radiosensitivity between A. albopictus cell line and other cell systems.
Lee, C.K
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Studies on the ecology of insects sterilised artificially (gamma radiation). VII. Influence of gamma rays radiation from 137Cs on the oriental fruit fly in Amami-Oshima Island.
Scientific-Reports-of-the-Faculty-of-Agriculture,-Okayama-University. No.43, 1-9
In further studies in Japan on the ecology of insects sterilised by exposure to gamma -radiation, investigations were carried out to determine the effect of exposure to radioactive caesium (137Cs) on a strain of the oriental fruit fly [Dacus dorsalis Hend.] from Amami-Oshima Island. Exposure of the pupae two days before adult emergence to a dose of 8 kR resulted in complete sterility of both sexes, but did not significantly reduce the percentage emergence or the mating competitiveness of males. However, the length of adult life of the treated males was slightly reduced.\r
Kiyoku-M;Tsukuda-R
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Studies on the ecology of insects sterilised artificially (gamma radiation). VIII. Experimental analysis of the sexual competitiveness between normal males of the oriental fruit fly and males sterilised by the 137Cs gamma radiation.
Scientific-Reports-of-the-Faculty-of-Agriculture,-Okayama-University. No.44, 1-8
In this eighth part of a series from Japan [cf. preceding abstract], an account is given of laboratory tests in Japan on the sexual competitiveness of males of Dacus dorsalis Hend. sterilised by exposure to gamma -radiation from radioactive caesium (137Cs). Exposure of pupae two days before emergence to a dose of 7 kR resulted in at least 98.9% sterility, without significantly reducing the percentage emergence or life-span of adults. Dominant lethal factors were thought to be the cause of sterility. A mathematical technique for the calculation of sexual competitiveness is described.\r
Kiyoku-M;Tsukuda-R
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Mating behaviour and competitiveness of gamma-irradiated olive fruit flies.
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 67: 2, 253-255
The mating behaviour and competitiveness of adults of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) exposed to gamma -radiation from radioactive cobalt (60Co) was investigated during studies in Italy. Adult males treated as pupae three days before adult emergence at a dose of 8 krad mated a maximum of 24 times and transferred sperm during the first 10, whereas untreated males mated a maximum of 28 times and transferred sperm each time. At least 50% of treated females remated; the mean interval between the two matings was longest when the first mating was with a normal male and the second was with a male treated as an adult, with a male treated as a pupa, and with an aspermic male (a treated male that had exhausted its sperm supply), in that order. Irradiated males produced competitive sperm and could reduce the fertility of the eggs laid by a female that had previously mated with a normales. In both laboratory and field-cage tests, a ratio of eight sterile males (treated as pupae) to one normal male for each normal female gave satisfactory reductions in egg hatch.
Cavalloro-R;Delrio-G
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma -irradiation on females of Opius concolor siculus Mon.
Bollettino-dell'Istituto-di-Entomologia-Agraria-e-dell'Osservatorio-di-Fitopatologia-di-Palermo. 1974-1975-1976, recd. 1978, 9: 77-80
The effects of gamma -radiation on Opius concolor Szepl. (concolor siculus Monastero), a parasite of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) usually reared in the laboratory on the replacement host Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), were studied in the laboratory at Palermo in Sicily, originally with a view to investigating the effects of oviposition punctures (even if sterile eggs were laid and no parasites hatched) by O. concolor on C. capitata. It was found that treatment with 10 krad or more caused total sterility in Opius females. In treatments administered during the immature stages, the early instars were more susceptible to gamma -radiation than were the older ones. Exposure to 2-5 krad blocked ovarian development at the stage that it had reached at the time of treatment. No damage could be observed under an optical microscope to the poison glands and the spermatheca after irradiation, even if the insects were treated during the early larval instars.\r
Genduso-P
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Sterilisation of Dacus oleae Gmel. and Ceratitis capitata Wied. with gamma radiation and fast neutrons.
Redia. 55: 373-392
In view of the importance of sexual competitiveness in sterile adults released into natural insect populations for control purposes and the tendency of sterilising doses of gamma -radiation to impair this competitiveness, the effects of exposure to fast-neutrons and to gamma -radiation were compared in experiments at Ispra in Italy with adults and pupae of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). In the tests with adult males of D. oleae, 87.6% dominant lethal mutations were obtained from exposure to fast neutrons at 2979 rad and from exposure to gamma -radiation at 12 000 rad; in C. capitata 89.7% dominant lethals was produced by exposure to fast neutrons at 2979 rad and gamma -radiation at 5000 rad. A dose of 2979 rad supplied by fast neutrons during the pupal stage gave 84.9 and 93.5% dominant lethals in the ensuing adults of the two species, respectively. Females of both species were more resistant to fast neutrons than to gamma -radiation, but oviposition was considerably reduced by the fast-neutron treatment at higher doses. The progeny of flies treated by either method at substerilising doses and mated with untreated partners showed some inherited sterility, especially in the case of C. capitata. On the basis of induction of 50% dominant lethals, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the fast neutrons [cf. RAE/A 60, 1690] was calculated as 2.05 and 1.66 for pupae and adults of D. oleae and 1.47 and 1.7 for pupae and adults of C. capitata. At the doses of 2979 fast-neutron radiation) and 12 000 rad ( gamma -radiation), which inhibited spermatogenesis and oogenesis, no damage to the mesenteron was observed under the optical microscope. Sexual competitiveness in both species was about four times greater for males exposed to fast neutrons than for those exposed to gamma -radiation.
Cavalloro-R;Delrio-G
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Development of mass production techniques in the artificial rearing of the olive fly Dacus oleae Gmel. Part of a coordinated programma of fruitfly eradication or control by the sterile-male technique.
Final report for the period 15 July 1967 - 30 June 1973,Mar 1974. v.p
Development of mass production techniques in the \r\r\r \r
Silva, G. de Magalhaes
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Current status and prospects of applying the sterile-insect release method against Dacus oleae
Panel on the practical use of the sterile-male technique for insect control. Vienna, Austria. 13 Nov 1972. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. The sterile-insect technique and its field applications. Proceedings of a panel on the practical use of the sterile-male technique for insect control organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and held in Vienna, 13-17 November 1972. Vienna. IAEA. 1974. p. 109-115.
\r
Tzanakakis, M.E.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Mango weevil: Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of packaged mangoes
Journal Economic Entomology. 67: 504-505.
Seo ST;Kobayashi RM;Chambers DL;Steiner LF;Lee CYL;Komura M
Mango seed weevil, mangoes, quarantine disinfestation, Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Rearing, reproductive behaviour and gamma sterilization of fruit fly, Dacus zonatus (Diptera:Tephritidae).
Entomologia-Experimentalis-et-Applicata. 17: 4, 504-510
For some years, Dacus zonatus (Saund.) has been reared in the laboratory in Pakistan for studies on the effects of exposure of the fly to gamma -radiation [cf. RAE/A 58, 922]. It is reported that the substitution of wheat shorts for the more costly carrot powder in the artificial diet on which the larvae were reared proved satisfactory. Details are given of the preparation of the new diet and the rearing techniques used. Normal flies reached sexual maturity on the eighth day after emergence and the peak of pairing occurred on the 10-15th days. Males sometimes paired a second time with the same female, but more readily paired a second time if supplied with a virgin partner. None of those used in the study reported paired more than twice. Oviposition began 2-7 (average 3.5) days after pairing, and females laid 91-564 eggs each; virgin females laid 20-226 eggs each. When adult males one day old were exposed to doses of 9-12 kR gamma -radiation from 60Co, the highest dose induced 99.3% dominant lethal mutations. It is considered that this dose can safely be used to sterilise adult males, though their length of life was reduced by it to 32 days, as compared with 46.5 days for untreated flies.\r
Qureshi ZA;Ashraf M;Bughio AR;Hussain S
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Comparative mating ability of gamma sterilized and normal fruit flies, Dacus zonatus
Radiat. Res. (Dec 1974). v. 60(3) p. 541-544
Ashraf, M.;Qureshi, Z.A.;Arif, M.D.;Hussain, S.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Rearing, reproductive behaviour and gamma sterilization of fruit fly, Dacus zonatus (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Entomol. Exp. Appl. v. 17(4) p. 504-510
Qureshi, Z.A.;Ashraf, M.;Bughio, A.R.;Hussain, S.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Radiosensitivity of the longheaded flour beetle
J. Econ. Entomol. (15 Apr 1975). v. 68(2) p. 220-222
Some adults emerged from pupae treated with 7 doses ranging from 5 to 100 krad, but longevity was greatly reduced except for those from pupae treated at 5 krad. Adult males were sterilized by a dose of 20 krad, and adult females by a dose of 10 krad. The longevity of treated adults was significantly reduced. None survived as long as 3 wk after exposure to 20 krad.
Brower, J.H.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Laboratory studies on sterilization of the male red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterility principle for insect control 1974. Proceedings of the symposium, jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Innsbruck, 22-26 July 1974. Vienna. IAEA. 1975. p. 261-267. Proceedings series
Rahalkar G.W.;Harwalkar M.R.; Rananavare H.O.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Studies on the feasibility of using sterile females along with sterile males in the control of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus furrugineus oliv. (coleoptera:curculionidae)
Department of Atomic Energy, Bombay (India). Food and Agriculture Committee. Use of radiations and radioisotopes in studies of plant productivity, proceedings of a symposium held at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, April 12-14, 1974. Bombay. Department of Atomic Energy. 1975. p. 861-868
Effectiveness of release of sterile females along with sterile males on the supression of the reproductive potential of the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Oliv, has been investigated. An X-ray dose of 1.5 Krad reduced fecundity by about 79 percent without affecting survival. At a higher dose of 2 krad, though fecundity was reduced by 96.2 percent survival of the female was considerably reduced. When unirradiated virgin females were caged individually along with 6 irradiated males (1.5 krad), 1 normal male and 1 irradiated female (1.5 krad) the reduction in their reproductive potential was considerably less than when irradiated females were not released. (author)
Ranavara, H.D.;Harwalkar, M.R.;Rahalkar, G.W.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Use of the Electroretinogram to Measure the Quality of Vision of the Fruit Fly
Environmental Letters, 0013-9300, Volume 10, Issue 2,Pages 171 ? 176
The electroretinogram (ERG) technique was used to measure the visual sensitivity of Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), reared at 3 laboratories on 5 artificial diets. These ERGs were compared with those of flies reared from field-infested fruit. Flies reared on artificial diets differed greatly in visual sensitivity, and those reared on fruit were at least 10 times more sensitive than certain strains. Since ERGs can be obtained 3-4 days before the Caribbean fruit fly is sexually mature, the use of visually substandard flies in behavioral studies or field releases could be avoided. The results have stimulated further studies of the effects of nutrition and handling procedures on the vision and behavior of the Caribbean fruit fly in the laboratory and the field. A simple, easy to operate, and inexpensive ERG system is being developed that can be used at any rearing facility to monitor the quality of visual receptors of the insects being produced.
Agee Herndon R.;Mary L. Park
Quality control; visual receptors; Caribbean fruit flies; electroretinogram; nutrition; Anastrepha suspensa; behavior
0
0
1
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Effect of gamma radiation on eggs of Trogoderma granarium Evrts
Journal Stored Product Research, vol.11,pp245-247
Ahmed C.R.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sterilization of Dacus cucumis French (Diptera: Tephritidae) by gamma radiation. I. Effect of dose on fertility, survival and competitiveness.
Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 14: 81-87
Hooper, G. H. S.
Tephritidae Dacus irradiation SIT
1
1
1
1
1
0
  
Induction of structural chromosome mutations in males and females of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae)
Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control. Innsbruck, Austria. 22 Jul 1974
Feldmann, A.M.
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organi
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Mating competitiveness of the radiosterilized male armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hb., and the male mosquito, Aedes aegypti L., in field cages.
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterility principle for insect control 1974. Proceedings of the symposium, jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Innsbruck, 22-26 July 1974. Vienna. IAEA. 1975. p. 317-323. Proceedings series
Loaharanu S.; Chiravatanapong S.; Sutantawong M.; Kaochnong P.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Disinfestation of fruit flies in mango by irradiation
Current Science. 775-776.
Thomas P;Rakalar GW
Tephritid, Irradiation
1
1
0
0
1
0
  
Studies on the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Controlling fruit flies by the sterile-insect technique. Proceedings of a panel and research co-ordination meeting on the sterile-male technique for control of fruit flies organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and held in Vienna, 12-16 November 1973. Vienna. IAEA. 1975. p. 125. Panel proceedings series
Enkerlin, S.D.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Application of sterilization techniques to Anastrepha suspensa Loew in Florida, United States of America
): International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterility principle for insect control 1974. Proceedings of the symposium, jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Innsbruck, 22-26 July 1974. Vienna. IAEA. 1975. p. 93-100. Proceedings series
Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Lopez-D, F. ; Steiner, L.F. ;Windeg;Baranowski, R.; Anwar, M.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Curve of radiosensitivity of the stages of spermatogenesis of Anopheles atroparvus (Diptera: Nematocera).OTCurva di radiosensibilita degli stadi della spermatogenesi di Anopheles atroparvus (Diptera: Nematocera).
Parassitologia. , 17: 1-2-3, 145-150
\r\r\r
Lecis-AR;Figus-V;Santarini-C
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Herbicides: chemistry, degradation, and mode of action. 2nd Ed.
M. Dekker, New York, USA
Kearney P.C.;Kaufman D.D.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Studies on the eradication of Anopheles pharoensis Theobald by the sterile-male technique using 60Co: XI. Release-recapture experiments for flight range and dispersion
Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control. Innsbruck, Austria. 22 Jul 1974. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterility principle for insect control 1974. Proceedings of the symposium, jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Innsbruck, 22-26 July 1974. Vienna. IAEA. 1975. p. 507-512. Proceedings series.
Wakid, A.F.M.;Abdel-Malek, A.A.;Tantawy, A.O.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Studies on factors influencing the induction of sterility in Anopheles pharoensis Theobald by gamma radiation.
The use of isotopes in pesticides and pest control. Proceedings of a symposium held in Beirut-Lebanon, March 1974. 1975, 161-174;M-Nehme (ed.); A-Hassan (ed.)
Abdel-Malek-AA;Wakid-AM; Tantawy-AO;El-Gazzar-LM; Malek-AA-Abdel-; Gazzar-LM-El-; Nehme-M;Hassan-A
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Production of dominant lethal mutations by gamma-irradiation in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.
Pakistan-Journal-of-Zoology. 7: 2, 177-184
In investigations on the sterilisation of Anopheles stephensi List., gamma -radiation from a 60Co source was applied to the males at dosages of 1-8 kR. The dose received by the males had no effect on the fecundity of untreated females with which they mated. There was a relation between the fertility of these females and the radiation dose received by the males, 73.8% of the eggs hatching after a dose of 1 kR and only 3.3% after 8 kR. The dose-response curve was linear at low dosages but non-linear at high ones. Up to 96.5% sterility was induced by treatment at the highest dosage.
Akram-M; Aslamkhan-M
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Growth and viability of Aedes albopictus cell line in vitro after cesium-137 gamma irradiation. Effects of actinomycin D, estradiol and progesterone on hamster reproduction
Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA). Report: 1975. 152 p
The radiosensitivity of the cultured mosquito cell line Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was investigated. Population growth was followed by total cell counts and by viable cell counts on aliquots of cultures exposed to various doses of gamma radiation during exponential growth. Viable cell determinations were based on the cellular exclusion of the dye, alcian blue, in a procedure adapted to the insect cells in culture. Viability determinations in the irradiated exponential cultures indicated that initially there was some increase in the gestation, suggesting that gonadal steroids may have unusual effects on uterine physiology and biochemistry in this species. Consequently, studies were undertaken to elucidate some of the basic responses of hamster uteri to estradiol benzoate and progesterone under conditions of protein malnutrition, actinomycin D administration and corticosterone injection. Furthermore, the effects of gonadal steroids on uteri of pregnant ovariectomized hamsters were studied
Blakely, E.A
0
0
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1
  
Behavioural changes induced by irradiating Dacus cucumis with gamma rays.
Journal-of-Insect-Physiology. 21: 6, 1247-1250
The locomotor activity of adults of Dacus cucumis French that had been treated in the pupal stage with gamma -radiation at 40-80 krad declined progressively with dosage. There was no detectable difference between untreated flies and those treated at 10 krad. Females tended to lose their mating inhibition with increasing dose, whereas males treated at 40 krad in non-competitive trials tended to mate less frequently than untreated or those treated at 10 krad. A diurnal rhythm of ecdysis was not changed by exposure to chronic low doses 12 h out of phase with the rhythm. However, a single large dose 12 h out of phase resulted in a bimodal emergence rhythm, with the abnormal peak shifted towards the time of exposure to radiation\r
Bailey-P
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sterilization of Dacus cucumis French (Diptera: Tephritidae) by gamma radiation. I. Effect of dose on fertility, survival and competitiveness.
Journal-of-the-Australian-Entomological-Society. 14: 1, 81-87
The effects on fertility, fecundity and competitiveness of gamma -radiation from a 60Co source when applied to newly emerged adults of Dacus cucumis French were investigated in the laboratory in Australia. A dose of 11 krad caused almost complete sterility in males, while females given 6 krad were totally sterile through infecundity. Sterilised males showed reduced competitiveness. In competitive mating tests, a dose of 7 krad gave the lowest egg hatch, and this hatch was significantly lower than that given by 9 and 11 krad. In a paired comparison mating test, males treated with 7 and 9 krad mated significantly less frequently than untreated males, but the ability of males treated with 6 krad was unimpaired.\r
Hooper-GHS
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sterilization of Dacus cucumis French (Diptera: Tephritidae) by gamma radiation. II. Effect of dose rate on sterility and competitiveness of adult males.
Journal-of-the-Australian-Entomological-Society. 14: 2, 175-177
Further results are reported of laboratory investigations on the effects on newly emerged adults of Dacus cucumis French of exposure to gamma -radiation from a 60Co source. When males were exposed to doses of 1, 3 or 5 krad at rates of 9.51, 4.38, 2.98 or 0.87 krad/min, the rate at which the dose was delivered had no significant effect on the degree of sterility obtained or on the duration of adult life. For 7 or 9 krad at either 9.51 or 0.87 krad/min there was no significant effect of the rare of delivery on mating competitiveness. Males exposed to 9 krad were significantly less competitive than those exposed to 7 krad.[
Hopper-GHS
0
0
0
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Sterilization of oriental fruit fly by gamma irradiation and its effect on competitiveness
Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, Diliman,1975. 8 p
The Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, was\rirradiated with 5, 7, or 9 krad of Co-60 gamma rays at one or two\rdays before adult eclosion. It was not clear whether or not male\rfruit flies were more competitive when irradiated at two days than\rat one day before adult eclosion. A dose of 5 krad was considered\rbetter than the higher doses of 7 or 9 krad because the higher the\rdosages increased percentage sterility of the male only slightly\rfrom 99.8% at 5 krad but considerably reduced male competitiveness\rfrom 72% at 5 krad to 52% at 9 krad for flies treated 2 days before\remergence. The lowest dose of 5 krad was enough to prevent the\rfemale fruit flies from laying any egg. Irradiation at any of the\rdose levels did not affect the number of adults that emerged and the\rlongevity of the fruit flies up to 38 days after adult eclosion\r
Manoto, E.C.; Bautista, R.C
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Studies on the ecology of insects sterilized artificially (gamma radiation), 9. Variation in the 137Cs-gammaray-sterility of Dacus dorsalis H. by different generations.
Okayama Daigaku Nogakubu Gakujutsu Hokoku.(Sep.1975),(no.46) p. 1-9.
The pupae of oriental fruitfly were irradiated with the 137Cs-gamma ray of 7.5 krad two days before emerging. Adult males emerged were crossed with untreated females(T male x Uo female). The progenies F1 male and F1 female from T male x Uo female were crossed with each other (F1 male x f1 female) or with untreated progenies U1 female and U1 male (F1 male x U1 female, U1 male x F1 female), respectively. Starting from these three combinations, various mating experiments were conducted from F2 to F5-generations. The rate of hatching of the eggs obtained from F1 male x F1 female was the lowest, about a half of that from the control U1 male x U1 female. The rate of hatching of those from F1 male x U1 female or U1 male x F1 female was lower than that from the control, but slightly higher than that from F1 male x F1 female. The combination, Fn male x Fn female, in the offsprings descended from F1 male x F1 female maintained the low percentage hatching of eggs during the successive four generations. However, the rate of those from Fn male x Un female and Un male x Fn female in the offsprings descended from F1 male x U1 female or U1 male x F1 female tended to rise by F3 or F4 generation. Percentages of the pupation and emergence of F1 male x F1 female, F1 male x U1 female and U1 male x F1 female were somewhat lower than those of the control. Although the percentages of those of three combinations, F2 male x F2 female, f2' male x F2' female and F2'' male x F2'' female, were also lower than those of the control, such decrease in the percentages of pupation and emergence of the other combinations in the second generation and all combinations after the third generation was inconspicuous, except those of Fn male x Fn female. The difference in the days of survival between Fn male and Un female adults was not significant, or the days of survival of Fn male adults were somewhat shorter than that of Un male. However, the days of survival of Fn female adults tend to be longer than that of Un female. (Kobatake, H.)
Kiyoku, Masao; Tsukuda, Ritsuko
0
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Prospects of increased egg production in the rearing of Dacus oleae Gmelin by the use of chemical stimuli.
International Atomic Energy Agency; Food and Agriculture Organization: Sterility principle for insect control 1974. Proceedings of the symposium on the sterility principle for insect control jointly organized by the IAEA and the FAO of the United Nations and held in Innsbruck, 22-26 July 1974. , 209-217
Two phenolic glucosides that occur naturally in olives, oleoeuropeine and demethyloleoeuropeine, have been found to stimulate oviposition in Dacus oleae (Gmel.). Furthermore, their respective aglucones, obtained enzymatically, have also shown some activity as oviposition stimulants, but this characteristic is not shares by other known products of cleavage of the molecule. Details are given of tests in the laboratory in Italy in which the glucosides were sprinkled on the oviposition substrates with which adults females were provided or were incorporated into them. The females laid about twice as many eggs when paper domes (which they could perforate with the ovipositor) impregnated with oleoeuropeine were provided as they did when no oviposition substrate was provided; an intermediate number of eggs was obtained with untreated domes. This finding is thought promising for the improvement of methods for the mass-rearing of the fly.\r
Girolami-V;Pellizzari-G;Ragazzi-E;Veronese-G
0
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Protein hydrolysate-free larval diets for rearing the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae, and the nutritional role of brewer's yeast.
International Atomic Energy Agency; Food and Agriculture Organization: Sterility principle for insect control 1974. Proceedings of the symposium on the sterility principle for insect control jointly organized by the IAEA and the FAO of the United Nations and held in Innsbruck, 22-26 July 1974. 219-227
In Greece, diets for rearing Dacus oleae (Gmel.) in the laboratory have been progressively simplified [cf. RAE/A 62, 5047]. The studies described showed that soy-bean hydrolysate and sucrose could be omitted from the groundnut-free diet used at present. A diet containing only brewer's yeast and olive oil as nutrients gave a pupal yield equivalent to that obtained with the diet containing soy-bean hydrolysate, but it appeared that a factor present in the hydrolysate (probably free amino acids) was required for optimum larval development and maximum pupal weight. An increase in the proportion of brewer's yeast shortened the larval stage, increased the yield of pupae and increased pupal weight. Above a minimum level of brewer's yeast, the duration of the larval stage and the pupal weight were dependent on the content of non-protein amino acids present in the yeast. It is suggested that the protein hydrolysate at present included in the diet could be omitted provided that the brewer's yeast used contain the necessary level of non-protein amino acids.
Manoukas-AG
0
0
0
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1
1
  
