An umbrella concept consisting of four essential elements: education and training; human resource development; knowledge management; knowledge networks.
Cementation of radioactive waste
Cementation is the process of solidifying radioactive waste by using cement.
See also solidification.
Compaction of radioactive waste
Compaction is a treatment method where the bulk volume of a compressible material is reduced by application of external pressure – hence an increase in its density (mass per unit volume).
Competence is the ability to put skills, knowledge and attitudes, into practice in order to perform activities or a job in an effective and efficient manner within an occupation or job position to identified standards. (Competency) may be developed through a combination of education, experience and training.
Comprehensive energy planning
Comprehensive energy planning is the systematic analysis of all the factors that influence the evolution of energy systems. It considers all energy supply technologies (fossil, renewable and nuclear) as well as the necessary fuels or flows and demand side management on a life cycle basis (including pre- and post-operational aspects such as decommissioning and waste disposal).
A report prepared by the NEPIO that evaluates the status of a country across all 19 infrastructure and related issues and provides a reccomendation to the government about whether to proceed with the development of a nuclear power programme. If the report recommends a positive national decision, it will also define and justify a national strategy for nuclear power development.
Conditioning of waste
Those operations that produce a waste package suitable for handling, transport, storage and/or disposal. Conditioning may include the conversion of the waste to a solid waste form, enclosure of the waste in containers, and, if necessary, providing an overpack. See also immobilization.
Confinement of waste
A barrier which surrounds the main parts of a facility containing radioactive materials and which is designed to prevent or mitigate the uncontrolled release of radioactive material to the environment. Confinement is similar in meaning to containment, but confinement is typically used to refer to the barriers immediately surrounding the radioactive material, whereas containment refers to the additional layers of defense intended to prevent the radioactive materials reaching the environment if the confinement is breached.
Construction is the process of manufacturing and assembling the components of a facility, the carrying out of civil works, the installation of components and equipment, and the performance of associated tests.
Construction management is the set up and implementation of a management system for the construction phase of a Nuclear Power Programme. The system identifies policies, standards and procedures for all individuals and organizations working on the applicable project.
Containment of waste
Methods or physical structures designed to prevent the dispersion of radioactive substances. Although approximately synonymous with confinement, containment is normally used to refer to methods or structures that prevent radioactive substances being dispersed in the environment if confinement fails. See confinement for a more extensive discussion.
Continual improvement refers to the process of continually identifying reasons for improvement and implementing changes to improve processes.
Corrective and preventive actions
The causes of non-conformances must be determined and remedial actions taken to prevent their recurrence. Corrective actions for eliminating non-conformances must be determined and implemented. Preventive actions to eliminate the causes of potential non-conformances must also be determined and taken.
Critical Path Method (CPM)
CPM calculates the longest path of planned activities from the beginning to the end of the project, incorporating the earliest and latest that each activity could start and finish without extending the project schedule.
Culture is the deepest, often unconscious part of a group and is therefore, less tangible and less visible than behaviours.
Culture for Safety
Culture for Safety refers to the general concept of culture in an organization and its influence on safety performance.
Decommissioning represents the final phase in the lifecycle of a nuclear facility. It includes administrative and technical actions taken to allow the removal of some or all of the regulatory controls from a facility. This does not apply to a repository or to certain nuclear facilities used for mining and milling of radioactive materials, for which closure is used.
Deterministic effects are the short-term effects of high-level radiation exposure. They include burns