Quality control in insects: the measurement of flight parameters.
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. 78: 2, 113-126
Methods and apparatus (including stroboscopes and a mobile flight-mill system containing 10 low-friction rotors) for the investigation of flight characteristics in insects are described, and the influence of biological features such as energy level, sex and body size of the test insects on the flight data is discussed. The application of flight studies in the quality control [cf. RAE/A 62, 1350] of programmes of sterile-insect release is discussed in relation to investigations with fruit flies, including Ragoletis cerasi (L.) in Europe [cf. 62 4301, etc.; 4303, etc.; 63, 3334, etc.] and Dacus oleae (Gmel.) \r
Remund-U;Boller-EF
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Mass rearing of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin), at 'Democritos'.
organized by the Joint FAO-IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and held in Vienna, 12-16 November 1973. 93-100
Food and Agriculture Organization; International Atomic Energy Agency: Controlling fruit flies by the sterile-insect technique. Proceedings of a panel and research co-ordination meeting on the The production of more than 4.5 million pupae of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) in the laboratory in Greece within a 4-month period during the summer and autumn of 1973 at a much reduced cost was made possible by improvements in the rearing system. The replacement of the adult liquid diet by a solid one and the less frequent changing of the water supply saved labour; better timing of collection of the eggs improved hatchability. Incubation of the eggs in 0.3% propionic acid followed by their surface sterilisation drastically reduced or eliminated the incidence of microbial contamination. The most important factor, however, is a new larval diet (T), which is much easier to prepare and handle and has doubled pupal yield. Diet T is a modification of diet N [cf. RAE/A 58, 2008]; the agar and roasted groundnuts are omitted and the amount of cellulose powder increased to 30 g. A new caging and egging system under development provides a higher egg production and requires less labour. The new larval diet and modifications in the various steps of the rearing procedure will, it is hoped, contribute to the achievement of the much lower costs needed even in a moderate-scale mass-release programme.
Tsitsipis-JA
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Comparative behaviour of lab.-cultured and wild-type Dacus oleae flies in the field.
Food and Agriculture Organization; International Atomic Energy Agency: Controlling fruit flies by the sterile-insect technique. Proceedings of a panel and research co-ordination meeting on the sterile-male technique for control of fruit flies organized by the Joint FAO-IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and held in Vienna, 12-16 November 1973. 101-108
In tests in Greece under field conditions, the responses of adults of a population of Dacu oleae (Gmel.) reared in the laboratory for 85 generations to the colour and odour of olive, to the colour and shape of artificial olive fruits, to small rectangles of different colours and shades and to McPhail traps of different colours baited with different odours were compared with those of adults of a wild population. The qualitative responses of flies of both groups were essentially similar, except that the laboratory-reared flies were relatively more attracted by red artificial fruits and red rectangles and less attracted by yellow ones than the wild flies. Quantitatively, however, consistently smaller percentages of released laboratory-reared flies than of released wild-type flies were recaptured. This suggests that the two types differed in mobility, flight pattern or vigour.\r
Prokopy-RJ;Haniotakis-GE;Economopoulos-AP
0
0
0
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1
  
Prospects of increased egg production in the rearing of Dacus oleae Gmelin by the use of chemical stimuli
Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control. Innsbruck, Austria. 22 Jul 1974. Vienna. IAEA. 1975. p. 209-217.
Girolami, V. Pellizzari, G. Ragazzi, E. Veronese,
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Protein hydrolysate-free larval diets for rearing the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae, and the nutritional role of brewer's yeast
Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control. Innsbruck, Austria. 22 Jul 1974. Vienna. IAEA. 1975. p. 219-227.
\r
Manoukas, A.G.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Release of sterile and marked olive flies on the islet of Sit (Kornat Archipelago).
Panel and research co-ordination meeting on the sterile-male technique for control of fruitflies. Vienna, Austria. 12 Nov 1973. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Controlling fruit flies by the sterile-insect technique. Proceedings of a panel and research co-ordination meeting on the sterile-male technique for control of fruit flies organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and held in Vienna, 12-16 November 1973. Vienna. IAEA. 1975. p. 123.
\r\r
Brnetic, D.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Performance of normal and gamma-ray sterilized laboratory-reared Dacus oleae flies in the field. An attempt to suppress the native population in a semi-isolated area by the sterile-insect technique
Panel and research co-ordination meeting on the sterile-male technique for control of fruit flies. Vienna, Austria. 12 Nov 1973 International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Controlling fruit flies by the sterile-insect technique. Proceedings of a panel and research co-ordination meeting on the sterile-male technique for control of fruit flies organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and held in Vienna, 12-16 November 1973. Vienna. IAEA. 1975. p. 121-122.
Economopoulos, A.P. Haniotakis, G.;Avtzis, N.;Tsitsipis, J.;Zervas, G.;Manoukas, A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Comparative behaviour of lab.-cultured and wild-type Dacus oleae flies in the field
Panel and research co-ordination meeting on the sterile-male technique for control of fruit flies. Vienna, Austria. 12 Nov 1973. Vienna. IAEA. 1975. p. 101-108.
Under field conditions, the authors compared the responses of lab.-type (ca. 85 generations under artificial conditions) and wild-type Dacus oleae flies to host plant colour and odour, host fruit colour and shape, small rectangles of different colours and shades, and McPhail-type traps of different colours baited with different odours. Except for the lab.-type flies being relatively more attracted toward red fruit models and small red rectangles and relatively less attracted toward yellow fruit models and small yellow rectangles than the wild type, the qualitative nature of the responses of the two fly types toward the various experimental treatments was essentially the same. Quantitatively, however, consistently smaller percentages of the released lab.-type than the released wild-type flies were recaptured, suggesting that the mobility, flight pattern, or vigour of the two types of flies may be different.
Prokopy, R.J. Haniotakis, G.E. Economopoulos, A.P.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Mass rearing of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin), at ''Democritos''
Panel and research co-ordination meeting on the sterile-male technique for control of fruit flies. Vienna, Austria. 12 Nov 1973.International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Controlling fruit flies by the sterile-insect technique. Proceedings of a panel and research co-ordination meeting on the sterile-male technique for control of fruit flies organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and held in Vienna, 12-16 November 1973. Vienna. IAEA. 1975. p. 93-100.
Production of more than 4.5 million olive fruit fly pupae within a 4-month period during the summer and autumn of 1973, at an approximate cost of US $ 1 per 1000 pupae, was made possible by introducing certain improvements in the formerly used rearing system. Replacement of the adult liquid diet by a solid one and less frequent changing of the water supply saved labour. Better timing in the egg collection improved hatchability. Incubation of the eggs in 0.3% propionic acid followed by their surface sterilization drastically cut down or eliminated previous sporadically appearing microbial contaminations. Most important, a new larval diet (T), which is much easier to prepare and handle, has doubled pupal yield. A new caging and egging system under development provides a higher egg production and requires far less labour. Preliminary promising results on new larval diets and modifications in the various steps of the rearing procedure will hopefully contribute to achieving the much lower costs needed even in a moderate-scale mass-release programme.
Tsitsipis, J.A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Population fluctuation and dispersal studies of the fruit fly, Dacus zonatus Saunders
Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control. Innsbruck, Austria. 22 Jul 1974. Proceedings of the symposium, jointly organized by the IAEA and FAO and held in Innsbruck, 22-26 July 1974. Vienna. IAEA. 1975. p. 201-206.
Qureshi, Z.A.;Ashraf, M.;Bughio, A.R.;Siddiqui, Q.H.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Dispersal and flight range of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. in Egypt.
Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie Volume 81 Issue 1-4, Pages 214 - 218.
Two releases of irradiated (9 krad) medflies were done in an orchard under semiarid conditions. Flies were marked by 3 different colours. Flight range of the irradiated tagged flies was found to be 700 m within an orchard. Flies released in an orchard did not reach another orchard 700 m far from the release point.
Wakid A. M. and A. Shoukry
Irradiation, dispersion, Medfly, marking-recapture
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Recovery of fertility by irradiated males of the Indian meal moth.
Journal of Economic Entomology 69: 273-276.
Brower, J. H.
Irradiation, Plodia interpunctella, Lepidoptera, moth.
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Lone star tick: mating behavior of gamma-irradiated males.
Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Vol.69,
The mating capacity of males of Amblyomma americanum (L.) from \r\n nymphs that had been irradiated 11-12 days after engorgement \r\n with 1250, 1500 or 2500 rad from a 137Cs source did not exceed \r\n 2.5 females/male
Darrow, D. I.; Gladney, W. J.; Dawkins, C. C.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
An analysis of radiation-induced damage in the spider mite. Relationship between mortality of haploid and diploid eggs in two successive generations
Symposium on biological effects of low-level radiation pertinent to protection of man and his environment. Chicago, Ill., USA. 3 Nov 1975 . (Publication Year): 1976 , International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) World Health Organization, Biological and environmental effects of low-level radiation. Proceedings of a sy radiation pertinent to protection of man and his environment organized by the IAEA November 1975. Vienna. IAEA. 1976. v. 1 p. 53-64. Proceedings series
Unfertilized females of the spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) produce only haploid eggs which develop into a haploid male. Fertilized females produce both haploid eggs (unfertilized), which develop into males, and diploid eggs (fertilized), which develop into females. Radiobiological experiments performed by A.M. Feldmann (Association Euratom-ITAL) made data available on the radiation-induced mortality of haploid and diploid eggs in the F1 and F2 generation following irradiation of either males or females with X rays or fast neutrons. The data have been analysed using the molecular theory of cell survival where it is assumed that DNA double strand breaks, induced randomly in the cell, are the critical radiation-induced lesions, which lead to cell death. Theoretical relationships are derived for the dose dependence of hatchability in haploid and diploid eggs in the first and second generations expressed as a function of the radiation damage in the parental genome. These theoretical relationships can be used to derive the inter-relationship between the different hatchabilities, and the results from the spider mite have been analysed using these considerations. It is concluded that the radiation-induced genetic damage arises from one type of initial lesion. The eventual radiobiological implications of this analysis are discussed, expecially with respect to the transmittance of radiation-induced genetic damage after low-level radiation. (author)
Leenhouts H.P.;Chadwick K.H.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma radiation on development of Brugia pahangi in a susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti
J. Parasitol. (Aug 1976). v. 62(4) p. 655-656
Female mosquitoes were fed on an infected jird having a microfilarial density of 201 per mm3 of blood. Mosquitoes were exposed to doses of 3,000 and 5,000 rads of gamma radiation before and after infection. Mosquitoes were dissected 8 to 10 days later and the number of active larvae was recorded. Results indicated that postinfection radiation affected the development of Brugia pahangi
Richey, T.J.; Rodriguez, P.H.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Reproductive behavior and physiology of Dacus oleae: egg hatch in females mated successively with normal and gamma sterilized males and vice versa
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. (15 Jul 1976). v. 69(4) p. 733-737
In Dacus oleae (Gmelin), a 2nd mating by an 8-krad gamma ray-sterilized male reduced egg hatch immediately to zero or near-zero in ca. 40-55 percent of individually-tested females. In another 50 percent of females, egg hatch was reduced to between 5 to 70 percent, while in fewer than 10 percent of females, egg hatch showed no change. The above was true for females reared on artificial diet for more than 50 generations and mated with same type males, as well as females reared on olives for 6 to 8 generations and mated first with same type males and 2nd with artificially-reared sterilized males. When the 2nd males were treated at 15 krad the effect on egg hatch was smaller. When the 2nd males were treated at 8 krad and had depleted their sperm, by repeated matings, they produced small or no-effect on egg hatch. When artificially-reared females mated first with a sterilized and second with a normal same type male, egg hatch increased from 0 to 5 percent to 70 to 100 percent in 50 to 55 percent of the cases. In another 43 percent of cases, egg hatch increased to levels between 5 to 70 percent. The combined findings from the 2 mating sequence types are as follows. After females mated first with normal males, egg hatch was above 80 percent in the population. A 2nd mating with 8-krad-sterilized males produced an immediate decrease of egg hatch to ca. 25 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter. When the 1st male was sterilized and the 2nd normal, egg hatch increased to ca. 70 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter
Economopoulos,; A.P. Giannakakis, A.; Voyadjoglou, A.V
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
A genetic sexing system in Anopheles gambiae species A.
Mosquito-News. , 36: 4, 492-498
\r\r\r
Curtis-CF; Akiyama-J;Davidson-G
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Irradiation of the immature stages of the mosquito, Anopheles pharoensis Theob., with 60Co.
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. 80: 3, 311-316
Wakid-AM;Tantawy-AO; Abdel-Malek-AA; El-Gazzar-LM; Malek-AA-Abdel-; Gazzar-LM-El-
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sterilization of Dacus cucumis French (Diptera: Tephritidae) by gamma radiation. III. Effect of irradiation in nitrogen on sterility, competitiveness and mating propensity.
Journal-of-the-Australian-Entomological-Society, 15:(1), 13-18
An account is given of further investigations on the effects of gamma -radiation from a 60Co source on Dacus cucumis French [cf. RAE/A 64, 1154]. When newly emerged adults were irradiated in nitrogen, following a 15 min exposure to an atmosphere of pure nitrogen, the degree of sterility induced by a given dose was less than that obtained with the same dose in air. To achieve about 98% sterility in males, doses of 7 krad in air and 13 krad in nitrogen were required. For females, total sterility through infecundity was achieved by 6 krad in air and 13 krad in nitrogen. Based on the hatching of eggs following competitive mating tests, males receiving 14 krad in nitrogen were significantly more competitive than males given 9 krad in air. The optimum light intensity for mating of D. cucumis under artificial conditions was 16.2 lx. At this light intensity, the mating propensity of males irradiated with 9 and 11 krad in air was significantly less than that of untreated males. The mating propensity of males given 14 krad in nitrogen was about the same as in untreated males.
Hooper GHS
sterilisation;competitiveness;mating propensity;Bactrocera cucumis
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Gamma irradiation effect on the flight mill performance of Dacus dorsalis and Ceratitis capitata.
Proceedings-of-the-Hawaiian-Entomological-Society. 1974, 22: 2, 335-344
When pupae of Dacus dorsalis Hend. were exposed 2 days before adult emergence to doses of 20 krad gamma -radiation, the 1- and 4-day-old males and the 2-, 4-, 8- or 16-day-old females showed no abnormal flight behaviour when tested on a flight mill system. However, 2-day-old males spent more time in flight and flew longer distances than normal 2-day-old males; also 8- and 16-day old males flew more slowly than normal flies. Peak flight velocities lower than normal were shown by irradiated females 1 day old.When pupae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) were marked with blue dye and exposed to a dose of 10 krad gamma -radiation 2 days before adult emergence or the adults were exposed 2 days after emergence, the adults flew shorter distances and more slowly than normal unmarked flies of the sage age. Marked males irradiated 2 days after emergence and tested 5 days after it spent more time in flight, flew greater distances and stopped less often than similar males tested at 10 days. Marked males irradiated as pupae and tested 5 days after emergence showed a reduced flight ability as compared with marked males irradiated as adults. By 10 days after emergence, the differences were either reversed or had disappeared. Irradiation of adults may be preferable to irradiation of pupae if sterile flies are required to play their greatest role in a sterile-release programme during the first week after release.
Sharp-JL; Chambers-DL
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Artificially (gamma radiation), 10. Inherited sterility and aberration of the salivary gland chromosome in succeeding generations after irradiation of Dacus dorsalis Hendel
Okayama Daigaku Nogakubu Gakujutsu Hokoku. (Sep 1976).(no.48) p. 1-9
Studies of the ecology of insects sterilized Progenies of a combination, Tmale x Tfemale (a dose of 2.5 KR from 137Cs), showed a striking inherited sterility until the fourth generation when the mating was made between inbred lines of the combination. In combinations that irradiated flies were crossed as either male or female with unirradiated ones, some inherited sterility was found in the first and second generations, and was almost entirely disappeared after the third of fourth generation. However, conspicuous inherited sterility was maintained through thirteen generations when progeny flies from the combination of Tmale x Ufemale, which was irradiated by a dose of 7.5 KR, were inbred. From cytological studies, it is observed that the oriental fruit fly has chromosome number of n=6 both in salivary gland cells and in meiotic division. An amitosis like cell division occured among meiotic cells of irradiated male flies and those of male progenies that had been mated with unirradiated females. Several different types of chromosome aberrations were found frequently in the salivary gland chromosomes of flies showing inherited sterility. By statistical analysis, the relationship between the second power of frequency (X) of the chromosome aberration and hatchability (Y) of eggs laid was showed to be a straight regression equation, Y=40.69 - (X - 18.75)*. The correlation-coefficient (r), -867* was obtained.
Kiyoku Masao
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Reproductive behavior and physiology of Dacus oleae: egg hatch in females mated successively with normal and gamma -sterilized males and vice versa.
Annals-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-America. 69: 4, 733-737
In Dacus oleae (Gmel.), a second mating with a male sterilised by exposure to 8 krad gamma -radiation reduced egg hatch immediately to zero or near-zero in about 40-55% of normal females. In another 50% of females, egg hatch was reduced to between 5-70%, while in fewer than 10% of females, the egg hatch showed no change. This was true for females of a strain reared on artificial diet for more than 50 generations and mated with the same type of males, as well as for females reared on olives for 6-8 generations and mated firstly with same type males and secondly with artificially reared sterilised males. When the second males had been treated at 15 krad, the effect on egg hatch was smaller. When the second males had been treated at 8 krad and had depleted their sperm by repeated matings, there was little or no effect on egg hatch. When artificially reared females mated first with a sterilised and secondly with a normal same-type male, egg hatch increased from 0-5% to 70-100% in 50-55% of the cases. In another 43% of cases, egg hatch increased to 5-70%.The combined findings from the 2 mating sequence types are as follows. After females mated first with normal males, egg hatch was above 80% in the population; a second mating with males sterilised at 8 krad produced an immediate decrease in egg hatch to about 25%, decreasing slowly thereafter. When the first male was sterilised and the second one normal, egg hatch increased to about 70% and decreased slowly thereafter.
Economopoulos-AP;Giannakakis-A;Voyadjoglou-AV
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Dispersal of normal and irradiated laboratory strains and wild strains of the olive fly Dacus oleae in an olive grove.
Entomologia-Experimentalis-et-Applicata. 20: 2, 183-194
Studies with Dacus oleae (Gmel.) on the dispersal rates of normal and gamma -irradiated populations reared in the laboratory and of wild populations, were carried out in an olive grove near Athens in Greece with the aid of protein-baited McPhail traps. No differences were found between the dispersal rates of male and female or of normal and irradiated flies of the laboratory-reared population. The mean distance travelled by surviving flies up to 2 weeks after release was 180-190 metres, and by that time only about 13% of them remained alive in the grove. No laboratory-reared adults were trapped outside the grove. Comparison with the performance of adults from a wild population suggested that wild flies may disperse over greater distances than laboratory-reared flies.\r
Fletcher BS;Economopoulos AP
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Anatomical, structural, ultrastructural and physiological aspects of the genital accessory glands of the male of Dacus oleae Gmel. in relation to sexual maturity and activity.
Entomologica. 12: 213-240
As a result of studies carried out in Italy, details are given on the anatomy and morphology of the male genitalia of Dacus oleae (Gmel.), especially the accessory glands, and of the physiological histology and ultrastructure of the sacciform and tubulose accessory glands in newly emerged males and in sexually mature males before and after mating. From these data it is concluded that the males emerge as adults with mature spermatozoa in the testes but with immature accessory reproductive glands, and need a period of several days to produce and accumulate sufficient secretion from these glands to stimulate search for a female and actual mating; in a sexually mature male, since a single copulation almost completely uses up this secretion, it cannot be repeated for at least 24 h for the same reason. This explains the long pre-reproductive period and the comparative infrequency of mating observed in Dacus males; it is also suggested that the reduced sexual competitiveness in irradiated males may be due to damage caused by the radiation to the accessory glands.
Marzo-L-de; Nuzzaci-G; Solinas-M; De-Marzo-L
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Dispersal of normal and irradiated laboratory strains and wild strains of the olive fly Dacus oleae in an olive grove.
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicat (v. 20(2) p. 183-194
Studies on the dispersal rates of normal and \r gamma-irradiated laboratory-reared as well as wild Dacus oleae \r (Gmelin) were carried out in an olive grove using protein-baited \r McPhail traps. No differences were found in the dispersal rates of \r normal and irradiated laboratory-cultured flies or between males and \r females. The mean distance travelled by the surviving flies up to 2 \r weeks after release was 180-190 m, and by that time only ca. 13% of \r the flies remained alive in the grove. No laboratory-reared flies \r were trapped outside the olive grove. The limited amount of data \r obtained with wild flies suggested that they may disperse over \r greater distances than laboratory-reared flies\r YEAR (Publication Year): 1976
Fletcher BS;Economopoulos AP
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Reproductive behavior and physiology of Dacus oleae: egg hatch in females mated successively with normal and gamma sterilized males and vice versa
Annals of the Entomological Society of America v. 69(4) p. 733-737
In Dacus oleae (Gmelin), a 2nd mating by an 8-krad gamma ray-sterilized male reduced egg hatch immediately to zero or near-zero in ca. 40-55 percent of individually-tested females. In another 50 percent of females, egg hatch was reduced to between 5 to 70 percent, while in fewer than 10 percent of females, egg hatch showed no change. The above was true for females reared on artificial diet for more than 50 generations and mated with same type males, as well as females reared on olives for 6 to 8 generations and mated first with same type males and 2nd with artificially-reared sterilized males. When the 2nd males were treated at 15 krad the effect on egg hatch was smaller. When the 2nd males were treated at 8 krad and had depleted their sperm, by repeated matings, they produced small or no-effect on egg hatch. When artificially-reared females mated first with a sterilized and second with a normal same type male, egg hatch increased from 0 to 5 percent to 70 to 100 percent in 50 to 55 percent of the cases. In another 43 percent of cases, egg hatch increased to levels between 5 to 70 percent. The combined findings from the 2 mating sequence types are as follows. After females mated first with normal males, egg hatch was above 80 percent in the population. A 2nd mating with 8-krad-sterilized males produced an immediate decrease of egg hatch to ca. 25 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter. When the 1st male was sterilized and the 2nd normal, egg hatch increased to ca. 70 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter YEAR (Publication Year): 1976
Economopoulos A.P. Giannakakis A.;Voyadjoglou A.
0
0
0
0
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1
  
Preliminary field studies on the control of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv., using radiosterilized males
J. Nucl. Agric. Biol. (Sep 1977). v. 6(3) p. 65-68
Feasibility of using sterile male release method for the control of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrungineus Oliv., a serious pest of coconut and other cultivated palms in India was investigated. A total of over 5000 radiosterilized males were released in an 800 acre coconut plantation near Kayangulam in Kerala. Data on the fertility pattern of native females is presented and the factors affecting the efficacy of sterile male release for control of this insect are discussed. (author)
Rahalkar, G.W.;Harwalkar, M.R.; Rananavare, H.D
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Mating competitiveness and the effect of X-rays and aging on males of Tetranychus urticae Acarina, Tetranychidae) in relation to genetic control
Entomol. Exp. Appl. v. 21(2) p. 182-191
Mating competitiveness and the effect of X-rays and aging on males of Tetranychus urticae Acarina, Tetranychidae) in relation to genetic control
Feldmann, A.M
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Reproduction capacity of gamma irradiated Oriental fruitfly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel
Araneta Research Journal, v. 24(3-4) p. 17-23
The study was conducted to determine the fecundity or number of eggs laid by irradiated females mated with unirradiated males. Further, the study sought to determine the fertility of eggs laid by unirradiated females mated with irradiated males. Pupae and adult fruit flies used in this experiment were exposed to 5 and 15 krad, respectively. Twenty-five pairs of fruit-flies were laid per cage and were confined together for the duration of the experiment. No eggs were laid by females exposed to 5 krad during the pupae stage, although some eggs were laid by females irradiated with 15 krad during the adult stage. A significantly lower percentage of egg hatch was obtained when males were subjected to 5 krad during the pupal stage than the control. A minimum number of eggs, 943, from females irradiated with 15 krad during the adult stage, was observed with a maximum of 1,414 as compared with unirradiated females which laid a minimum 1,663 up to a maximum of 2.355 eggs. The female fly was found to be more sensitive to radiation damage than the male. The non-laying of eggs from female flies exposed to 5 krad irradiation may be due to the death of the gonial cells which resulted in infecundity in the females
Durante, A.R.; Manoto, E.C.
0
0
0
0
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1
  
Effect of different radiation doses and dose rates on 2-day-old pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel
Araneta Research Journal, v. 24(3-4) p. 34-38
Pupae of Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, at two days before emergence, were placed in fluorescent vials (3.5 by 13 cm) during irradiation. The samples were irradiated in a Co-60 gamma cell 220 irradiator, using different doses and dose rates which were obtained by varying the distances from the source and the time of exposure of the samples. After irradiation, 200 pupae from each treatment were allowed to emerge in plastic containers to get adult emergence and to observe any obnormality in the emerging adult. The remaining pupae were allowed to emerge in cubical nylon screen cages. After three days of emergence, the flies in the nylon screen cages were paired (25 males and 25 females per replicate) in another set of screen cage. Yeast, sugar, and moistened cotton were provided as food for the flies. At seven days after pairing the flies, the females were allowed to lay their eggs in a small plastic cup. Eggs were collected twice a week for five consecutive weeks. After two days, the eggs that hatched were counted under a stereomicroscope. Nonhatching of eggs represents the degree of sterility induced by radiation in the fly. Results showed that dose and dose rate did not affect the emergence and external morphology of adult fruit flies. It was also confirmed that a dose of 5 krad and above sterilizes the males and renders the females infecund
Ilao, L.L.
0
0
0
0
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Studies of the ecology of insects sterilized artificially (gamma radiation), 11. Abnormalities of the ovary and the salivary gland chromosome of parent substerilized with gamma rays from a 137Cs source and of its progeny generations in Dacus dorsalis Hendel
Okayama Daigaku Nogakubu Gakujutsu Hokoku. (Oct 1977).(no.50) p. 1-12
Female irradiated with 3KR gamma radiations, two days before emergence, delays development of ovarioles and about half of them showed irregular change of the shape of ovaries and the degeneration or deformation of ovarioles. When such a female was mated with a normal male, the number of eggs laid and the rate of hatchability of the eggs decreased undoubtedly. Some chromosome aberrations occurred in salivary glands of the larvae hatched. In the adult female from the mating between irradiated males and normal females, delaying of the development of one sided ovary, great difference of the development among ovarioles in an ovary and the appearance of deformed ovarioles were also noticeable. The hatchability of eggs deposited by the adult female mated with a normal male was lower than that of the normal female. Decrease in the number of eggs laid and the percentage of hatchability was presumably caused morphologically by these ovarian abnormalities and subsequent genetical gamete lethality. (Iwakiri, K.)
Kiyoku, Masao; Fujinami, Toshie
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Gamma-ray sterilization of Dacus oleae (Gmelin). Effect of nitrogen on the competitiveness of irradiated males.
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. 83: 1, 86-95
Tests with Dacus oleae (Gmel.) in Greece showed that for egg hatch to be reduced to below 5% the males had to be subjected to gamma -radiation at 8 and 11 krad in air or a nitrogen atmosphere, respectively, 1 day before adult emergence, or at 11 krad as young adults. Irradiation had no apparent effect on survival when pupae were treated at 5 or 8 krad in air and nitrogen, respectively, or when young adults were treated at 8 krad in air. At higher doses, survival was considerably reduced. Females were more susceptible than males as regards both survival and sterilisation. When males treated in the pupal stage at 11 krad in nitrogen were compared with males treated either as pupae in air at 8 krad or as young adults at 11 krad, sexual competitiveness was greater in the former, and the superiority increased as the flies grew older.\r
Economopoulos-AP
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Development of a caging and egging system for mass rearing the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmel.) (Diptera, Tephritidae).
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. 83: 1, 96-105
The prospect of a field test of the sterile insect technique in Greece for the control of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) on olive called for the improvement of caging and oviposition systems. The optimum oviposition device was found to be a conical one, and various nylon gauze substrates coated with waxes were then tested. The second coarsest gauze (8X21 threads/cm2) and a coating of ceresin proved to be the best combination, permitting the greatest number of deposited eggs and the shortest duration of oviposition. Parafilm was inferior to cones and domes for oviposition, and cones proved superior to domes, but only in large cages housing four of them. The optimum number of insects for mass rearing was found to be 1800-2400 per large cage (100X40X30 cm). White ceresin cones were better than dark green or black ones.\r
Tsitsipis-JA
0
0
0
0
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Experiments on the control of the olive fly, Dacus oleae (Gmel.), by the combined effect of insecticides and releases of gamma-ray sterilized insects.
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. 83: 2, 201-215
The experiments described were carried out in 1973 and 1974 in three olive groves on the Kassandra peninsula in northern Greece. The fly population in this peninsula was smaller than in other parts of northern Greece, and was kept to a low level by a control technique in which bait-sprays of fenthion (Lebaycid) and phosphamidon (Dimecron) were followed by releases of laboratory-reared flies sterilised by treatment with gamma -radiation at a dose of 9.5 krad. Fenthion was used in the first spray, phosphamidon was applied three weeks later, and releases of sterilised flies were begun after a further two weeks and repeated weekly, a technique of ground release being used. In the first year sterilisation was carried out in the adult stage, and in the second in the pupal stage. The releases were begun before the fruits became suitable for oviposition and were continued until cold weather in November stopped fly activity. Good control was achieved by these methods, but the timing of the sprays and releases was critical for success. Trouble was caused in the first year by fungus infection of the fruits resulting from excessive puncturing by the released females. This did not occur in the second year because the insects had been sterilised in the pupal stage and did not produce eggs.
Economopoulos-AP;Avtzis-N;Zervas-G;Tsitsipis-J;Haniotakis-G;Tsiropoulos-G;Manoukas-A
0
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A new chemosterilant for Dacus oleae (Gmelin).
Annales-de-Zoologie,-Ecologie-Animale, 9: 1, 149-153
A recently synthesised steroidal nitrogen mustard, a homo-aza-steroidal ester of [4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]acetic acid, a promising antitumour agent with relatively low mammalian toxicity and no mutagenic or carcinogenic properties, was tested as a chemosterilant for Dacus oleae (Gmel.). When administered orally to adults of both sexes at 0.25 or 0.5% in a liquid diet for periods of 1, 2, 4 or 8 days (beginning immediately after adult emergence) a high level of sterility was induced, and under certain conditions complete sterility of both sexes, without adverse effects on survival. Sterilisation followed topical application.\r
Haniotakis-GE;Catsoulacos-P
0
0
0
0
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1
  
Flight performance of Dacus oleae reared on olives and artificial diet.
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. 82: 3, 330-339
The influence of sex, age, nutrition, sterilisation, marking and handling on the flight propensity, distance flown, flight speed and flight pattern of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) reared in the laboratory was investigated in Switzerland with a multi-rotor flight-mill system. Females and older flies showed a higher flight capacity than males and younger insects, respectively. The flight characteristics of insects reared on an artificial diet were inferior to those reared on olives. No adverse effects of exposure to irradiation (8 krad) or chilling were detected. Although flies marked with a fluorescent powder or a fluorescent paint applied as an aerosol (Krylon) flew similar distances, those marked with powder flew more individual flights than those marked with paint.\r
Remund-U;Boller-EF;Economopoulos-AP;Tsitsipis-JA
0
0
0
0
1
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Relative importance of temperature-acclimation and stage in the release of sterile flies for population suppression in spring: a pilot, caged experiment with Dacus tryoni.
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 70: 6, 681-684
Meats-A;Fay-HAC
0
0
0
0
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Inactivation of mango seed weevil Sternochetus mangiferae, by gamma irradiation
Citrus Subtropical Fruit Journal. January pp 11-17.
Milne DL;Kok LB;Thomas AC;Swarts DH
Mango seed weevil, inactivation
0
0
0
0
1
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Dose-response relationships and R.B.E. values of dominant lethals induced by X-rays and 1.5-MeV neutrons in prophase-1 oocytes and in mature sperm of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae)
Mutat. Res. . v. 51(3) p. 361-376
Feldmann, A.M.
0
0
0
0
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The effect of gamma radiation on the false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta Meyr.
Phytophylactica. 10: 2, 37-42
In connection with the possibility of using the sterile-male technique for the control of Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyr.) in citrus orchards in South Africa, pupae were treated in the laboratory with gamma -radiation from a 60Co source. Sterilisation was obtained when pupae 8-10 days old were treated with doses of 15 and 20 krad for females and 30 and 35 krad for males. Treatment reduced survival, and only 50% emergence occurred at a dose of 30 krad. In mating competitiveness experiments with different ratios of cross-bred with normal males and females, it was generally found that the fertility of normal females was reduced at dosages of 20-30 krad. This reduction in fertility was enhanced by the presence of treated females in the tests, especially at higher ratios of irradiated to normal insects. It was found that at the substerilising dose for males (25-30 krad), the F1 moths were completely sterile.
Schwartz-A
0
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Mosquito studies at the Ross Institute of Tropical Hygiene
Progress-report,-Ross-Institute-of-Tropical-Hygiene, London , No. 35, 22
Ross Institute of Tropical Hygiene
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Gamma-rays induced visible alterations in the giant chromosomes of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).
Caryologia. 31: 4, 464-473
Males of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases strain of Anopheles stephensi List. were exposed to 4000 R of 60Co gamma -radiation at a rate of 188 R/min and then mated with virgin females of the same age group in order to study chromosomal aberrations in the F1 progeny. Preparations of the salivary chromosomes from F1 fourth-instar larvae were found to contain 40 heterozygous aberrations involving deletions, inversions, translocations and complex rearrangements, though with variable frequencies. The frequencies of breaks/sperm and the percentage mortality induced at different developmental stages after irradiation were recorded. The induced mortality may be correlated with the homozygous deficiencies, which are lethal, while other chromosomal arrangements may also have contributed in some measure. Under irradiation of the insect, breaks are induced in specific regions of the chromosome and not at random. It is tentatively inferred from the data that the chromosomes had a spiral structure and a polar field type of orientation during irradiation of spermatozoa.
Sharma GP; Mittal-OP; Dev-V; Gupta-BD
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Anopheles stephensi: effect of gamma-radiation and chemosterilants on the fertility and fitness of males for sterile male releases.
Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 71: 3, 449-452
Exposure of male pupae of Anopheles stephensi List. to gamma -radiation from 60Co at doses of 8 and 12 krad in studies in India induced 97.2 and 99.1% sterility, respectively. At the higher dose, male fitness for mating and survival were reduced. Similar treatment of females resulted in inhibition of egg production, and at 7 krad females failed to lay eggs. Dipping pupae in 1% thiotepa was not effective in producing sterilisation, whereas dipping them in 1% P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide for 2 h induced 100% sterility of both sexes. Chemosterilised males were permanently sterile, and their mating competitiveness, mating ability and survival were comparable to those of untreated males\r
Sharma-VP;Razdan-RK;Ansari-MA
0
0
0
0
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Prospects for the control of Dacus oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera, Tephritidae) by methods that do not involve insecticides, the sterile insect release technique and olfactory and visual traps, integrated approach.
Organisation Internationale de Lutte Biologique, Section Regionale Ouest Paleartique: Joint meeting of the working parties, Sassari, Sardinia, 1978.: Reunion conjointe des groupes de travail, Sassari, Sardaigne, Bulletin-SROP. 1979, 2-1, 42-49
Laboratory and field experiments showed that the sterile insect release technique could reduce olive fly damage in isolated olive groves.\r
Economopoulos-AP
0
0
0
0
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1
  
The mass rearing of the olive fruit fly and its importance in controlling it. Improvement of larval rearing.
International Symposium on Crop Protection.: XXX International Symposium over Fytofarmacie en Fytiatrie. Mededelingen-van-de-Faculteit-Landbouwwetenschappen-Rijksuniversiteit-Gent, 43: 505-511
The development in Greece of an adequate method of mass-rearing the olive pest Dacus oleae (Gmel.) in the laboratory [see RAE/A 66, 1848, 3781] is reviewed, with particular reference to recent improvements in the diet as regards substitution of cheaper ingredients, optimum compactness of the medium and optimum larval density in it. The rearing system currently used at the 'Demokritos' Nuclear Research Center in Athens produces 0.5 million pupae/week. Research experiments aimed at developing an integrated control programme against D. oleae, that have been made possible by the availability of abundant mass-reared insect material, are also reviewed. These include field application of the sterile-adult technique for 2 consecutive years, and research into pheromones, trapping systems, and the field ecology of D. oleae; further research into parasites and insecticides is proposed.\r
Tsitsipis-JA
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Application of neutron activation analysis in determining the mineral contents of the olive fruit fly and its food
Newsletter on the Application of Nuclear Methods in Biology and Agriculture (no.10) p. 11
\rThe composition of the olive fruit mesocarp and of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae, pupae in Na, K, Ca, Mg and Mn \r determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic \r absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is reported. The AAS was used as \r a standard method to evaluate the results obtained by NAA because of \r problems encountered with this method. (Auth.)\r YEAR (Publication Year): 1978
Manoukas, A.G. Grimanis, A.
0
0
0
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1
  
Toxicological effect of fenvalerate"Sumicidin"on some biological aspects of the mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata
Proc.3rd Pesticide Conf.Tanta Univ. Vol.(1):417-433
Enter a short abstract if available
Zidan Z.H.;A.M.Awadallah;M.I.Abdel-Megeed and T.S.El-Abbassi
biology, Mediterranean fruit fly, toxicolog
1
0
0
0
0
0
  
Toxicological effect of fenvalerate"Sumicidin"on some biological aspects of the mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata
Proc.3rd Pesticide Conf.Tanta Univ. Vol.(1):417-433
Enter a short abstract if available
Zidan,A.Z.; A.M.Awadallah; M.I.Abdel-Megeed ; T.S.El-Abbassi
biology, Mediterrnaean Fruit fly, Toixicology
1
0
0
0
0
0
  
Effect of "Sumicidin"On gonads,trproductive potential,and certain biochemixcal constituents of larvae and pupae of the mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata(Wied.)
Proc.3rd Pesticide Conf.Tanta Univ. Vol.(1):434-450
Enter a short abstract if available
Awadallah,A.M.; M.I.Abdel-Megeed; Z.H.Zidan ; T.S.El-Abbassi
reproductive potential, Medfly
1
0
0
0
0
0
  
Effect of "Sumicidin"On gonads,reproductive potential,and certain biochemichal constituents of larvae and pupae of the mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata(Wied.)
Proc.3rd Pesticide Conf.Tanta Univ.September 1979 Vol.(1):434-450
Enter a short abstract if available
Awadallah,A.M.;M.I.Abdel-Awadallah,A.M.; M.I.Abdel-Megeed; Z.H.Zidan ; T.S.El-Abbassi
Entomology, reproductive potential, Medfly
1
0
0
0
0
0
  
Effect of "Sumicidin"On gonads,reproductive potential,and certain biochemichal constituents of larvae and pupae of the mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata(Wied.)
Proc.3rd Pesticide Conf.Tanta Univ.September 1979 Vol.(1):434-450
Enter a short abstract if available
Awadallah,A.M.;M.I.Abdel-Megeed;Z.H.Zidan and T.S.El-Abbassi
Medfly, Gonads, Reproductive potentail
1
0
0
0
0
0
  
Aberrations of holokinetic chromosomes and associated lethality after X-irradiation of meiotic stages in Tetranychus urticae Koch (acari, tetranychidae)
Mutat. Res. (. v. 61(2) p. 259-274
Tempelaar, M.J
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Fundamental aspects of genetic control of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)
Miscellaneous report.6 Jun 1979. 150 p
Feldmann, A.M
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Fate of fragments and properties of translocations of holokinetic chromosomes after X-irradiation of mature sperm of Tetranychus urticae Koch (acari, tetranychidae)
Mutat. Res. v. 63(2) p. 301-316
Tempelaar, M.J.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Az import narancs noevenyegeszseguegyi karanten fertoetlenitese gamma sugarzassal, Ceratitis capitata (Wied) ellen (The quarantine disinfestation of imported oranges by gamma radiation against Ceratitis capitata (Wied) (In Hungarian)
The possibilities of the application of irradiation in agriculture and food industry. Budapest (Hungary) p. 51-56.
Fesues, I.; Kadas, L.; and Kalman, B.; Robacker, D. C.
disinfestation, Orange
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Radiation effect on the pupae of jute hairy caterpillar, Diachrysia obliquia Walker (Lep.:Noctuidae)
Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 7(2),
Begum A.; Ahmed, M.; Bashar, M.A; and Ameen, Mahmu
Diachrysia obliquia
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Effect of the dose rate of gamma rays on oviposition and emergence in Prostephanus trunctatus (Horn.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae).
Anales del Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Zoologia, Vol.50, No.1, pp.363-373, 17 ref
Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) is an important pest of stored maize in Mexico. When adult females 10 days old were exposed to 15 kR gamma -radiation using 2, 4, 8 and 12 60Co sources, only 3.3% of them subsequently oviposited (as compared with 87.8% of the untreated controls), only 1.5% of the eggs laid hatched (as compared with 70.5%) and 15 days after exposure, all the females had died (as compared with 20% mortality among untreated females). These results are considered promising for the protection of stored maize.\r
Ramos-Elorduy de Conconi, J.; Ramirez Martinez, M.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Investigation on the sterile-male technique as a suitable management measure for the false codling moth on citrus: the release of sterile moths.
Citrus-and-Subtropical-Fruit-Journal. No. 553, 10-12
In a field test on navel orange in South Africa in 1976-77, examples of Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyr.) that had been sterilised by gamma -radiation from a 60Co source in the pupal stage were released regularly in the period from 9 September to 21 December. On the basis of weekly counts of infestation of fallen fruit by larvae throughout the season, 11.5-11.8% of the fruit was infested, as compared with 18.2-23.8% for no treatment.\r
Schwartz-A
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
: Inheritance of sterility in Dysdercus koenigii F. (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae).
Journal of Nuclear Agriculture and Biology, 1979, Vol.8(4) 121-123
Reduced fecundity was observed when F1 progeny of either sex of Dysdercus koenigii were subjected to a dose of 7 krad. When males exposed to substerilising doses of 1, 2 or 3 krad were crossed with normal females, the F1 progeny of both sexes were partially sterile, the level of sterility being higher in the females than in males. There was a further reduction in fecundity when their offspring were mated.
Harwalkar, M. R.; Rahalkar, G. W.
Dysdercus koenigii, red cotton bug, Malvaceae, cotton
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Prospects for the control of Dacus oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera, Tephritidae) by methods that do not involve insecticides, the sterile insect release technique and olfactory and visual traps, integrated approach.
International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section: Joint meeting of the Working Groups: Biological control of olive pests; Genetic control of Rhagoletis cerasi; Genetic control of Ceratitis capitata; Genetic control methods against pests. Sassari (Sardinia, Italy) 15-20 May 1978.: Reunion conjointe des Groupes de Travail: Lutte biologique contre les ravageurs de l'olive; Lutte genetique contre Rhagoletis cerasi; Lutte genetique contre Ceratitis capitata; Methodes genetiques de lutte contre les ravageurs. Sassari (Sardaigne, Italie) 15-20 Mai 1978. Bulletin-SROP. 2: 42-49
Recent work in Greece on the sterile insect technique and trapping methods for the control of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) on olive is reviewed and discussed; these measures are being studied as components of an integrated pest management scheme. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the release of sterile individuals can reduce the damage to the crop in isolated olive groves, but more work is needed to simplify the method and make it economical and practical. It has been found that fluorescent yellow attracts more adult flies than any other colour, and fluorescent yellow panels covered with adhesive have been used successfully to control the infestation in a small grove. McPhail bait-traps covered with adhesive attracted more flies than fluorescent yellow traps and attracted adults over longer distances. It is suggested that when the sex pheromone of Dacus is identified and synthesised, it might be used to trap or confuse the pest. It is concluded that the sterile insect technique could be combined with the use of parasites to control the immature stages; parasites could also be used concurrently with coloured traps, provided they were not attracted to fluorescent yellow.
Economopoulos-AP
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The behaviour of laboratory populations of the olive fruit fly (Dacus oleae Gmel., Trypetidae) in the territory of the Kornati archipelago during the years 1973-1976.
Zastita-Bilja. 30: 2, 193-204
Laboratory populations of Dacus oleae (Gmel.), which had previously been sterilised by gamma -radiation, were released in an isolated olive plantation on the uninhabited island of Sit in the Kornati archipelago, Yugoslavia. The released individuals were marked with fluorescent colours and their spread was monitored by catches in McPhail traps. During the years of the study (1973-76), the highest average percentage of flies (71.20) was captured within a radius of 50 m from the place of release.\r
Brnetic-D
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Some effects of radiation on the free amino acids of adult female Mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata Wied
Experientia 3636-37
Ceratitis capitata pupae, 2-3 days before adult emergence, were treated with gamma irradiation from a 60Co source. The female fruit flies were extracted and analyzed for free amino acids.
Boctor I. Z.
Irradiation
0
1
0
0
1
0
  
Efeect of Triphenyltin hydroxide "Du-Ter" on gonads,reproductive potential and certain biochemical constituents of larvae and pupae of the mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata(Wied.)
Agric.Res.Rev.(1):181-203
1-Du-Ter caused no obvious effect on number of oocytes in the ovaries of either newly emerged or old females,treated as larvae by any concentration.However,it was noticed that the number of oocytes in treated and untreated females increased at much higher rate till the 4th day after emergence than from the 10th to 20th days.The same trendwas noticed on the length of ovarioles except in the treatment of the lowest concentration which materially caused increasing effect.The used material had no effect on the size of testes of males treated as larvae.The length and width of testes were slightly increased with the progression of days after emergence in both treated and untreated flies.\r\n2- DU-Ter reduced considerably the number of daily deposited eggs laid by females,the higher the concentration,the lower was the number of laid eggs.Also,Du-Ter significantly decreased the hatchability percentage of eggs.In general,Du-Ter considerably reduced the reproductive potential of female flies.This is an indication that Du-Ter is a promosing sterilising agent of the female flies treated as larvae.\r\n3-Du-Ter caused a slight decrease in the free and protein hydrolysate amino acids of lravae and pupae (males and females)without significant differences between the tested concentrations,significant decrease in the amount of reducing sugars in all tested stages especially when used at high concentrations and significant increase in the amounts of organic acids and decreased the amount of lipids in the tested samples without difference between the different concentrations.
Abdel-Megeed,M.I.; Z.H.Zidan;; A.M.Awadallah ; T.S.El-Abbassi
reproductive potential, Medfly
1
1
1
0
0
0
  
Effect of triphenyltin hydroxide "Du-Ter" on gonads,reproductive potential and certain biochemical constituents of larvae and pupae of the mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)
Agric.Res.Rev.(1):181-203
1- Dy-Ter caused no obvious effect on the number of oocytes in the ovaries of either newly emerged or old females,treated as larvae by any concentration.However,it was noticed that the number of oocytes in treated and untreated females increased at much higher rate till the 4th day after emergence than from the 10th to 20th days.The same trend was noticed on the length of ovarioles except in the treatment of the lowest concentration which materially caused increasing effect.The used material had no effect on the size of testes of malkes treated as larvae.The length and width of testes were slightly increased with the progression of days after emergence in both treated and untreated flies. \r\n2- DU-Ter reduced considerably the number of daily deposited eggs laid by females,the higher the concentration,the lower was the number of laid eggs.Also, Du-Ter significantly decreased the hatchability percentage of eggs.In general,Du-Ter considerably reduced the reproductive potential of female flies. This is an indication that Du-Ter is a promising sterilising agent of the female flies treated as larvae.\r\n3- Du-Ter caused a slight decrease in the free and protein hydrolysate amino acids of larvae and pupae (males and females)without significant differences between the tested concentrations,significant decrease in the amount of reducing sugars in all tested stages especially when used at high concentrations and significant increase in the amounts of organic acids and decreased the amount of lipids in the tested samples without difference between the different concentrations.
Abdel-Megeed M.I.,Z.H.Zidan;A.M.Awadallah and T.S.El-Abbassi
Medfly, biochemicl constituents
1
0
0
0
0
0
  
Biological and toxicological effectiveness of triphenyltin hydroxide "Du-Ter" on different dtages of the mediterrnean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)
Agric.Res.Rev.(1):215-232
1- Du-Ter showed no ovicidal action at all tested concentrations.The age of the laid eggs caused no infleunce in this respect.\r\n2-Du-Ter showed high larvicidal efficacy.The higher the concentration the higher was the toxicity achieved.\r\n3-The effect of larval treatment was extended to the pupal stage,especially when the tested chemical was used at high concentration.Tha male pupae were more affected than females.\r\n4-The material prolonged the larval duration at various degrees according to the tested concentrations.Du-Ter,significantly reduced the full grown larval weight,the magnitude of this effect increased with increase of concentration.\r\n5-The weight of pupae treated as larvae with Du-Ter was significantly reduced.The sex factor caused no infleunce in this respect.\r\n6-Du-Ter significantly decreased the percentage emergence of male and female adults treated as larvae,the higher the concentration, the lower the percentage emergence of adults.The sex factor played an important role on the emergence percent,the male sex being more sensetive than female sex.Moreover,the weight of adults emerged from larvae treated with Du-Ter,was significantly decreased.\r\n7-Du-Ter prolonged the preoviposition period of the female flies which emerged from treated larvae,and significantly decreased the oviposition period as well as the postoviposiotion periods.\r\n8-Du-Ter cinsiderably decreased the life-span of the emerged adults ( males & females),the decreament being higher with the increase of concentrations.
EL-Abbassi,T.S.;Z.H.Zidan;M.I.Abdel-Megeed and A.M.Awadallah
biology, Medfly
1
0
0
0
0
0
  
DNA-content in isolated nuclei of postembryonic stages of progeny from normal and irradiated males of Tetranychus urticae (Acari Tetranychidoe)
Chromosoma. v. 77(3) p. 359-371
Tempelaar, M.J.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Radiobiological and structural studies on the holokinetic chromosomes of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch
Miscellaneous report. 21 Nov 1980. 85 p
This thesis deals with the effects of X-rays on holokinetic chromosomes, i.e. chromosomes that have \r\nmicrotubuli attached over a larger expanse of their surface than the classic monokinetic type. Consequently, induced \r\nchromosome aberrations may be expected to behave quite differently. An attempt is made to assess various aspects concerning \r\nholokinetic chromosomes and their radiological properties by combining and correlating lethality-, sterility- and fecundity-data \r\nfrom consecutive divisions and generations on the one hand and morphological data from light- and electronmicroscopy on the \r\nother hand. The test object is Tetranychus urticae, the common spider mite, an arrhenotokous organism (unfertilized eggs \r\nyielding males, fertilized eggs yielding females) notorious as an agriculture pest. (Auth.) \r\nYEAR (Publication Year): 1980
Tempelaar, M.J
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The effects of x-irradiation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L)
Miscellaneous,1980. 306 p
Newly emerged mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti (L)) were exposed to doses of 500 to 32,000 rad X-irradiation and the LD50 and mean survival time determined. Radiation doses between 500 and 8,000 rad had only a slight effect on longevity whereas exposure to 32,000 had an appreciable effect. The midgut structure of newly emerged, X-irradiated female Aedes aegypti imagines was examined at set intervals after irradiation. The cytochemical localization of midgut acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase, and also quantitative estimates of midgut acid and alkaline phosphatase were carried out on mosquitoes exposed to 32,000 rad. Considerable changes in the structure of the midgut cells were apparent. With 500, 4,000 and 8,000 rad there was evidence of cellular repair and recovery. However, with 32,000 rad cellular damage was most extensive, with considerable loss of cell structure. The ultrastructural changes noted suggest that the primary radiation damage was to the plasma and organelle membranes, which is in agreement with the membrane-damage/enzyme release hypothesis. (author)
Read, N.G
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Uptake and turnover pattern of radioactive phosphorus in three vector species of mosquitoes
Indian J. Exp. Biol. (Nov 1980). v. 18(11) p. 1248-1251
A simple method of radiolabelling the mosquito larvae of Culex fatigans, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with 32P has been described. The results show that the Anopheline species picked up more radioactivity and excreted it faster than the others. Out of the total radioactivity present in the larva or pupa of Culex fatigans prior to moulting, 1% of the radioactivity is lost by ecdysis. Females of all the species exhibit about twice the activity of the males and a significant percentage of their ingested activity accumulate in abdomen and thorax, and to a lesser extent in the head and legs. The effective and biological half-life is about 10 and 33 days respectively for the adult Culex fatigans. (author
Srinivasan, M.N.; Chandra, R.; Koshy, T.; Singh, S.P.; Ganguly, S.K.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Non-insecticidal approach of pest management in marine environment.
Proc. Bangladesh National Sem. on the Protrction of Marine Environment and Related Ecosystem, Dhaka, 27-29
Ahmed, M.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Low dose radiation effect on reproductive capacity of female Callosobruchus analis F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).
Bangladesh Journal of Biological Sciences, 9 (1), 1-4.
Begum, A.; Ahmed, M.; Khan, A.T.; and Seal, D.R.
Callosobruchus analis
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Effect of gamma radiation on the reproductive capacity of female Callosobrucus analis F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).
Dacca University Studies, B, XXVIII (2), 75-78.
Begum, A.; Ahmed, M.; Badiuzzaman, M.; Khan, A.T.
Callosobruchus analis, reproductive capacity
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Radiosensitivity & sterility induction in later nymphal instars of the cotton stainer Dysdercus koenigii.
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 1980, Vol.18, (1).12-15.
Nymphal development, reproductive capacity and mating competitiveness of Dysdercus koenigii (F.) were all affected by gamma irradiation with 60Co. LD50s for nymphs in the early fourth, late fourth, early fifth and late fifth instars were 2.76, 5.90, 5.62 and 14.10 krad respectively. \r
Jayaraman, G.; Mookerjee, A.
Dysdercus koenigii, red cotton bug, Malvaceae, cotton
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Radiosensitivity of the different phases of oogenesis in Anopheles atroparvus.Radiosensibilita degli stadi dell'ovogenesi in Anopheles atroparvus (Diptera: Nematocera).
Parassitologia. , 22: 1-2, 199-204
Radiosensitivity of the different phases of oogenesis in Anopheles atroparvus.\rOT: \r
Lecis-AR;Figus-V;Santarini-C
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
X-ray induced sterility, dominant lethality and inherited semisterility in Anopheles pharoensis Theo (Dipt., Culicidae).
Zeitschrift-fur-Angewandte-Entomologie. , 89: 5, 498-504
\r\r
Shoukry-A
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
On a programme of integrated control of the enemies of the olive tree in Greece.
Proceedings-International-symposium-of-IOBC/WPRS-on-integrated-control-in-agriculture (ed.); forestry-Vienna-8th-12th-October-1979:-Russ-K (ed.); Berger-H (ed.)Workshop sessions. 574-577
The development of an integrated control programme in Greece against pests of olive (especially Dacus oleae (Gmel.), Prays oleae (Bern.) and Saissetia oleae (Ol.)) in the past 25 years is reviewed. The control of D. oleae has passed from cover sprays to bait sprays; and studies have been undertaken on the use of natural enemies, coloured traps and sterile adults. P. oleae is the key pest, and control is now based on cover sprays of the flowers and early fruiting stages; attempts have been made to use microbial insecticides, parasites and pheromones. Conditions have become more favourable for the control of S. oleae with native and introduced natural enemies.\r
Stavraki-HG;Argyriou-LC;Yamvrias-C
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Carbohydrate utilization by normal and gamma -sterilized Dacus oleae.
Journal-of-Insect-Physiology. 26: 9, 633-637
In laboratory studies in Greece, non-sterilised adults of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) were able to survive and reproduce on mannose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, melibiose, trehalose, maltose, melezitose and sorbitol (out of a series of 23 carbohydrates). Flies sterilised by exposure to gamma -radiation from 60Co at a dose of 10 krad were able to utilise the same carbohydrates with the exception of melezitose, indicating that sterilisation did not affect their ability to utilise various carbohydrates. Since these carbohydrates are common constituents of the fly's natural food sources, released sterile flies should be able to survive satisfactorily in the field. The possible presence of 3 carbohydrases is discussed.\r
Tsiropoulos-GJ
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The control of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulski in sorghum by means of low doses of gamma radiation. Penggunaan dosis rendah sinar gamma untuk memberantas Sitophilus zeamais Motschulski dalam sorgum (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)
Majalah BATAN. (Dec 1981). v. 14(4) p. 14-26
One day old adults of Sitophilus zeamais obtained from a single female pure culture, were irradiated with gamma rays from a 60Co source with doses of 5, 10, 15, and 20 krad (dose rate 1.7913x105 rad/hr) and then crossed with unirradiated insects of the same age. The rearing media were two varieties of sorghum, UPCA-S2 and C-6. After one month, the infectants were removed and counted to determine the number of the survivors, and then separated from the rearing medium. The rearing medium was then subjected to daily observation to recover the emerged F1 adults. The result showed that 5 krad was able to kill the insects within 30 days post exposure, while 20 krad did not sterilize the insects completely. During the period of their survival, the insects seemed to be able to mate and to yield progeny. Ten and fifteen krad were considered to be the optimum doses for insect control based on the principle of delayed kill. F1 adults, when given the opportunity to self-breed within the respective irradiation treatments, showed that after one month of observation, the highest number of F2 progeny was produced by the group irradiated with 20 krad, which was equivalent to that the unirradiated group, while 10-15 krad remained the lowest yielding doses. Between the two varieties of sorghum no significant difference was detected. (author)
Danusupadmo C.J. Sugiarto
Sitophilus zeamais;Maize weevil
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Life table and male mating competitiveness of wild type and of a chromosome mutation strain of Tetranychus urticae in relation to genetic pest control
Entomol. Exp. Appl. v. 29(2) p. 125-137
Feldmann, A.M.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effect of gamma radiation on reproductive potential of Dermestes maculatus, DeGeer (Col: Dermestidae).
Nuclear Science and Applications, 11 & 12, 33-35
Ahmed, M.; Begum, a. ; and Khan, S.A.
Dermestes maculatus, reproductive potential
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Effect of gamma radiation on reproductive potential of Dermestes maculatus, DeGeer (Col: Dermestidae).
Nuclear Science and Applications, 11 & 12, 33-35
Ahmed M.; Begum A.; Khan S.A.
Dermestes maculatus, reproductive potential
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Investigation on insect disinfestationof dried dates by gamma radiation- A Review
Date Palm Journal, 1(1), 107-116.
Ahmed, M.S.H.
Dried dates
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Use of radiation disinfestation in control of rice insect pests during storage.
Combination Process in Food Irradiation, IAEA, Vienna, 229-244
El-Kady, E..A.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Mukomol''no Elevat. Kombi
Promyshi 6
Zakladnoi GA
disinfestation, electron beam, stored grain
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Effects of mass-rearing and gamma-irradiation on the Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel.
Journal-of-Agricultural-Research-of-China. 30: 3, 294-302
The effects of mass-rearing and gamma -irradiation for application of the sterile insect technique on Dacus dorsalis Hend. were studied in the laboratory in Taiwan. Mass-rearing reduced the adult life-span by 6.4%, adult emergence by 2.7% and adult survival during the first 3 days after emergence by 8.4%, as compared with a wild strain. Irradiation at 13 krad further reduced the adult life-span by 6.4%, adult emergence by 10.6% and survival during the first 3 days by 14.8%. Crowding in the holding cages prior to field release also had adverse effects on the insects: in the actual release programme, healthy flies were only obtained from 33% of the total number of pupae reared as compared with 56% of pupae when flies were kept in uncrowded holding conditions. Mortality in the holding cage was closely related to the size of surface area available to each insect, and the survival rate could be improved by increasing the available surface area. Mass-rearing and irradiation did not affect the specific activity of 7 metabolic enzymes in the flight muscle of adult males of D. dorsalis.
Cheng-EY;Sung-M
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Improvement in the rearing method for the oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel.
Chinese-Journal-of-Entomology. recd. 1983, 1: 2, 33-39
An improved method that was developed in the laboratory in Taiwan for rearing Dacus dorsalis Hend. on artificial diet for sterility studies is described. The diet consisted of wheat shorts (120 g), sucrose (60 g), yeast (35 g), sodium benzoate (1 g), hydrochloric acid (4.5 ml) and water (450 ml). Seeding 4000 eggs on the diet in a container measuring 3 X 12 X 20 cm resulted in the highest pupal recovery. The best sterilising dose of gamma -radiation was 9 krad.\r
Su-CY; Hwang-MT; Wang-HC
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Some effects of gamma radiation on the oriental fruitfly dacus dorsalis Hendel.
Natural and Applied Science Bulletin(Jul-Dec 1981). v. 33(3-4) p.241-254
rradiation of adult flies produced progeny with better inseminating capacity than those treated during the pupal stage. Increasing the dose from 5 to 10 krad hasten depletion of sperm supply by 6 days. However, 5 krad applied to mature pupae and 5 or 10 krad on 3-day old adults produced sterile but highly competitive male flies. Irradiation stopped the production of new sperm by inducing necrosis and pycnosis on early spermatogenic cells resulting in aspermia or sperm depletion in the male flies. On older cells, dominant lethal effect was induced by radiation such that fertility was reduced to less than 1%. In the female flies, total infecundity was achieved at 10 krad although at 5 krad a few eggs were laid but none of them hatched. The ovaries become atrophied due to necrotic effect on the oogonial cells and pycnotic condition induced among the nurse cells. Thus for sterility of D. dorsalis a dose of 5 Krad delivered to late pupae or 10 krad on 3-day old adults is recommended
Manoto, E.C.; Mitchell, W.C
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Mating competitiveness and effective life of the radiation-sterilized male red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterile insect technique and radiation in insect control. Proceedings of the international symposium on the sterile insect technique and the use of radiation in genetic insect control, jointly organized by the IAEA and the FAO and held in Neuherberg, 29 June - 3 July 1981. Vienna. IAEA. 1982. 495 p. p. 395-400. Proceedings series
Rahalkar, G.W.;Shantaram, K.; Harwalkar, M.R.;Rananavare, H.D.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma irradiation on the mortality of the Caribbean fruit fly in grapefruit.
Proceedings of Florida State Horticultural Society. 95: 235-237.
Von Windeguth DL
Tephritid, Irradiation
1
1
0
0
1
0
  
Nuclear techniques in the biochemistry and experimental chemotherapy of filarial worms
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy) United Nations Environment Programme. Nuclear techniques in the study of parasitic infections. Proceedings of an international symposium on nuclear techniques in the study and control of parasitic diseases of man and animals jointly organized by the IAEA, the FAO and the UN Environment Programme and held in Vienna, 29 June - 3 July 1981. Vienna. IAEA. 1982. 631 p. p. 463-482. Proceedings series
There is an almost complete lack of biochemical data on filarial worms of medical importance and most of the available information has been obtained from four laboratory-maintained species, Brugia pahangi, Dipetalonema viteae, Litomosoides carinii and Dirofilaria immitis. Several workers have attempted to study the vector-borne stages of filariae, either by an autoradiographic study of the distribution of radioactive substrates introduced to the mosquito by feeding or by micro-injection into the thorax. Comparison of the levels of folate metabolism in uninfected and B. pahangi-infected Aedes aegypti have also been made. Biochemical studies on adult worms have focussed mainly on carbohydrate and folate metabolism. Those species investigated did not possess significant tricarboxylic acid cycle activity and relied upon glycolysis for carbohydrate catabolism and energy production. B. pahangi and D. immitis cannot synthesize dihydrofolate de novo, but are able to utilize 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate for the production of metabolically active tetrahydrofolate cofactors. Information on folate metabolism is reviewed. Filarial nematodes resemble cestodes and schistosomes in possessing a cuticle which is freely permeable to a wide range of low molecular weight substances. The surface of the cuticle is bounded by antigenic proteins which may be shed from the worms in vivo. Data on the immunological and physiological properties of the surface are discussed. The interaction of standard filaricidal compounds, suramin and diethylcarbamazine, with the biochemical pathways of carbohydrate and folate metabolism are described
Howells, R.E.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Influence of blood meal volume on uptake of Brugia pahangi microfilariae by susceptible Aedes aegypti
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy) United Nations Environment Programme. Nuclear techniques in the study of parasitic infections. Proceedings of an international symposium on nuclear techniques in the study and control of parasitic diseases of man and animals jointly organized by the IAEA, the FAO and the UN Environment Programme and held in Vienna, 29 June - 3 July 1981. Vienna. IAEA. 1982. 631 p. p. 386-387. Proceedings series
Ogunrinade, A.F.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Disinfestation of commercially packed dates, Zahdi variety, by ionizing radiation.
Date Palm Journal, 1 (2), 249-273.
Ahmed, M.S.H.; Al-Hakkak, Z.S.; Ali, S.R.; Kadhum,
Dried dates
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Determination of optimum irradiation doses in respect of the competitiveness of sterile males of Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Attraction to colour traps and to sexual attractants. Determinacion de la dosis optima de irradiacion relativa a la competitividad del macho esteril de Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Su atraccion a trampas de color y al atrayente sexual
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Sterile insect technique and radiation in insect control. Proceedings of the international symposium on the sterile insect technique and the use of radiation in genetic insect control, jointly organized by the IAEA and the FAO and held in Neuherberg, 29 June - 3 July 1981. Vienna. IAEA. 1982. 495 p. p. 323-339. Proceedings series
Fruit cultivation is of great socio-economic importance in Mexico and covers an area of 650,000 ha. One of the most important pests is the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Its study is of topical importance since the Directorate General of Plant Health (SARH) and the United States Department of Agriculture have embarked on a joint control and eradication programme through APHIS. The results relate mainly to the effect of gamma radiation on sexual competitiveness and behaviour. The radiation was applied in the pupal phase three days before emergence, and sterility and sexual competitiveness were studied in the laboratory and in the field. The following conclusions were reached: (a) The males showed 90% sterility at 4 krad and practically 100% at 6 krad. A dose between 3 and 5 krad may be sufficient to obtain a high degree of sterility with a minimum of effect on sexual competitiveness. (B) 'solar' yellow increases the efficiency of traps by a factor of three to five. (C) the live-male bait attracts the greatest number of flies of both sexes, and the male was found to secrete a sex pheromone and an aggregation pheromone. (D) in all cases a significantly higher number of normal than irradiated flies were captured in the traps. This at least shows that the dose of 6 krad affects the adults' flying capacity or perception of attractants. Colouring also reduced the number of flies attracted. (author)
Velasco, H.; Enkerlin, D.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Tsitologiia;24(2):206-10
[Types, frequency and interchromosomal distribution of radiation-induced chromosome rearrangements in the malaria mosquito Anopheles messeae].
Inseminated females of A. messeae caught from their natural population (Kolarovo, Tomsk) were X-ray-irradiated (1, 2 and 3 kR, 100R/min). Salivary\rgland chromosomes of larvae F1 were used to detect any aberrations induced. The great number of chromosomal aberrations was obtained. The inversions were more frequent (paracentric - 41.0% pericentric - 33.1%), that translocations (25.2%).\rA single deletion (0.7%) was found. The distribution of 304 breaks induced was\rstudied. Frequencies of breaks in different chromosomes are in a strong\rproportion to the relative lengths of autosomal arms. The number of breaks in\rsex chromosomes was less frequent than expected.
Pleshkova GN,; Plevako NG.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Oriental fruit fly: sexual development and mating response of laboratory-reared and wild flies.
Annals-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-America. 75: 2, 191-194
The mating patterns of wild adults of Dacus dorsalis Hendel were compared in the laboratory in Hawaii with those of a 28-year-old laboratory strain. All the laboratory-reared females mated within 12 days of emergence, as compared with only 2.5% of females of the wild strain in 13 days. Laboratory tests indicated a partial sexual isolation between the reared males and wild females; in the cross mating, only 50% were mated by the 24th day of adult life. In the cross mating between wild males and reared females, 90% mating was obtained in 24 days. Further evidence for sexual isolation was obtained in field-cage tests. When laboratory-reared flies that had been irradiated with 10 krad gamma -radiation in nitrogen were released in field cages with normal wild flies, the results were similar to those obtained with reared flies that were unirradiated caged with normal wild flies. The results of both field tests showed that significantly more males mated with females of the same strain than cross matings.
Wong-TTY;Couey-HM; Nishimoto-JI
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Mating frequency in caged populations of wild and artificially reared (normal or gamma -sterilized) olive fruit flies.
Environmental-Entomology. 11: 1, 17-20
When females of the tephritid Dacus oleae (Gmel.) reared in the laboratory on an artificial diet were sterilised with gamma -radiation (LS) they became more receptive to the second mating than were normal flies (L). However, sterilisation reduced male effectiveness in the 2nd mating. Wild (W) females were found to mate more often when caged with LS males than when caged with W males. In mixed populations of W and LS flies, the latter tended to mate with each other at the 1st mating, but successive matings were more numerous between W females and LS males. After the 1st mating, about 0.21 matings/female-day were recorded between W females and LS males, as compared with 0.01-0.05 in each of the other 3 possible mating combinations during a 10-day period. It appeared that under laboratory conditions W females were more receptive than LS females and LS males were more effective that W males in repeated mating. During 1st mating, W flies were always found to mate primarily in the last 2 h before the scotophase, whereas L or LS flies mated in similar numbers during the 4 h before the scotophase. After the 1st mating, mating activity in all fly types concentrated in the last 2 h before the scotophase.
Zervas-GA;Economopoulos-AP
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The quality problem in olive flies produced for SIT experiments
International symposium on the sterile insect technique and the use of radiation in genetic insect control. Neuherberg, Germany, F.R. 29 Jun - 3 Jul 1981.International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome Italy). Sterile insect technique and radiation in insect control.Proceedings of the international symposium on the sterile insect technique and the use of radiation in genetic insect control,jointly organized by the IAEA and the FAO and held in Neuherberg, 29 June - 3 July 1981. Vienna. IAEA. 1982. 495 p. p. 357-368.
Considerable research has been undertaken in the last two decades on the SIT method against the olive fruit fly. Nevertheless, whenever the method has been applied in the field, mixed results have been obtained. In a recent application on a small island, fruit infestation rose to high levels in October-November in spite of the fact that large numbers of sterilized flies were released from July to November for two consecutive years. Quality studies have revealed substantial differences between wild flies (W) and flies reared on an artificial system in the laboratory (L). Such changes were detected both at the genetic and the behavioural level. Among the behavioural changes detected, those of reduced flight ability, reduced visual sensitivity and different timing of sexual activity seem of importance to SIT. LS-type flies used had been reared for several generations in the laboratory and were sterilized by 60Co gamma rays. In small cages under laboratory conditions as well as in a large cage under natural-light conditions most matings between virgin sterilized L flies (LS) occurred two to three and a half hours before scotophase whereas most matings between virgin W flies occurred null to one and a half hours before scotophase. When flies remated, all matings occurred at the end of the photophase. In small laboratory cages, LS males proved very effective in overcoming the resistance of W females for rematings. This was not true in the large cage. It is very probable that the considerable mating-time separation observed between LS and W flies could be more intense under field conditions. Besides the above phenomenon, the data also suggested that the two fly-type females tended to mate with their own males
Economopoulos, A.P. Zervas, G.A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sexual behaviour of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae. Some differences between wild and laboratory-reared flies
International symposium on the sterile insect technique and the use of radiation in genetic insect control. Neuherberg, Germany, F.R. 29 Jun -3 Jul 1981.Sterile insect technique and radiation in insect control. Proceedings of the international symposium on the sterile insect technique and the use of radiation in genetic insect control, jointly organized by the IAEA and the FAO and held in Neuherberg, 29 June - 3 July 1981.Vienna. IAEA. 1982. 495 p. p. 427-429.
Zervas, G.A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The effect of gamma rays on the gonads of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin).
Int J Radiat Biol Relat Stud Phys Chem Med. Feb;43(2):169-73
Pupae of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin) 1 to 2 days before adult emergence were irradiated with the suitable sterilizing dose of 80 Gy gamma rays. At intervals of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after adult emergence, anatomical and biometrical studies were performed to determine the extent of recovery of D. oleae gonads during one month of adult life. There were some indications of gonad recovery after two weeks. This recovery was observed as a decrease in the percentage deviation from the corresponding controls of 20-day-old adult gonad (especially those of males). Generally, female gonads are more sensitive to gamma-rays than those of males.
Shehata NF
0
1
0
0
1
0
  
A NEW FRUIT FLY CALLANTRA FORMOSANA FROM TAIWAN (TEPHRITIDAE, DIPTERA)
Chinese I. Entomol. 3:119 - 122
A new species Callantra formosana is described and illustrated. Thisnew species is commonly found in whole Taiwan; the elevated distributionto be recorded by authors from 300 m to 2400 m
Yi-Hsiung Tseng and Yau-I Chu
new species, Callantra formosan (renamed Dacus formosanus), Dacus formosanus
1
0
0
0
0
0
  
The agrochemicals handbook.
Royal Society of Chemistry, Nottingham, England
Hartley D.;Kidd H.
0
0
0
0
0
0
  
The agrochemicals handbook.
Royal Society of Chemistry, Nottingham, England
Hartley D.; Kidd H.
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Utilization of irradiated sperm from successive matings by the mold mite (Acari: Acaridae).
Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol.76, No.4, pp.683-686,
The results indicate that the sterile-male release method\r\n is not feasible for the control of the mite.Untreated females that were crossed with males exposed to \r\n gamma-radiation at doses of 60, 80 or 100 krad laid only a few \r\n eggs during the initial days of oviposition and stopped \r\n producing eggs thereafter.
Ignatowicz, S.; Boczek, J.; Davis, R.; Bruce, W. A
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Radiosensitivity of cultured insect cells: II. Diptera
Radiat. Res. (Oct 1983). v. 96(1) p. 127-134
The radiosensitivity of five dipteran cell lines representing three mosquito genera and one fruit fly genus were examined. These lines are: (1) ATC-10, Aedes aegypti. (2) RU-TAE-14, Toxorhynchites amboinensis. (3) RU-ASE-2A, Anopheles stephensi. (4) WR69-DM-1, Drosophila melanogaster. And (5) WR69-DM-2, Drosophila melanogaster. Population doubling times for these lines range from approximately 16 to 48 hr. Diploid chromosome numbers are six for the mosquito cells and eight for the fruit fly cells. D0 values are 5.1 and 6.5 Gy for the Drosophila cell lines and 3.6, 6.2, and 10.2 Gy for the mosquito cell lines. The results of this study demonstrate that dipteran insect cells are a few times more resistant to radiation than mammalian cells, but not nearly as radioresistant as lepidopteran cells.
Koval T.M.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Radiosensitivity of cultured insect cells: II. Diptera
Radiat. Res. (Oct 1983). v. 96(1) p. 127-134
The results of this study demonstrate that dipteran insect cells are a few times more resistant to radiation than mammalian cells, but not nearly as radioresistant as lepidopteran cells. The radiosensitivity of five dipteran cell lines representing three mosquito genera and one fruit fly genus were examined. These lines are: (1) ATC-10, Aedes aegypti. (2) RU-TAE-14, Toxorhynchites amboinensis. (3) RU-ASE-2A, Anopheles stephensi. (4) WR69-DM-1, Drosophila melanogaster. And (5) WR69-DM-2, Drosophila melanogaster. Population doubling times for these lines range from approximately 16 to 48 hr. Diploid chromosome numbers are six for the mosquito cells and eight for the fruit fly cells D0 values are 5.1 and 6.5 Gy for the Drosophila cell lines and 3.6, 6.2, and 10.2 Gy for the mosquito cell lines.
Koval, T.M.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The effect of gamma rays on the gonads of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin)
): Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Relat. Stud. Phys., Chem. Med. (Feb 1983). v. 43(2) p. 169-173
): Pupae of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin) 1 to 2 days before adult emergence were irradiated with the suitable sterilizing dose of 80 Gy gamma rays. At intervals of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after adult emergence, anatomical and biometrical studies were performed to determine the extent of recovery of D. oleae gonads during one month of adult life. There were some indications of gonad recovery after two weeks. This recovery was observed as a decrease in the percentage deviation from the corresponding controls of 20-day-old adult gonad (especially those of males). Generally, female gonads are more sensitive to gamma-rays than those of males. (author)
Shehata N.F.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Histopathological effects of X-irradiation on the ovaries of the red cotton bug, Dysdercus koenigii Fabr. (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae).
Entomon, 1983, 8(.3) 277-286,
Histopathological effects of treatment of 5th- instars of Dysdercus koenigii with X-rays at a sterilizing dose of 2 krad are described. Follicular epithelia of the oocytes exhibited different responses\r to radiation\r
Srivastava, K. P.; Deshpande, D. J.
Dysdercus koenigii, red cotton bug, Malvaceae, cotton
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Induction and isolation of translocations in Anopheles stephensi.
Mosquito-News., 43: 4, 480-483
Males of Anopheles stephensi List. were treated with X-rays at 3.5 and 5.0 krad to induce chromosomal aberrations. Late embryonic lethality (scored as dark brown eggs) gave a good indication of the presence of translocations. From meiotic analysis of 90 out of 129 families of backcrossed F1 individuals with a sterility of above 30%, the reciprocal translocations T(Y;2)1, T(2;3)2 and T(Y;3)3 were isolated\r
Heemert-C-van; Ta-T; Robinson-AS; Feldmann-AM; Van-Heemert-C
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
[Distribution of the points of breaks in radiation-induced chromosome rearrangements along the polytene chromosomes of Anopheles messeae].
Genetika ;19(9):1457-62
\r\r[Article in Russian]\r\r\r\rDistribution of 431 rearrangement breaks induced by X-ray treatment in polytene\rchromosomes of Anopheles messeae was studied. No differences were revealed in\rthe distribution pattern of inversion and translocation breaks. The frequency\rboth of inversion and translocation breaks is much greater in the distal parts\rof autosomes than in the proximal ones. Within autosomes, breaks are grouped in\ra number of subdivisions. The points of breaks are Non-randomly distributed. The\rcauses for this non-randomness are discussed.\r
Pleshkova GN.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
[Quantitative dose-effect relationships of the mutagenic action of X-rays on the sex cells of the malaria mosquito Anopheles messeae].
Genetika ;19(8):1233-7
Inseminated females of Anopheles messeae were irradiated by X-rays (1.2 and 3\rkR). Estimation of mutagenic effect on the embryonic (dominant lethals) and the\rpostembryonic (chromosomal rearrangements) stages of the development of the F1\roffspring is presented. The frequency of dominant lethals varies in accordance\rwith the dosage and the stage of maturity of oocytes. The embryonic lethality\rdepends on induced defects of female sex cells. The frequency of chromosomal\rrearrangements increases to 3.2, 11.6 and 18.2%. It is suggested that the\raberrations are formed by spermatozoa chromosomes, but not by those of oocytes.\r
Pleshkova GN,; Plevako NG.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sexual selection and mating behavior of normal and irradiated oriental fruit flies.
Cavalloro-R (ed.). Fruit flies of economic importance. Proceedings of the CEC-IOBC International Symposium, Athens, Greece, 16-19 November 1982. 439-444. A.A. Balkema; Rotterdam; Netherlands
The fruit pest Dacus dorsalis Hend. was reared on an artificial diet in the laboratory in Taiwan and some pupae were treated with gamma -radiation at 1300 rad. Sexual maturation occurred from the 4th day after adult emergence in both treated and untreated flies. Mating reached a peak in 8 days in treated flies and 9 days in untreated ones. Mating frequency was higher in untreated than in treated flies. Mating generally began at 17.00 h daily and increased in frequency rapidly from 17.00 to 19.00 h; few matings were added by the end of daylight at about 20.00 h. Courtship and mating behaviour were the same for treated and untreated flies. There was partial selection of normal males for irradiated females, with an isolation index of 0.049.
Lee-LWY; Chang-TH; Tsang-CK
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Genetic studies on fruitflies of economic importance.
Cavalloro-R (ed.). Fruit flies of economic importance. Proceedings of the CEC-IOBC International Symposium, Athens, Greece, 16-19 November 1982, 139-147; A.A. Balkema; Rotterdam; Netherlands
The topics discussed in this review of studies on fruit-flies of economic importance (including Anastrepha suspensa (Lw.), A. ludens (Lw.), Dacus oleae (Gmel.), D. cucurbitae Coq., Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)) include the founding and maintenance of laboratory colonies, strain improvement for the sterile-insect technique of control, the genetics of field populations, genetics in relation to sex separation, genetic methods of pest control, fundamental genetics and cytogenetics, and priorities for future research.\r
Wood-RJ
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Biotechnical methods for the management of fruit fly populations.
Cavalloro-R (ed.)Fruit flies of economic importance. Proceedings of the CEC-IOBC International Symposium, Athens, Greece, 16-19 November 1982. 342-352,A.A. Balkema; Rotterdam; Netherlands
The topics discussed in this review of biotechnical methods for the management of fruit-fly populations include attractants and trapping systems (especially against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), Dacus oleae (Gmel.) and Rhagoletis cerasi (L.)), repellents, insect growth regulators, the sterile insect technique (especially against D. cucurbitae Coq., C. capitata and R. cerasi), cytoplasmic incompatibility and (in Anastrepha suspensa (Lw.)) host-plant chemicals killing fruit-fly larvae in citrus.\r
Boller-EF
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Biological and biochemical parameters of the olive fruit fly with reference to larval nutritional ecology.
Cavalloro-R (ed.). Fruit flies of economic importance. Proceedings of the CEC-IOBC International Symposium, Athens, Greece, 16-19 November 1982. 410-415
Evidence is presented that differences in the biological and chemical parameters of populations of the olive pest Dacus oleae (Gmel.) reared in the laboratory in Greece for the sterile-insect technique of control and the same parameters in wild insects could be mainly a consequence of differences in the larval food. Laboratory-reared sterilised insects failed to afford satisfactory control in the field.\r
Manoukas-AG
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sexual and reproductive maturation in wild and lab cultured olive fruit flies Dacus oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Cavalloro-R (ed.). Fruit flies of economic importance. Proceedings of the CEC-IOBC International Symposium, Athens, Greece, 16-19 November 1982. 429-438;
Adults in laboratory cultures of the olive pest Dacus oleae (Gmel.) in the laboratory in Greece were able to mate 3-5 days after emergence, as compared with 4-15 days for adults collected from infested fruit in the field. No differences were found in laboratory strains after rearing for 10, 60 or 120 generations, but treatment with gamma -radiation at 11 kr in an atmosphere of nitrogen delayed mating by 1-2 days. In all categories of flies tested, males matured 1-2 days earlier than females. Adults fed only on sucrose matured at the same time as those fed on a complete adult diet. Studies on ovarian development showed that in laboratory-reared females the eggs matured 4-6 days after emergence, as compared with 6-17 days for wild females. Mature eggs were seen in the ovaries 1-2 days after mating, and oviposition began immediately after egg maturation. Virgin females began oviposition at the same time as mated ones, the only difference being in the numbers of eggs laid.\r
Zervas-GA
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Variations in the course of the year in the production of Dacus oleae in the laboratory: analysis and attempts at interpretation.
Actas del I Congreso Iberico de Entomologia, Leon. Celebracion conjunta del III Congreso Internacional da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia y de las VI Jornadas de la Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia. Facultad de Biologia, Leon, 7 al 10 Junio de 1983.389-397.Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Leon; Leon; Spain
Dacus oleae (Gmel.) is reared in the laboratory in Portugal for use in sterile-insect release programmes for its control on olive. Seasonal variations noted in the productivity of the standard mass-rearing programme over some 120 generations were investigated, using a population derived from a Greek laboratory strain and one derived from a wild strain collected in Oeiras, Portugal. Two peaks of productivity were detected: 1 in late summer or early autumn and the other, somewhat smaller, in late winter or early spring. Possible explanations are discussed.\r
Lioselle-R;Silva-GM;Magalhaes-Silva-G
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
International Plant Quarantine Treatment Manual
FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 50, FAO, Rome 220 pp.
FAO manual.
Karpati IF;Schotman CY;Zammarano KA
Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
The effect of gamma rays on the gonads of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin)
Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Relat. Stud. Phys., Chem. Med. (Feb 1983). v. 43(2) p. 169-173
Pupae of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin) 1 to 2 days before adult emergence were irradiated with the suitable \r sterilizing dose of 80 Gy gamma rays. At intervals of 5, 10, 15, 20, \r 25 and 30 days after adult emergence, anatomical and biometrical \r studies were performed to determine the extent of recovery of D. \r oleae gonads during one month of adult life. There were some \r indications of gonad recovery after two weeks. This recovery was \r observed as a decrease in the percentage deviation from the \r corresponding controls of 20-day-old adult gonad (especially those \r of males). Generally, female gonads are more sensitive to gamma-rays \r than those of males. (author)\r
Shehata, N.F.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Strategies for maximizing the potential of the sterile insect release method: experiments with Dacus tryoni.
Fruit flies of economic importance. Proceedings of the CEC-IOBC International Symposium, Athens, Greece, 16-19 November 1982, 371-377; Cavalloro-R (ed.), A.A. Balkema; Rotterdam; Netherlands
\r\r\r
Meats-A
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sterilization of fully grown pupae of the rice weevil with gamma radiation and its effect on mating competitiveness
Egypt. J. Radiat. Sci. Appl. (1984). v. 1(2) p. 191-196
When fully grown pupae of sitophilus oryzae I were treated with 8 K.rad, the resulting adults were sterile when they were paired with untreated opposite sex. A ratio of 1:1 irradiated males: unirradiated males and unirradiated females resulted in 53.7% adult emergence. Ratios of irradiated to unirradiated males of 5:1 or 10:1 produced 14.9 and 5.8% adult emergence, respectively. Thus, irradiated males were competitive with the 1st ratio, and fully competitive with the other ratios. When both irradiated males and females were placed with untreated males and females to give ratios in the sequence of 1:1:1, 5:5:1, 10:10:1:1: or 15:15:1:1 the percentages of adult emergence were 48.9,7.5,4.7 and 2.4%, respectively. The percentage of the actual adult emergence was more than the expected adult emergence for all ratios used. The competitiveness value (CV) for the 1st ratio was 0.65 (i.e. sterile adults were not competitive with normal adults). The percent of F1 adults from fertile pairs (0:0:1:1) decreased from 100 to 48.9 at 1:1:1:1 (Tables 2). Generally, competitiveness values for irradiated adults increased with an increasing ratio of irradiated to unirradiated adults. The competitiveness was good at all but the lowest ratio
Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; El-Kady, E.A.; Salem, Y.S.; Hsaballa, Z.A
Sterility SITS itophilus oryzae
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Releasae of sterile Mexican fruit flies for the control of feral population in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas and Mexico
J. Rio Grande Valley Hort. Soc. 37: 113- 121
Holler T.C.; Davidson J.L.; Suarez A.; Garcia R.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
An eradication program of the oriental fruit fly Dacus dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), in the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands. I. Eradication field test using a sterile fly release method on small islets.
Applied-Entomology-and-Zoology. 19: 1, 1-7
To confirm the effectiveness of the sterile fly release method for the eradication of Dacus dorsalis Hend., control by this method was attempted on a group of small islets (total area about 6.5 km2) known as the Muko Jima Group of the Ogasawara Islands (Bonin Islands), Japan. About 3 million pupae that had been sterilized by exposure to a split dose of radiation (5kR 3 days before adult emergence and 4 kR 2 days before it) were released per month from May to Septemer 1978. The ratio of marked to unmarked flies caught in monitoring traps baited with methyl eugenol and naled was 26.27:1 in June and increased rapidly to 299:1 four months after the first release. Only 1 female of D. dorsalis was reared from 2088 host fruits collected in Muko Jima in August 1978, and no fly was recovered from 15 000 such fruits subsequently examined.\r
Habu-N;Iga-M; Numazawa-K
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effect of gamma irradiation on the laboratory strain of oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) in nitrogen.
Bulletin-of-the-Institute-of-Zoology,-Academia-Sinica. 23: 2, 193-197
In tests in Taiwan, pupae of Dacus dorsalis were exposed 1-2 days before adult emergence to doses of 15, 17, 19 or 21 krad gamma radiation in nitrogen or 13 krad in air. No significant differences were observed between the treatments in terms of the percentage adult emergence or level of sterility (99.83-100%). Mortality was significantly higher after exposure to 21 krad in nitrogen than after the other treatments. Males resulting from pupae exposed to 15 krad in nitrogen were signficantly more competitive than those exposed to 13 krad in air and were fully competitive with normal males.\r
Chang-TH;Lee-WY
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Irradiation in the production processing and handling of food
Federal Register. 49: 5714-5722.
Food and Drug Administration
Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Comparison of composition of the larval food of the olive fruit fly in nature and in the laboratory.
Mededelingen-van-de-Faculteit-Landbouwwetenschappen,-Rijksuniversiteit-Gent. , 49: 3a, 643-650
Populations of insect pests reared in the laboratory for use in sterile-male or other control techniques often fail to behave in the same way, or are not as physically fit, as their wild-type counterparts. The possibility that this could be caused by differing chemical compositions of the laboratory and wild insects, resulting from their different diets, led in Greece to the comparative chemical analysis of olive fruits and of an artificial rearing medium consumed by wild and laboratory larval populations, respectively, of Dacus oleae. Important chemical differences were found between the 2 diet types, especially in the content of the amino acids arginine, histidine, lysine and threonine and also in the mineral content; their possible effect on the quality of the insects reared on them are discussed.\r
Manoukas-AG
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Alternative to the use of probit 9 mortality as a criterion for quarantine treatments of fruit fly infested fruit
Journal Economic Entomology 77: 285-287.
Problems with the use of a probit 9 mortality rate as a criterion for quarantine disinfestation treatments for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are discussed. We recommend that a maximum infestation level in shipped fruit be set (as an acceptable risk limit) and that this infestation level be used as the criterion for quarantined fruit. The infestation level should be set based on calculations of the probability of a mating pair surviving a shipment.
Landolt PJ;Chambers DL;Chew V
Tephritid, Probit 9, disinfestation alternatives, Irradiation
1
1
0
0
1
0
  
Control of fruit flies by sterile insect technique. I. Population fluctuation studies of oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel and Dacus zonatus Saunders) and micro climates at Royal Ang Khang Highland Research Station Chiang Mai
Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok . Report Dec 1984. 15 p
The studies of population fluctuation of male \r oriental fruit fly, (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and [Dacus zontanus \r (Saunders)] and micro climate at Royal Ang Khang Highland Research \r Station Chiang Mai in 1983 were conducted. It was found that \r population of Dacus zonatus was rather high and almost seemed equal \r to that of Dacus dorsalis. Population of these two species increased \r at the beginning of February. Population of Dacus zonatus increased \r rapidly and reached the peak in the middle of May and of June. The \r number at peaks were 103 males and 87 males/trap/day respectively. \r However, the population of Dacus dorsalis increased slowly and \r followed the pattern of Dacus zonatus until the beginning of June, \r after that, the population increased rapidly and reached the peak in \r the middle of July. The number at peak was 240 males/trap/day. Later \r on they dropped rapidly in the middle of August, then the population \r of the two species fluctuated together. Finally they decreased down \r to near zero in November, December and January of the following \r year. In summary, population density of the said two species adult \r flies were rather high from the end of winter (the beginning of \r February) to the middle of raining season (July) and this period \r coincided with the time of fruit development in many introduced \r varieties (peach, persimmon, apple, pear and plum)\r
Chiravathanapong S.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Possible development of radiation resistance in Latheticus oryzae (Waterh.) following exposures of successive generations to ionizing radiation
Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. (Jun 1985). v. 36(6) p. 495-496
Studies on the possible development of radiation resistance in Latheticus oryzae following exposures of its successive generations to ionizing radiation were conducted. The productivity of the irradiated insects decreased with the increase of dose. Experiments with the sixth generation adults of the selected and parent strains showed no significant increase in their estimated LD<SUB>50</SUB>''s (P > 0.05). (author)
Matin, A.S.M.A.; Howlader, A.J
Latheticus oryzae, longheaded flour beetle
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effect of gamma irradiation on the long headed flour beetle Latheticus oryzae
Miscellaneous,1985 110 p
The application of gamma radiation for controlling insects infesting grain and grain products appears promising and has some advantages over conventional insect control methods. The results arrived at from these studies could be summarized in the following points: A- Effect of gamma irradiation on the different developmental stages of L. oryzae.B-Effect of gamma irradiation on mating competitiveness.C- The effect of gamma radiation on restoration of sperm viability
Ahmed, Z.A
Latheticus oryzae, longheaded flour beetle
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Population fluctuations of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel in relation to hosts and abiotic factors
International Journal of Pest Management, 1366-5863, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 273 ? 275
Studies of population fluctuations of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, were conducted in two guava orchards from January 1980 to December 1981 using methyl eugenol traps. Three distinct population peaks were recorded in March/April, May/June and September/October during both years. These peaks coincided with the ripening of guava and mango fruits which are the major hosts of D. dorsalis. Abiotic factors also played an important role in regulating the fly population. Trap catches were significantly and positively correlated with maximum and minimum temperatures, day degrees (or thermal units) and maximum relative humidity. Trap catches were significantly and negatively correlated with minimum relative humidity. The placement of fruit fly traps in different directions and positions in orchards had no apparent effect on the catches of flies. However, traps placed in the edges of the orchards caught significantly higher numbers of flies than traps placed in the centre.
Shukla R. P. ;V. G. Prasad
Entomology, abiotic, biotic
0
1
0
0
0
0
  
TitleTestTWD
sourceTWD
abstractTWD
authorsTWD
keywordsTWD
0
0
0
0
0
0
  
Gamma irradiation of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): effects of puparial age under induced hypoxia on female sterility.
Annals of the Entomological Society of America 78: 101-106.
Williamson, D. L., S. Mitchell, and S. T. Seo..
Tephritidae SIT irradiation
1
1
1
1
1
0
  
Effect of gamma radiation on Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Fumouze and Robin) and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Troupeau) (Acari:Acaridae).
Journal of Entomological Science, Vol.20, No.1, pp.115-120
Doses of more than or equal to 40 krad completely \r\n inhibited egg development. Eggs of A. ovatus were more \r\n resistant to irradiation than those of R. echinopus. The effect\r\n of irradiation on the inert deutonymphs was more detrimental \r\n than that on young adults. The effect of irradiation on female \r\n lifespan of both species was stimulatory at doses of >60 krad \r\n and inhibitory at higher doses. Treatment at 5 krad caused at least a 50% \r\n reduction in the fecundity of both mite species.
Boczek, J.;Jaminska, D.; Bruce, W. A.;Davis, R
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Environ. Entomol. (Dec 1985). v. 14(6) vp
In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion.
Galun, R.; Gothilf, S.; Blondheim, S.; Sharp, J.L.; Mazor, M.; Lachman, A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
: Histopathological effects of X-irradiation on the testes of the red cotton bug, Dysdercus koenigii Fabr. (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae).
Entomon, 1985, 10,(2).145-149
When nymphs of the pyrrhocorid Dysdercus koenigii were exposed to 4 krad X-irradiation as 5th instars the testes of adult males became completely dystrophied and non-functional by 20 days after emergence.
Srivastava, K. P.; Deshpande, D. J.; Katiyar, R. L
Dysdercus koenigii, red cotton bug, Malvaceae, cotton
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Radiation-induced inversions and reciprocal translocations in Anopheles atroparvus.
Sov-Genet. New York, N.Y. : Consultants Bureau. Dec 1984 (pub. 1985). v. 20 (12) p. 1616-1621
During a laboratory study in the USSR, inversions and reciprocal translocations were induced in a line of Anopheles atroparvus by treatment of males with X-rays. The 22 resulting aberrations were identified as 6 paracentric and 6 pericentric inversions and 10 reciprocal translocations (9 autosomal and 1 sex-linked). Partial sterility was demonstrated in the offspring of this line. The practical importance of creating lines with inversions and translocations for the genetic control of insect pests is discussed.\rPT: Journal-article\r
Pleshkova,-G.N.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The potential of irradiation treatment for insects infesting stored-food commodities
Radiation Disinfestation of Food and Agricultural Products (Proceedings Conference Honolulu, 1983) (Moy, J..H., Ed.) University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu) pp75-86.
Recently, questions regarding the safety of chemical treatments for quarantine purposes have led to renewed interest in the use of radiation disinfestation as a quarantine treatment. Many species of stored-product pests are cosmopolitan, but other serious pests such as the khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium), the larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus), and various species of legume weevils (Bruchidae) are not. Irradiation has been proposed as a possible quarantine treatment for various species of fruit flies, mango weevil, and codling moth but not for stored-product pests. However, irradiation has good potential for control of these pests, especially since the radlosensitivity of many of them is well documented. Irradiation is an approved method of direct control for stored-product insects in wheat and wheat flour in many countries, and indications are that it will soon be approved for all grain, grain products, and other dry food commodities. Radiation doses required to kill or sterilize the most important storage pests in all stages are known, and these data can be used to calculate the required doses for quarantine treatments. Traditional quarantine treatments are designed to produce rapid mortality, but irradiation is only minimally effective in this regard. However, irradiation is very effective in preventing insect development and in producing sterility. A detailed analysis of the radlosensitivity of stored-product insects shows that different groups of pests have very different sensitivities and that quarantine doses can be tailored to kill or sterilize the species of quarantine concern. The bruchids or legume weevils are the most sensitive of the storage pests, followed closely by the true weevils that infest grain. The sensitivity of most of the other grain pests are as follows: the cucujids and tenebrionids are intermediate in sensitivity; the anobiids, dermestids, and ptinids are increasingly more resistant. However, all of these species are easily sterilized by doses well below the present 500 Gy maximum recommended dose. Stored-product Lepidoptera are resistant to the sterilizing effects of irradiation, and doses greater than 500 Gy may be required to sterilize a population. Irradiation shows great potential as a quarantine treatment for selected species of stored- product pests. Doses can be chosen that kill or sterilize problem or quarantined species, or doses can be increased to control all species commonly found infesting a given commodity. However, for greatest cost-effectiveness, quarantine regulations would have to be rewritten to accept live but sterile insects in irradiated commodities.
Brower JH;Tilton EW
disinfestation;Stored product insects;Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Ionising treatment of food - disinfestation entomology
Proceedings Regional Workshop on Commercialisation of Ionising Energy Treatment of Food, Lucas Heights, 1985, Australian Atomic Energy Commission, Lucas Heights, New South Wales, Lecture 11.
Shipp E
Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Use of Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Agricultural Commodities
Final Report Consultants Group Meeting, Honolulu, 1983, IAEA-TECDOC-326, IAEA, Vienna, 66 pp.
Report of meeting of group of consultants on irradiation as a quarantine treatment
International Atomic Energy Agency
Irradiation
1
1
0
0
1
0
  
Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods, CAC/Vol. XV-ED. 1
Food Irradiation: Some Regulatory and Technical Aspects. Report FAO/IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Regulatory and Technological Requirements for Authorization of the Food Irradiation Process, Vienna, 1984, IAEA-TECDOC-349, IAEA, Vienna pp104-107 and 108-118.
A Codex Standard.\r\nCodex General Standard for Irradiated Foods, CAC/Vol. XV-ED. 1, Codex Stan 106-1983, Issued by the Secretariat of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, and Recommended \r\n\r\nInternational Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods, CAC/Vol. XV-ED. 1, CACIRCP 19-1979 (Rev. 1), Issued by the Secretariat of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme
Codex Alimentarius Commission
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
TOXNET. National library of medicine's toxicology data network. Hazardous Substances Databank.
Public Health Service. National Institute of Healtyh. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Bethesda, MD, USA
Anon.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Radiation Disinfestation of Food and Agricultural Products
Proceedings Conference, Honolulu, 1983. University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 424 pp.
Proceedings of conference. Multiple papers by authors.
Moy JH
Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Studies on the use of radio isotopes for the control of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F. by the sterile insect technique1. Preliminary investigations on the detection of radio labeled weevils.
Cocos, 4:11-17.
if you have an abstract of this work, please send to bakri@ucam.ac.ma
Kloft, W.J., E.S. Kloft, P. Kanagaratnam, P. and J.L.J.G. Pinto
red palm wheevil
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Studies on the use of radioisotopes for the control of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F. by the sterile male insect techniques.
Cocos. 4:19-22.
If you do have an abstract of this work, please send to bakri@ucam.ac.ma
Kloft, W.J., J. Koerner and E. Wolfram.
Red palm weevils
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol II, 1986
Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, ISBN 0-683-07893-3
eds. Sneath;Mair;Sharpe;Holt
Bergey, Manual
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology
Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, ISBN 0-683-07893-3
eds. Sneath;Mair;Sharpe;Holt
Bergey, Manual
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation Dosimetry
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1986
ATTIX, F.H.,
Rontgen definition and conversion
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of accelerated electrons on the reproduction of the mold mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acarida: Acaridae).
Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, E (Ochrona Roslin), Vol.16, No.2, pp.17-26,
In a laboratory study in Poland, fecundity, egg viability and \r\n productivity of the stored products pest Tyrophagus \r\n putrescentiae were shown to be greatly reduced by accelerated \r\n electrons at doses of 5 krad and higher. Females were more \r\n susceptible to irradiation than males. The lowest dosage which \r\n did not result in a recovery of fertility and productivity was \r\n 40 krad. The sperm or oocytes of mites on the day of \r\n irradiation were more susceptible to accelerated electrons than\r\n the cells that produced gamates during the 3rd or 4th week \r\n after treatment. The cells of reproductive tissue of \r\n deutonymphs were more resistant to treatment than the gametes \r\n of adults. The sterilant effect of accelerated electrons \r\n appeared to be similar to that of gamma radiation.
Ignatowicz, S.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Laboratory and field studies with 32P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus
J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. (Dec 1986). v. 2(4) p. 474-477
Females and eggs of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus were labeled with 32P by feeding fourth-stage larvae 32P labeled Aedes aegypti larvae. Eggs from females up to 3 weeks in age had detectable levels of radioactivity and individual eggs contained ca. 0.3% of the mother''s total radioactivity. Comparisons of labeled and unlabeled females in indoor and outdoor cage tests indicated that survival and fecundity of the 2 groups were approximately equal. No differences were noted for dispersal and fecundity of labeled and control females released in field tests. The 32P-labeled Tx. r. rutilus females behave similarly to unlabeled females, and this method of radiolabeling provides a sound tool for tracking laboratory-reared females released into an area with an indigenous population
Smittle, B.J.;Focks, D.A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Task force meeting on irradiation as a quarantine treatment
Report of a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. "IAEA, Vienna. "
Anonymous
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Penetration of various packing polymer films by certain stored grain insects.
Med. Fac. Landbouww. Rijksuniv. Gent, 51/3b, 1261-1266.
El-Kady, E.A.; and Hekal, A.M.
packaging
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Possibilities for irradiation to control insects and mites in cut flowers after harvest
Irradiation as a Quarantine Disinfestation Treatment, Unpublished Report to the 1st Meeting of the Co-ordinated Research Project, Chiang Mai, IAEA Vienna 1986.
Wit AKH;De Vrie M
Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for walnuts infested with codling moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
Journal Economic Entomology. 79: 1577-1579.
Irradiation may be a potential quarantine treatment for either diapausing or nondiapausing codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae in walnuts. Exposure of larvae to 51.9 Gy from a 60Co source significantly reduced emergence of normal adults. The dose required for quarantine security (99.9968% mortality) was 230 Gy based on emergence of adults from treated larvae. Normal adults did not emerge from larvae exposed to 177 Gy in walnuts.
Burditt AK Jr
disinfestation, walnuts, Codling moth, Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for ''Granny Smith'' apples infested with Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.) (light- brown apple moth) stages
Irradiation as a Quarantine Disinfestation Treatment, Report to the 1st Meeting of the Co-ordinated Research Project, Chiang Mai,
Batchelor TA;O''Donnell RL;Roby JJ
disinfestation, light brown apple moth, apples, Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Effects of gamma radiation on fruit flies pupae, Dacus dorsalis Hendel and Dacus zonatus (Saunders)
Nuclear science and technology conference. Bangkok (Thailand). 8-11 Apr 1986 Proceedings of the first nuclear science and technology conference no. 1. Nuclear science and its application. 1986. 318 p.
The 1, 3, 6, 8-day-old (+-4 hr) and 1, 3, 6,\r7-day-old (+-4 hr) pupae of Dacus dorsalis Hendel and Dacus zonatus(Saunders) were irradiated in air with gamma rays from cobalt-60 source. The results showed that the LD50 and LD95 for 1, 3, 6 and\r8-day-old (+-4 hr) D. dorsalis pupae were 18.6, 29.9, 3.11, 560.7\rand 36.7, 72.9, 621.4, 884.6 Gray respectively. The LD50 and LD95\rfor 1, 3, 6 and 7-day-old (+-4 hr) D. zonatus pupae were 8.88, 25.3,\r226.6, 546.6 and 16, 75.2, 427.5, 958.4 Gray respectively. Radiation\rdose at 90.3 and 89.7 Gray sterilized 100% D. dorsalis and D.\rzonatus males emerged from pupae 2 days before emergence\rrespectively. In addition, D. dorsalis and D. zonatus females\remerged from pupae irradiated at 60 and 40 Gray were unable to lay\reggs respectively\r
Kaochong P.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment
Proceedings International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation, Task Force Meeting, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 1986, IAEA, Vienna,
Report of a task force meeting on irradiation as a quarantine treatment.
International Atomic Energy Agency
Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Some analytical models for biotechnical methods of pest control.
Mangel-M (ed.); Carey-JR (ed.); Plant-RE. Pest-control:-operations-and-systems-analysis-in-fruit-fly-management. , 437-444
A review of some simple analytical models for pest control is presented. The sterile-insect release method is considered in some detail, and models are also discussed for the release of sex pheromones to attract and kill insects. It is shown how these models apply to the control of tephritids (especially Ceratitis capitata, Dacus cucurbitae and D. oleae), and new models appropriate to this control are suggested.\r
Driessche-P-van-den
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effect of photoperiods and photointensities on the mass rearing of the olive fruit fly dacus oleae Gmel. (Diptera - Tephritidae)
Egyptian Journal of Radiation Sciences and Applications (1986). (1989). v. 4(2). p. 159-168
The highest mean egg production was produced by \r females exposed to a photoperiod of 20 hr. On the other hand, the \r lowest one was obtained when the females were exposed only to a \r photoperiod of 4 hr. The highest percent hatchability was obtained \r when the females were exposed to a photoperiod of 16 hr whereas the \r lowest one was obtained when a photoperiod of 8 hr was applied. \r Adult males exposed to a photoperiod of 16 hr had the longest mean \r life span, whereas the shortest one was recorded when a photoperiod \r of 20 hr was applied. Adult females that were exposed to a \r photoperiod of 16 hr had the longest mean life span, whereas the \r shortest one was recorded when females were exposed to a photo \r period of 4 hr\r
Roushdy, M.M. Abdel-Rahman, M.A. El-Moursy, A.A. A
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effect of different oviposition media and number of matings on the mass rearing of the olive Fruit Fly Dacus Oleae Gmel(Diptera Tephritidae)
Egyptian Journal of Radiation Sciences and Applications (1986). (1989). v. 4(2). p. 169-178
The highest average egg of female dacus oleae was obtained when the texwax domes m.p. 121 degree C were used together with G.G.M. as oviposition medium, whereas the lowest mean was obtained when the paraffin mixture domes used. Using the texwax domes as a new oviposition medium was superior to either the G.G.M.or the paraffin mixture. The optimum percent hatchability was recorded when the G.G.M., texwax and paraffin mixture were used together as oviposition media, where the lowest percent hatchability was recorded when the G.G.M. was used only as oviposition medium. The longest oviposition duration was recorded when using the G.G.M. whereas the shortest duration occurred when the paraffin mixture was used. The highest rate of egg production was obtained by the twice mated females, whereas the lowest rate was obtained by the virgin ones. Also the percent hatchability recorded was higher in case of the twice-mated females than in females mated once
El-Moursy, A.A. Roushdy, H.M. Abdel-Rahman, A.M. A
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Quarantine treatment of fruit fly, Dacus zonatus
Miscellaneous: 1. Nuclear science and technology conference. Bangkok (Thailand). 8-11 Apr 1986
Study on the utilization of both irradiated and \r non-irradiated sludges and waste waster as alternative fertilizer \r for morning glory was conducted. Korat Soli and Kui-Pai soil sets \r were used. This experiment was conducted at the Office of Atomic \r Energy for Peace during July to August 1983 by completely randomized \r design. The total of 6 treatments was consisted of 1 check without \r fertilizer and 5 fertilizers which are urea (46%N), irradiated and \r non-irradiated waste waters and irradiated and non-irradiated \r sludge. One liter of irradiated and non-irradiated waste water, urea \r solution (16 grams in 10 liters of water), irradiated and \r non-irradiated sludge (sludge:soil =1:7) were added to the soil. The \r height of morning glory at 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, and 32 days after \r planting were recorded. Plants grown on both irradiated and \r non-irradiated sludges were taller than those grown on soil with \r other fertilizers and check. Fresh and dry top weight of morning \r glory grown on irradiated and non-irradiated sludges were heavier \r than those grown on other fertilizers and check. Furthermore, it was \r also found that the growth rate of the top was greater than the \r root. In contrast, there is no significant difference between \r irradiated and non-irradiated sludges for using as fertilizer. It is \r concluded that irradiated sludge can be used as alternative source \r of fertilizer\r
Sutantawong, M. Segsarnviriya, S. Luangapichaikul,
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma radiation on fruit flies pupae, Dacus dorsalis Hendel and Dacus zonatus (Saunders)
Miscellaneous: 1. Nuclear science and technology conference. Bangkok (Thailand). 8-11 Apr 1986. 318p [10]
The 1, 3, 6, 8-day-old (+-4 hr) and 1, 3, 6, \r 7-day-old (+-4 hr) pupae of Dacus dorsalis Hendel and Dacus zonatus \r (Saunders) were irradiated in air with gamma rays from cobalt-60 \r source. The results showed that the LD50 and LD95 for 1, 3, 6 and \r 8-day-old (+-4 hr) D. dorsalis pupae were 18.6, 29.9, 3.11, 560.7 \r and 36.7, 72.9, 621.4, 884.6 Gray respectively. The LD50 and LD95 \r for 1, 3, 6 and 7-day-old (+-4 hr) D. zonatus pupae were 8.88, 25.3, \r 226.6, 546.6 and 16, 75.2, 427.5, 958.4 Gray respectively. Radiation \r dose at 90.3 and 89.7 Gray sterilized 100% D. dorsalis and D. \r zonatus males emerged from pupae 2 days before emergence \r respectively. In addition, D. dorsalis and D. zonatus females \r emerged from pupae irradiated at 60 and 40 Gray were unable to lay \r eggs respectively
Kaochong, P
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Preliminary study of utilization of irradiated sludge and wastewater as fertilizer
Miscellaneous: 1. Nuclear science and technology conference. Bangkok (Thailand). 8-11 Apr 1986. 318p. [5p.]
The fruit fly, Dacus zonatus (Saunders) is a major \r pest of fruits in Thailand. The problem of ethylene dibromide (EDB) \r fumigant ban for disinfestation of fruit flies in fresh fruits and \r injury to many fruits by cold storage have led to interest in the \r use of gamma irradiation for disinfecting export commodities. The \r purposes of this experiment are to determine the optimum dose of \r radiation for disinfestation of fruit fly, D. zonatus eggs and \r larvae in Hom Tong banana, Nang Klangwan mango and papaya. The \r results of this experiment are as follows: 1) The LD50 for \r 20-hour-old eggs in banana, mango and papaya at 3 days after \r irradiation were 0.17, 0.15 and 0.14 kGy respectively. The dose of \r 0.3 kGy caused 100% mortality of eggs and larvae hatching from eggs \r irradiated at 0.05 and 0.15 kGy were unable to pupae and emerge as \r adults respectively, 2) the LD50 for 1-2-day-old larvae in banana, \r mango and papaya at 3 days after irradiation were 0.64, 0.47 and \r 0.49 kGy respectively. The dose of 0.6 and 0.3 kGy were required to \r prevent pupation and emergence respectively, 3) the LD50 for \r 3-4-day-old larvae in banana, mango and papaya at 3 days after \r irradiation were 1.0, 1.0 and 0.77 kGy respectively. The dose of 1.2 \r and 0.3 kGy were required to prevent pupation and emergence \r respectively\r
Piadang, S.;Worakij, S.;Pariyakanok, Ng.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sperm transfer of gamma irradiated male fruit fly Dacus zonatus (Saunders)
Miscellaneous: 1. Nuclear science and technology conference. Bangkok (Thailand). 8-11 Apr 1986. 318p. [5p.]
Sperm transfer of male fruit flies, Dacus zonatus \r (Saunders) emerged from 8-day-old pupae irradiated at 80 Gray were \r determined from amount of sperm in female spermatheca. The results \r showed that the amount of sperms of 10, 15 and 30-day-old sterilized \r males were not significant difference from normal males (P>0.05). \r However, the sperms of 20 and 25-day-old sterilized males were less \r numerous than these normal males (P<0.05)
Luangapichaikul, M. Sutantawong, M
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effect of gamma irradiation on sterilization, competitiveness and restoration of sperm viability of the long headed flour beetle Latheticus oryzae L
Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, Economic Series, 1987, No.16, pp.101-111,
AbdelRahman_AM,; AboulNasr_AE; Ahmed_MYY;Ahmed_ZA
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Gamma-irradiation effects on the larval stage of the long headed flour beetle Latheticus oryzae L
Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, Economic Series, 1987, No.16, pp.83-89
In the laboratory, mortality of gamma-radiation-treated larvae of Latheticus oryzae increased with increasing radiation dosage. Minimum doses of 9 and 10 krad were required for mortality of newly hatched and fully grown larvae, resp. Sublethal treatments extended the larval period and decreased the likelihood of successful development into adults. Fecundity and fertility were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Larval irradiation did not induce total sterility in surviving adults.
AbdelRahman_AM; AboulNasr_AE; Ahmed_MYY;Ahmed_ZA
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effect of gamma radiation on the adult stage of the granary
Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, Economic Series, 1987, No.16, pp.49-54
Older adults were more sensitive to the radiation than were young adults. The number of eggs laid by females was reduced by treatment, irrespective of whether the treated female mated with treated or untreated males. Treatment with 50 Gy of gamma radiation caused complete sterility, with females being more sensitive than males.
Ismail, I. I.; Eweiss, M. A.; Souka, S. R.; El-Degwy, M. S.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Production of semisterile mutants in the Anopheles gambiae s.l. species complex.
Iowa-State-Journal-of-Research. , 62: 1, 85-97
\r\r\r
Krafsur-ES; Davidson-G
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Genetic sexing strain of Anopheles quadrimaculatus, species A.
Journal-of-the-American-Mosquito-Control-Association, 3: 1, 50-53
To induce male-linked translocation adult RB males (less than 24 h old) were exposed to 7kR gamma rays (Cs 137 at 1,721 R/min).
Kim-SS;Seawright-JA;Kaiser-PE
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Competitiveness of gamma sterilized males of Dacus dorsalis Hendel.
Journal-of-Nuclear-Agriculture-and-Biology. 16: 4, 223-226
The effect of various combinations of irradiated males (exposed as 6-7-day-old pupae to 10 krad gamma-radiation), untreated males and untreated females of the tephritid Dacus dorsalis on the competitive ability of sterile males was studied in the laboratory at 27?C and 60-80% RH. At the lowest ratio of sterile to normal males (the ratio of sterile males to normal males to females being 1:1:1), the reduction in egg hatch due to the release of sterile males was >49%. The competitive ability of sterile males was effective up to the end of the experimental period (3 weeks).\r
Prasad-HH;Sethi-GR
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Control of Dacus oleae, a major pest of olives.
Insect-Science-and-its-Application. , 8: 1, 1-9
In this review, the control strategies being developed and in current use against the tephritid Dacus oleae, a major pest of olives, are described. They include biological control, trapping methods, sterile insect release, chemical insecticides, growth regulators and integrated control. Present problems and the implications of the control regimes for the agroecosystem are presented. Emphasis is given to newer methods which should be characterized by their specificity and effectiveness.\r
Manousis-T;Moore-NF
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The sterile insect release method and the importance of thermal conditioning before release: field-cage experiments with Dacus tryoni in spring weather.
Australian-Journal-of-Zoology. 35: 2, 197-204
\r
Fay-HAC;Meats-A
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Predation of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly and the Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by the Fire Ant (Hymenoptera
WONG M. A. and WONG T. T. Y.
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Predation of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly and the Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by the Fire Ant (Hymenoptera
WONG M. A. and WONG T. T. Y.
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Predation of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly and the Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by the Fire Ant (Hymenoptera
WONG M. A. and WONG T. T. Y.
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Irradiation of Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), lightbrown apple moth.
DSIR Entomology Division.
Dentener P, Birtles, DB, Waddell, BC, Stevens, PS.
Epiphyas postvittana Moth Lepidoptera
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Irradiation of Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), lightbrown apple moth.
DSIR Entomology Division.
Dentener P, Birtles, DB, Waddell, BC, Stevens, PS.
Epiphyas postvittana Moth Lepidoptera
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for the oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, in mangoes
Modern Insect Control: Nuclear Techniques and Biotechnology (Proc. Symp. Vienna, 1987), IAEA, Vienna. pp 319-324.
Komson P;Sutanawong M;Smitasiri E;Lapasutukul C;Unahawutti U
Tephritid, Irradiation
1
1
0
0
1
0
  
The effect of ionizing radiation on reproductive potential of Tetranychus urticae Koch. spider and its response to pesticides.
Radiobiologiya. (Jul-Aug 1988). v. 28(4) p. 488-491
Zil''bermints, I.V.; Zhuravleva, L.M.; Dubovoj, V.P
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for cherries infested by Western Cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Journal Economic Entomology. 81: 859-862.
Western cherry fruit fly (WCFF), Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, infests cherries in the northwestern United States. Exposure of naturally infested fruit to doses from 42 to 210 Gray (Gy) reduced pupation; only one adult emerged (at 127 Gy). In a second test in which fruit were exposed to from 4.4 to 106 Gy, no adults emerged following irradiation of field-infested fruit at ~ 17.6 Gy. When > 124,000 naturally infested cherries were exposed to 97 Gy, gamma irradiation was an efficacious quarantine treatment. No normal adults and only one abnormal adult with vestigial wings emerged from a treated population estimated to be 84,369 WCFF larvae. This research demonstrated that irradiation would be a potential quarantine treatment for WCFF larvae in cherries. Parasites, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani), emerged from many of the untreated puparia but not from those WCFF irradiated as larvae.
Burditt AK Jr;Hungate FP
Tephritid, disinfestation, Western Cherry Fruit Fly, cherries
1
1
0
0
1
0
  
Attraction of laboratory-reared, irradiated Mexican fruit flies to male-produced pheromone in the field.
Southwestern Entomologist, Vol.13, No.2, pp.75-80,
Pheromone extract of males of the tephritid Anastrepha ludens \r was evaluated as an attractant for conspecific, gamma- \r irradiated flies in citrus groves in the Lower Rio Grande \r Valley of Texas in 1985-86. Nine thousand sexually immature, 4- \r 7-day-old flies irradiated with 7000-9150 rads 1 to 3 days \r prior to adult ecolsion were released at the centre tree of the \r test area every 3-4 days in each experiment. The pheromone was \r dispensed in traps using 2 different types of dispensers. \r Pheromone doses of 1 and 10 male equivalents (ME) on cigarette \r filters attracted male and female flies equally, while \r pheromone emitted from rubber septa was not attractive.
Robacker, D. C.; Wolfenbarger, D. A.; Moreno, D. S.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Irradiation/sterilization techniques for Anastrepha suspensa Loew and their impact on behavioural quality
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Modern insect control: Nuclear techniques and biotechnology. Proceedings of an international symposium held in Vienna, 16-20 November 1987. Vienna (Austria). IAEA. 1988. 479 p. p. 299-305. Proceedings series
Mature pupae of Anastrepha suspensa Loew were exposed to gamma radiation to establish the sterilizing effect of 1-11 krad doses. Probit analyses indicated that 1.314 krad (1.203-1.455 krad) and 1.622 krad (1.469-1.797 krad) would result in 95 and 99% male sterility, respectively. Female sterility was 100% and no eggs were produced when pupae were exposed at 1 krad. Increasing the radiation dose above 1 krad reduced the percentage of eclosion and the number of viable males. The ability to fly vertically was affected only after exposure at 11 krad. Increasing the radiation dose also affected mating success. When sterile and fertile males were held in equal numbers with fertile females, an increase in egg hatch was correlated with increased radiation dose. When sterile males were held with fertile males and females, the sterile flies appeared to be competitive at all ratios and the reduction in egg hatch correlated positively with the increase in the 'overflooding' ratio. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs
Calkins, C.O.; Draz, K.A.A.; Smittle, B.J
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Status of molecular genetic studies in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, in relation to genetic sexing
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy). Modern insect control: Nuclear techniques and biotechnology. Proceedings of an international symposium held in Vienna, 16-20 November 1987. Vienna (Austria). IAEA. 1988. 479 p. p. 241-250. Proceedings series
A review of the current status of the molecular genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, with particular emphasis on the development of genetic sexing systems is presented. Rapid developments in the work on the molecular genetics of Drosophila melanogaster are beginning to play a prominent role in the expansion of genetic sexing to include molecular approaches. For example, the increasing availability of cloned genes from Drosophila has permitted the homologous sequences from the medfly genome to be identified. If homologous genes are identified, they can be rapidly mapped on the polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization. Germ line transformation is now routine in Drosophila and many attempts have been made to transform the medfly using the same system, to date without success. A P-element excision assay in Anastrepha suspensa has indicated that in this species also, P-element transformation is unlikely to be successful. Target genes to be potentially used in transformation fall into two classes, sex killing and sex transformation, and progress in and possibilities for both are discussed. Recent data on sex regulation in Drosophila offer new approaches for sex killing systems. Finally, since the genome of the medfly is sparsely mapped, it is suggested that a search should be made for restriction fragment length polymorphisms. These could be rapidly assigned to chromosome position using in situ hybridization and mapped using conventional genetic analysis. (author). 58 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab
Robinson, A.S.; Savakis, C.; Louis, C.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Irradiation disinfestation of asparagus spears contaminated with Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae)
Journal Economic Entomology. 81: 873-876.
Asparagus spears infested with Brachycorynella asparagi were used to determine effects of gamma-radiation effects on aphids. At 20 deg C all second instars died at doses of 5 Gy while adults died at doses above 10 Gy. Doses of 80 Gy prevented both moulting from the 4th instar and production of progeny by adults. A dose of 100 Gy is recommended as a quarantine disinfestation treatment.
Halfhill JE
disinfestation, asparagus, asparagus aphid, Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Irradiation treatment to sterilise Naupactus xanthographus and Brevipalpus chilensis females in table grapes
Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment, Report of International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation, Task Force Meeting, Orlando, IAEA, Vienna.
Arellano FS
Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Effect of soil type and depth on pupation and adult emergence of medflt,Ceratitis capitata(Wied.).
Alk-Azhar J.Agric.Res.Vol.10,325-247
The laboratory experiments were carried out to determine pupation depth of medfly,Ceratitis capitata Wied.larvae into soil and its relatioship to percent of adult emergence.Dry and wet samples of three different soil types were exposed to larvae as pupation sites.Tested soils were clay,sandy and mixture of both (1:1).Irrespective of soil type,data showed that >90% of popped larvae pupated at the upper 4cm.The rest larvae pupated at 5-10 cm depth.In all soil types,percent of adult emergence and soil penetration ability of neonate flies to reach soil surface were higher in dry soil than in wet soil,particularly in mixed soil.
Saafan,M.H.;S.M.Foda and T.S.El-Abbassi
Medfly, soil pupation
1
0
0
0
0
0
  
Gamma irradiation effects on mating competitiveness of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)
Insect Science and its Application, 1989, Vol.10, No.1, pp.35-42
Males treated with a low dose (35 Gy) were more competitive with normal males than those treated with a higher dose (50 Gy). When both sexes were treated with 50 Gy (which resulted in 99.16% sterility) and then placed with non-irradiated adults (I male :I female :U male :U female ) in the ratios 1:1:1:1, 5:5:1:1 or 20:20:1:1, the competitiveness of irradiated males was increased.
AbdelSalam_KA
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
The effect of fast electron radiation on the development of Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)
Appl.Radiat. Isot. Vol 40, n.9, pp.807-811 Int. Journal Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Part A
The effects of exposure to fast electron radiation (0 to 1.00 kGy) on the development of Trogoderma granarium were studied in the laboratory at 31?C and 50% RH. Adults were sterilized when irradiated at 21.6 Gy. At lower doses, females laid some eggs, but their viability was low. Exposure to 600 Gy stopped pupal development and adults which emerged from pupae treated with lower doses were sterile or laid unviable eggs. No F1 progeny were produced when pupae were treated with 5 Gy. Larvae did not develop following treatment with >50 Gy.
Szlendak E.;Davis R.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for Florida grapefruit infested with Caribbean fruit flies.
Florida. Entomology. p73.
Von Windeguth DL;Gould WP
Tephritid, Irradiation
1
1
0
0
1
0
  
Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for apples infested by codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricida
Journal Economic Entomology. 82: 1386-1390.
Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae reared on thinning apples were exposed to gamma radiation at incremental doses up to 138 Gy (gray). Adult emergence from pupae was reduced, and larval mortality increased as dose increased. At a dose of 39.2 Gy, emergence of normal adults from irradiated younger larvae (first through third instars) was reduced, and emergence of physically deformed adults increased. At higher doses, adult emergence was further reduced, the ratio of male to female emergence increased significantly, and overall survival of larvae declined. Similar results were obtained for older larvae (third through fifth instars) except that the doses required for comparable effects were 10-25% higher than those for younger larvae. These data suggest that doses of 372 Gy would prevent first through third instars from maturing and forming cocoons. However, probit analysis showed that a dose of 187 Gy or less gave quarantine security based on preventing adult emergence from fruit infested by larvae. When an estimated 79,540 nondiapausing immature larvae infesting thinning apples were exposed to approximately 153 Gy, only 15,501 formed cocoons; of these, only 256 pupated and none emerged as adults.
Burditt AK Jr;Hungate FP
disinfestation;apples;Codling moth;Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Effect of gamma-radiation on the spermatogenesis of melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae .
Research Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Gifu University, No.54, pp.59-69,
In connection with the development of sterilization as a control measure against the tephritid in Japan, the cytological effects of the treatment of pupae of Dacus cucurbitae [Bactrocera cucurbitae ] with gamma radiation at 7 kR were investigated in the laboratory. Treatment greatly disturbed spermatogenesis and resulted in the production of abnormally few spermatozoa, with almost complete sterility.
Sakurai_H; Shiraishi_R; Ito_Y;Teruua_T; Takeda_S
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Vol. 3, Classes of Pesticides.
Academic Press, Inc., NY, USA
Hayes W. Jr.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Development of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) larvae after gamma irradiation of eggs
Journal of Nuclear Agriculture and Biology, 1990, Vol.19, No.1, pp.54-57
The development of larvae of the tenebrionid Tribolium castaneum was completely arrested 18 days after hatching from 2- to 3-day-old eggs exposed to gamma radiation at a dose of 6 krad. A dose of 8 krad was required to produce a similar effect in 3- to 4-day-old eggs.
Mehta_VK;Sethi_GR;Garg_AK
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Gamma irradiation followed by cold storage as a quarantine treatment for Florida grapefruit infested with Caribbean fruit fly.
Florida. Entomology. 74: 242-247.
Von Windeguth DL;Gould WP
Tephritid, Irradiation
1
1
0
0
1
0
  
Use of sterile insect releases in an IPM program for control of Hypoderma lineatum and H. bovis (Diptera: Oestridae): a pilot test.
J Med Entomol. 27(4):523-9.
A joint Canadian-U.S. pilot test study was conducted for 4 yr on about 3,800 km2 on the Montana-Alberta border to determine the effect of sterile male releases on Hypoderma lineatum (Villers) and H. bovis (L.) populations remaining after initial chemical treatments. Chemical treatments initially reduced populations, making sterile male releases more efficient. Insect material for release was obtained from yearling animals held in confinement, an expensive, labor-intensive method of production. Sterile males of H. lineatum were released in one-half of the study area and sterile males of H. bovis were released in the other half. The unsterilized species in each half served as a control. Although the number of sterile males released was limited (265-462 yr), each species was eliminated in its respective release area, whereas the control species was not.
Kunz SE, Scholl PJ, Colwell DD, Weintraub J.
Livestock Insects SIT
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Effects of gamma radiation on the immature stages of Liriomyza trifolii.
Phytoparasitica 18: 117-124.
Yathom, S., R. Podava, S. Tal, and I. Ross.
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Effect of gamma irradiation on the hemocyte-mediated immune response of Aedes aegypti against microfilariae
J. Invertebr. Pathol. (Jul 1990). v. 56(1) p. 123-127
The effect of gamma irradiation on the melanotic encapsulation response of Aedes aegypti black eye Liverpool strain against inoculated Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae (mff) was assessed at 1, 2, 3, and 6 days postinoculation (PI). Mosquitoes received 6000 rad from a 137Cs source (Shepard Mark I irradiator) at 3 days postemergence and were inoculated with 15-20 mff 24 hr later. These mosquitoes were compared to nonirradiated controls that also were inoculated with 15-20 mff at 3 days postemergence. The immune response was significantly reduced in irradiated mosquitoes as compared with controls at all days PI.
Christensen, B.M.; Huff, B.M.;Li, J
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Radiation disinfestation of foods.
Food Irradiation for Developing Countries of Africa, IAEA TECDOC 576, IAEA, Vienna, Austria,
Ahmed, M.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Food Irradiation: Up-to-date Status.
First Egyptian Sem. on Irradiation for Decreasing Food Losses and Food Disinfestation, Cairo,
Ahmed, M.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Radiation disinfestation of stored food.
Proc. 5 th International Working Conf. on Stored Product Protection, Vol. II, Bordeaux, France,
Ahmed, M.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Disinfestation of lightbrown apple moth: A discussion of three disinfestation methods
Managing Postharvest Horticulture in Australia (Beattie, B.B., Ed.), Occasional Publication No.46, Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, Melbourne. pp.166-177.
Dentener PC;Waddell BC;Batchelor TA
disinfestation, lightbrown apple moth, Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Genetic sexing strain for four species of insects.
Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting, Colymbari, Crete, 3-7 September 1988. Vienna (Austria). IAEA. 1990 224p.p 201 - 208. panel proceedings series.
Seawright J.A.
0
0
0
0
0
1
  
Genetic sexing strains for four species of insects.
Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting on development of genetic sexing mechanisms in fruit flies through manipulation of radiation induced conditional lethals and other genetic measures. Colymbari, Crete, 3-7 September 1988. Vienna (Austria). IAEA. 1990 224p.p 201 - 208. panel proceedings series.
Seawright J.A.
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Sterilization of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), with gamma-radiation: effect of dose on oviposition behaviour of irradiated females.
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, Vol.34, No.2, pp.97-103,
Teruya_T
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Gamma radiation as a quarantine treatment for Fuller rose beetle eggs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on citrus fruit
Journal Economic Entomology 83: 905-909.
Since 1985 when eggs of the Fuller rose beetle, Pantomorus cervinus (Boheman), were found by Japanese fruit inspectors under the calyxes of California citrus, researchers have sought to develop alternatives to methyl bromide fumigation as a suitable quarantine treatment for this pest. Three different ages of Fuller rose beetle eggs laid on waxed paper were exposed to gamma radiation doses of 10, 50, 100, and 150 Gy. The oldest age class (10-13 d old) was the least susceptible. Egg hatch of the two younger age classes (1-3 and 6-8 d old) was prevented by 50 Gy, whereas 150 Gy was needed to prevent hatch of older eggs. To confirm the efficacy of the method, lemons infested with 10- to 13-d-old Fuller rose beetle eggs were placed in the center of standard cardboard lemon cartons and irradiated at doses averaging 174.1 Gy. Egg hatch from egg clusters infesting untreated lemons averaged (:f +/- SEM) 42.5% +/- 4.66 per lemon. None of the estimated 6,500 eggs infesting irradiated lemons hatched. Damage of irradiated fruit varied but did not exceed a 6.1% increase compared with damage found in controls. These data show that irradiation of lemons could be an effective quarantine treatment against Fuller rose beetle eggs.
Johnson JA;Soderstrom EL;Bandl DG;Houck G;Wofford PL
Fuller rose beetle;irradiation disinfestation;citrus;Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Effect of 60Co-gamma irradiation on germ cell of Chinese Citrus Fly Dacus citri
Acta Agriculturae Nucleatae Sinica(Jan 1990). v. 4(2) p.115-119
\rThe oogenesis of Chinese Citrus Fly and the effect of \r 60Co-gamma irradiation on the oogenesis were studied. The results \r showed that the oogenesis was divided into eight stages. It was \r observed that the oogenesis in pupal stage only occurred in the \r period of germarial cyst, and in this stage the pupae were more \r sensitive to irradiation. The pupae were exposed to 6, 9, 12, 15 \r krad 60Co-gamma rays two days before emergence. It was found that \r all the treatments could induce sterility since the development of \r the oocytes mainly stopped at 4-5th stage\r YEAR (Publication Year): 1990
Zhang Wei;Li Yuanying
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Control of Chinese citrus fly Dacus citri by male sterile technique
Acta Agriculturae Nucleatae Sinica(Sep 1990). v. 4(3) p. 135-138
About 56000 and 95000 irradiated sterile males of \r Chinese citrus fly Dacus citri (Chen) were released in Zhonglian \r orange orchard of about 34 heactares in Huishui county, Guizhou \r province in 1987 and 1989 respectively. The release ratio of sterile \r to native fruit fly was 12.5:1 and 45:1 respectively. The rate of \r damaged orange by Chinese citrus fly Dacus citri (Chen) dropped from \r 5-8% in general to 0.005%. The dispersal distance of the fly was \r estimated to be 1500 meters\r YEAR (Publication Year): 1990
Wang Huasong;Zhao Caidao;Li Huaixi
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Control of Dacus citri by irradiated male sterile technique.
Acta-Agriculturae-Nucleatae-Sinica. 4: No. 3, 135-138
Field studies were conducted in China in 1987 and 1989 to determine the effect of releasing 56 272 and 95 320 sterilized males, resp., of the tephritid Dacus citri [Bactrocera tsuneonis] into a Citrus orchard containing 4800 10-year-old trees. A 2nd Citrus orchard containing 200 trees of the same age was kept as an untreated control. Males were sterilized by exposure to gamma rays at 9 krad at a dose rate of 100 rad/min. The ratio of released males:males in the wild in 1987 and 1989 was 12.5:1 and 45:1, resp. The infestation level of infested fruits was 0.2 and 0.005% in the treated orchard in 1987 and 1989, resp., and 22.5 and 20-25% in the control orchard.\r
Wang-HS; Zhao-CD; Li-HX; Lou-HZ; Liu-QR; Kang-W; H
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma radiation on fruit fly, Dacus zonatus
3. Nuclear Science and Technology Conference. Bangkok (Thailand). 23-25 Apr 1990. Nuclear Science and Technology Conference 1990. Proceedings. 481 p. p. 413-423
The effects of gamma radiation on egg, larval and \r pupal stages of fruit fly, Dacus zonatus (Saunders) were studied. \r The 24-hour-old eggs, 1-2, 1-4, 7-8-day-old larvae and 8-day-old \r pupae were irradiated at 10-600 Gy with a cobalt-60 source and \r maintained at 26+10C, 60-80% RH. The results showed that the LD50 \r for 24-hour-old eggs at 2 days after irradiation was 302 Gy. The \r dose of 600 Gy caused 100% mortality of eggs and larvae hatching \r from eggs irradiated at 100 Gy were unable to develop to pupae. The \r 1-2-day-old larvae irradiated at 150 Gy were unable to form pupae. \r The dose of 50 Gy prevented adult emergence from irradiated 1-2, \r 4-5, 7-8-day-old larvae. Probit analyses indicated that radiation \r dose at 58.35 Gy sterilized 99% D. zonatus (Saunders) male emerged \r from pupae. In addition, female emerged from pupae irradiated at 30 \r Gy was unable to lay eggs\r YEAR (Publication Year): 1990
Sutantawong, M
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effectiveness of irradiation as a quarantine treatment against various fruit fly species.
Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment. Report of, International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation, Task Force Meeting, Bethesda, MD, IAEA, Vienna,.
Burditt AK Jr.
Irradiation
0
0
0
0
1
0
  
Chracterization,identification and optimization of certain Bacillus thuringiensis isolates against medfly adults
4th Arab Cong.of Plant Prot.Cairo,1-5 Dec.1991,330-342
A study to identify agents responsible for activity of certain Bacillus thuringiensis isolates against medfly adults was carried out. Three isolates representing different serovars were selected,HD-135(7,aizawa),HD-266(3a3b,kurstaki)and HD-767(8a8b,morrsoni).Activity of the three tested serotypes was related to the vaible spores.PH value of 6.8-7.1 in the medfly gut is considered optimal for spore germination.Pure crystals showed no activity when spore-free powders were bioassayed.The number of viable spores in B.thuringiensis powders was greatly reduced when exposed to gamma radiation at doses of 5,10,20 and 28 KGY,this was dose dependent.Crystals did not show any effect on the activity of two B.thuringiensis isolates (7,aizawa and 3a3b kurstaki) when used at different ratios with spores.High crystal content of 8a8b morrisoni isolate slightly increased the activity of the powder.Two of the three tested isolates gave regression lines of similar slopes.Activity of the three B.thuringiensis could be arranged in descending order as follows:7,aizawa,8a8b morrisoni and 3a3b kurstaki.
Selim,A.A.; E.K.Hussein; R.Gingrich; A.M.Awadallah ; T.S.El-Abbassi
Medfly, B.thuringiensis
1
0
0
0
0
0
  
Screening active isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis against medfly adult,Ceratitis capitata,(Wied.)
4th Arab Cong.of Plant Prot.Cairo,1-5 Dec.1991,343-351
This study was carried out to investigate an alternative method to chemical control of the mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata,(Wied.).Seventy-six isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis were tested against adult flies.Few isolates like HD-260,HD-290(serovar 1,thuringiensis),HD-176,HD-322(serovar 5a5b,galleriae),HD-121(serovar 9,toloworthi)and HD-122 (serovar 7,aizawa) produced water soluble heat stable active agent (B-exotoxin).Few isolates showed activity due to production of water insoluble heat-labile agents,presumbly spores and/or crystals(Delta endotoxin)like HD-579,HD-611,HD-615,HD-767(serovar 8a8b, morrisoni),HD-266(serovar 3a3b,kurstaki)and HD-135(serovar aizawa).There was generally no serotype specificity of B.thuringiensis against medfly adults.Testing B.thuringiensis in a powder form showed higher activity than when used in suspension.
Awadallah,A.M.; A.A.Selim; R.Gingrich; E.K.Hussein ; T.S.El-Abbassi
Medfly, B.thuringiensis, Endotoxin, B.thuringiensis spores
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Evaluation of certain local ingredients in artificial medium diet for mass rearing of medfly.
4th Arab Cong. of Plant Prot.Cairo,1-5 Dec.1991,43-52
El-Abbassi,T.S.;S.M.Foda and M.H.Safaan
Medfly, Mass rearing
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Control of peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zell. on apricot tree during the dorment stage
4th Arab Cong. of Plant Prot.Cairo,1-5 Dec.1991,133-136
Safaan,M.H.;T.S.El-Abbassi and S.M.Foda
peach twig borer
1
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Low Dose Irradiation as a Treatment for Grapefruit and Mangoes Infested with Caribbean Fruit Fly Larvae.
Agricultural Research Results, Rep. ARR-S-10, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, LA. Pp.1-9.
Burditt AK Jr et al.
Irradiation, tephritd
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1
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Gamma radiation effects over pupae of several ages from Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Efeitos da radiacao gama sobre pupas de diversas idades de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830)(Diptera. Tephritidae)
Proceedings of the 13. Brazilian Congress on Entomology , 1. International Symposium of Bicudo from Cotton-plant 2. Meeting of Cochineal Insect from Fodder Palm 3. Meeting of Fruit Flies. Recife, PE (Brazil). 20-25 Jan 1991. Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Proceedings of the 13. Brazilian Congress on Entomology 1. International Symposium of Bicudo from Cotton-plant 2. Meeting of Cochineal Insect from Fodder Palm 3. Meeting of Fruit Flies - v. 2. 1991. 314 p. p. 626
Faria, J.T. da; Suplicy F.N.
0
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Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment - a Research Co-ordination Programme
Research Coordination Meeting (RCM), IAEA, Vienna
IAEA
0
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1
  
Sperm precedence for females mated with irradiated and normal males of caribbean fruit fly, anastrepha suspensa (loew)
Isotope and Radiation Research, v. 21(2). p. 147-152
This work is a participation in evaluating the efficiency of the sterile male technique as a method of controlling the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, based on studying the competition between the sperms of irradiated and normal males in fertilizing the eggs of normal females. Irradiation was carried out on the 14 days old pupae at a dose of 30 Gray of gamma radiation. Normal virgin females were allowed to mate with males twice, the 1 st with sterile males and the second with normal males or vice versa, at different time intervals (2-8 days) between the two matings. The criterion of comparison was the percentage hatch ability of eggs produced through 6 days after the 2 nd mating. In all treatments, the percentage hatch was higher by about 7.53-27.18% when mating with sterile males preceded the fertile ones, except when the period between the two matings was 8 days where the percentage hatch was higher by about 1.87% when mating with fertile males preceded the sterile ones. No hatch was noticed when normal females mated with sterile males, and up to 98% hatch was reached when normal females mated with normal males.
Draz, K.A.A
0
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Irradiation quarantine treatment to sterilise Quadraspidiotus perniciosus and Neotermes chilensis
Report of the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting on the Use of Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities, Kuala Lumpur, 1990, IAEA.
Sanchez F
0
0
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1
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Sterilizing mechanism of gamma-radiation in the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae.
Research Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Gifu University, No.56, pp.51-57,
Odani_Y,;Sakurai_H,; Teruya_T,; Ito_Y,;Takeda_S
0
0
0
0
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Effect of 6'0Co-gamma irradiation on male germ cell of Chinese Citrus Fly Dacus Citri
Acta Agriculturae Nucleatae Sinica(Jun 1991). v. 5(2) p. 79-82
The spermatogenesis of Chinese Citrus Fly and the \r effect of 60Co-gamma irradiation on the sperms and their \r ultrastructure were studied. The pupae were exposed to 9 krad \r 60Co-gamma rays for two days before emergence. The adults were \r dissected and many mature sperms could be seen in the male flies. \r There were no significant difference in the form, number and vigor \r of sperm between irradiated and unirradiated male flies, but there \r were some abnormal ultrastructural changes in the sperm of \r irradiated male flies such as the appearence of vacuoles in nutrient \r cells, disarrangement of sperms, variation of the number of \r chondriosome derivates, axonemes destruction of formation and \r abnormal cell division of sperm cells\r YEAR (Publication Year): 1991
Zhang Wei;Li Yuanying
0
0
0
0
1
1
  
Effects of gamma radiation on various stages of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F.
Journal-of-Nuclear-Agriculture-and-Biology. 20: 3, 218-221
Adult males of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus were treated in the laboratory with gamma radiation (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Krad). Pupae were treated with 0.5 or 1.5 Krad radiation and larvae with 1.0 Krad radiation. Irradiated males were given the opportunity to mate with untreated females. The production of viable eggs decreased with increasing radiation dose. There was no apparent effect on the F2 generation.\r
Ramachandran-CP
0
0
0
0
1
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Effects of ionizing energy on fruit flies and seed weevil in Australia mangoes
Report of the Final FAOIIAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting on the Use of Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities, Kuala Lumpur, 1990, Food Irradiation Newsletter. 15: 43
Irradiation was evaluated as a quarantine measure for the disinfestation of Australian mangoes against two species of fruit fly, Bactrocera (= Dacus) tryoni (Froggatt) and B. jarvisi (Tryon), and the mango seed weevil, Stemochetus mangiferae (Fabricius). For the fruit flies, the third instar was determined as the most tolerant of irradiation, but disinfestation trials were also undertaken against mature eggs as the stage most likely to be present in any infested fruit at the time of treatment. A dose range of 74-101 Gy on the ''''Kensington'''' variety of mango prevented the emergence of adult flies, but large numbers of treated larvae and some eggs developed to the pupal stage. This places important emphasis on the field control of fruit flies if detection of still living larvae in fruit at inspection is to be avoided. Disinfestation trials on the mango seed weevil were complicated by the inability to culture this insect in the laboratory. This necessitated the use of naturally infested fruit of the ''''common'''' variety and precluded trial work on specific stages of known age. A dose range of 298-339 Gy (nominally a minimum of 300 Gy) prevented adult emergence and ensured 100% mortality by 8 months on the samples treated. The slow life cycle of the seed weevil requires that assessment of mortality be delayed by a minimum of I month, and for full mortality up to 6-8 months. The presence of live insects in irradiated fruit causes problems if detected at inspection unless export fruit is obtained from weevil free orchards. No significant fruit damage would be expected at a fruit fly treatment range of 100-200 Gy, but the maximum/minimum ratio for weevil treated fruit would need to be minimized as the treatment level is near the threshold for damage to the ''''Kensington'''' variety of mango.
Heather NW; Corcoran RJ
Mango seed weevil;mangoes;Irradiation;Queensland fruit fly;Jarvis'''' fruit fly
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Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment
Use of Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities (Proc. Research Co-ordination Meeting Kuala Lumpur, 1990), IAEA, Vienna. pp77-90.
This research project was conducted following the guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) infested with third instars of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) at doses of 10-250 Gy. The radiation geometry achieved a maximum/minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy, applied to third instars in the infested fruits, sterilized this species and prevented the emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A. ludens and A. obliqua, a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 and 27% fertility, respectively. The adults of A. serpentina that emerged died before reaching sexual maturity. Confirmatory tests, at the probit 9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C capitata. The quality of fruits irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological and sensorial tests. Determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss in the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated, since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both the treated and untreated fruits in the same way.
Bustos M.E.;Enkerlin W.;Toledo J.;Reyes J.;Casimiro A.
Tephritid;Irradiation
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The role of gamma irradiation in tolerance of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Duv.) to some insecticides.
Insect science and its application. Feb 1992. v. 13 (1) ,p. 105-111
Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effect of irradiating T. confusum pupae on the susceptibility of their adults to four insecticides. Results indicate that gamma irradiation significantly decreased the tolerance of adults from pupae irradiated 1 and 2 days before eclosion to Duradin. On the contrary, malathion and formothion, belonging to the same chemical group, i.e. organophosphate, were similar in their toxicity to adults, showing that irradiation or pupae afforded some protection to adults from death. However, s. fenvalerate exhibited the same trend noticed for malathion and formothion where irradiation of pupae reduced its effectiveness to adults. In general, adults from pupae irradiated 1 and 2 days before eclosion were less tolerant to tested insecticides than those from pupae irradiated 3 days before eclosion. Studying of tolerance ratio of various insecticides revealed that at 24 hr post-treatment, the most obvious trend is that adults from irradiated pupae, 3 days before eclosion, showed a moderate level of tolerance to formothion (3.29-fold) and s. fenvalerate (3.62-fold), and high level of tolerance to malathion (16.30-fold). While all adults from irradiated pupae elucidated different levels of tolerance to malathion, formothion and s. fenvalerate, the effectiveness of Duradin on those adults was significantly enhanced. This means that the application of Duradin in combination with gamma radiation is more effective than their separate applications. The dissimilarity or adult responses to the insecticides may be attributed to the enzyme alterations, either quantitative or qualitative and are the key to these irradiation effects on toxicity of insecticides to insects.
Abdel-Salam, K.A;El-Deeb, M.A.; El-Fishawi, A.A.
Coleoptera irradiation
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0
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Effect of substerilizing gamma dose on mating competitiveness of Trogoderma granarium Everts males through three filial generations
Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, Vol.57, No.3A, pp.715-718
When newly-emerged males of Trogoderma granarium were exposed \r\n to 75 Gy, the irradiated males were semisterile when they were \r\n paired with untreated females. When F1 sons of irradiated males \r\n were added to untreated adults at I male : U male : U female \r\n ratios of 1:1:1, 5:1:1, 10:1:1 and 15:1:1, the percentage egg \r\n hatch decreased from 77.8 in the controls to 64.4 at the ratio \r\n 1:1:1 and to 46.2, 40.9 and 38.9 at ratios 5:1, 10:1 and 15:1, \r\n resp. The competitiveness values of F1 males were below the \r\n limits considered acceptable except when the ratios were 10:1 \r\n and 15:1.
Ahmed, M. Y. Y.; Salem, H.; Gharib, O. H
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Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Nuclear Techniques in Insect Research and Control.
STI/DOC/010/336 (ISBN:92-0-101792-8)
<a href="http://www-pub.iaea.org/books/HowToOrder.aspx">How to order this book</a>
IAEA Technical Reports Series 336
Insect pest control
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Effects of gamma radiation on the insect mortality and fruit quality of Philippine ''Carabao'' mangoes
Use of Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities (Proceedings of Research Co-ordination Meeting, Kuala Lumpur, 1990 IAEA, Vienna. pp 91-116.
Research using gamma radiation for the disinfestation of (Philippines)Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel,(subsequently renamed Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock) larvae in ''Carabao'' (''Manila Super'') mangoes and its effect on the overall quality and acceptability of the treated fruit was undertaken in the Philippines. The results showed that mature larvae of the fruit fly were the insect stage most tolerant to irradiation, with the young eggs being the most sensitive. Using more than 100 000 mature larvae in mangoes, a minimum dose of 100 Gy was required to prevent the emergence of adult fruit flies and to maintain quarantine security against the possibility of introducing this pest into the importing country. ''Carabao'' mango fruits subjected to gamma radiation at 100, 150 or 250 Gy resulted in fruits of an acceptable quality. In contrast to vapour heat treatment, no internal breakdown was observed, even in fruits irradiated at 350 Gy. At this dose, a low, but significant, incidence of pulp discoloration was found- in one trial only. Both vapour heat treatment and gamma radiation needed to be supplemented with hot water treatment for effective and more consistent disease control. Although irradiation appears to delay ripening, its effect seems to be largely on the development of peel colour. The results of this study indicated that irradiation could be an appropriate quarantine treatment for the ''Carabao'' mango. Therefore, use of irradiation at a minimum dose of 100 Gy as a quarantine treatment for the oriental fruit fly in mature green mango fruits can be recommended. However, when field infestation studies were conducted on 3200 mature green ''Carabao'' mangoes obtained from different parts of the country, a very low field infestation of 0.031 % was observed. A single fruit was found to be infested with eight larvae of the oriental fruit fly. With these findings, quarantine treatment may not be required, provided proper protection from infestation is applied after harvest or before export.
Manoto EC;Resilva SS;del Rosario SE;Casubha LC;Lizada CC;Esguerra EB;Brena SR;Fuentes RA
1
1
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Gamma irradiation as a commodity treatment against the Queensland fruit fly in fresh fruit
Use of Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities (Proceedings Research Co-ordination Meeting, Kuala Lumpur, 1990), IAEA, Vienna. pp13-42 (1992).
Third instars of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), were more tolerant to gamma irradiation than other stages that infest fresh fruit from Australia. A dose of 75 Gy prevented the development of adults when the eggs or larvae were irradiated in apples (Malus domestica L.), oranges (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), avocados (Persea americana Mill.), mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and cherries (Prunus avium L.). The proventriculus of the treated larvae developed normally, while development of the supraoesophageal ganglion was retarded. All the fruits, with the exception of avocados, tolerated 100 Gy without developing injury symptoms. The quality of ''Ron''s Seedling'', ''American Bing'' and ''Lambert'' sweet cherry drupes was not affected by doses of up to 1 000 Gy. Peduncle discoloration increased in ''Ron''s Seedling'' cherries irradiated at 600 and 1000 Gy. When ''Lisbon'' lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) were treated at doses of up to 1000 Gy and stored at 15 oC for up to 6 weeks, irradiation reduced the total titratable acidity and the total soluble solids, while the juice and pH increased. Irradiation accelerated the yellow colour formation in green lemons, as well as flesh and peel softening and button senescence in both yellow and green lemons. Tissue damage in the form of flesh and albedo discoloration. albedo toughness and flesh cavitation occurred in the irradiated lemons. Irradiation increased pericarp browning in ''Bengal'' lychees (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) stored at 4 oC or 10 oC at 85-90% relative humidity, but had no effect on lychees stored at 20 oC in a constant flow of ethylene free air at 95~100% relative humidity. Irradiation had no effect on the ethylene production, but lychees dosed at 75 and 150 Gy evolved more carbon dioxide than did untreated lychees or those dosed at 300, 600 or 1000 Gy. Lychees treated with a combination of polyvinyl chloride wrapping plus irradiation at 75-300 Gy and stored at 4 oC experienced no adverse effects on the fruit quality, taste or mould development compared with wrapped, dipped, untreated lychees. The ascorbic acid content of ''Valencia'' oranges was not affected by doses between 25 and 300 Gy.
Jessup AJ;Rigney CJ;Millar A;Sloggett RF;Quinn NM
1
1
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US Environmental Protection Agency. 1992 (Feb. 4). Ethyl Parathion, Correction to the Amended Cancellation Order.
OPP, USEPA, Washington DC, USA
Anon.
0
0
0
0
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Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for Mexican mangoes
International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy) International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland). Harmonization of regulations on food irradiation in the Americas. Proceedings of an inter-American meeting held in Orlando, Florida, USA, 27 November - 1 December 1989. Mar 1992. 140 p. p. 87-96.IAEA-TECDOC--642
Laboratory experiments involved the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina, A. ludens and Ceratitis capitata, over a range of doses between 10 and 250 Gy. Irradiation was carried out using a Co-60 AECL irradiator model JS-7400. The experiments were designed to achieve a dose distribution equal to or less than 1.025. Fricke dosimeters were used. Fertility tests were carried out on emerged adults of A. ludens and C. capitata. A larval dose of 40 Gy or more resulted in zero fertility in the case of A. ludens, while the corresponding figure for C. capitata was 60 Gy. The adults that emerged of A. serpentina died before reaching sexual maturity. It was concluded that i) irradiation at the dose of 60 Gy totally inhibits the emergence of A. serpentina and A. ludens adults. And ii) the dose of 150 Gy inhibits the emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults from 99.9% of irradiated larvae, and those which survive are sterile. The doses of 60 and 150 Gy exceed the mortality probit 9 threshold, and are within the tolerance limit of fresh fruit (approximately 1000 Gy). (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs
Bustos, M.E.; Carrasco, H.; Toledo, J.; Enkerlin, W.R.; Reyes, J.
0
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Mating competitiveness of irradiated Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol.84, No.4, pp.1227- 1234, 21 ref.
In caged full-grown orange trees, sterile males from the old \r colony were one-third as successful and those from the 2-year- \r old colony were one-fifth as successful in mating as the feral \r flies. Irradiation also slowed the mating response of \r laboratory-reared males as compared with unirradiated males, \r but the slow response put the flies in phase with the mating \r period of the feral flies. \r \r \r
Moreno, D. S.; Sanchez, M.; Robacker, D. C.; Worley, J.
0
0
0
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Dosis optima de irradiacion a pupas de Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedman)(Diptera: Tephritidae) para la obtencion de adultos esteriles sexualmente competitivos
Thesis, Insituto Technologico y de estudios superiores de Monterrey.
Toledo J.A.
0
0
0
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Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambola, papaya and mango.
Use of Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities IAEA Panel Proceedings Series, Vienna pp53-76
Preliminary experiments carried out on the effects of irradiation on carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.) with regard to fruit fly treatment, fruit injury and the physicochemical and organoleptic properties showed that irradiation can be successfully developed and should be investigated further as a quarantine treatment for these fruits. Emergence of normal adult fruit flies of the Dacus dorsalis complex did not occur when infested carambolas were treated at doses as low as 100 Gy. Carambola showed external symptoms of injury at irradiation doses in excess of 200 Gy. There appeared to be some reduction in sugar content at doses exceeding 100 Gy. Papaya, cv. ''Eksotika'', tolerated irradiation up to 300 Gy. Irradiation at this dose did not alter the ripening behaviour, nor did it cause any injury or alter the organoleptic: properties of the fruit. An additional benefit was that doses above 250 Gy significantly reduced freckling of the fruit and enhanced its cosmetic value. ''Eksotika'' is an ideal candidate for quarantine treatment using gamma irradiation. Mango, cv. ''Harumanis'', tolerated irradiation fairly well. Exposure of fruit to doses of up to 750 Gy did not produce significant injury.
Vijaysegaran S;Lam PF;Yon Rohani Mohd;Karim Mohd;Nordin Abd.;Ramli Hassan;Yusof Norimah
disinfestation;mangoes;oriental fruit fly;Irradiation
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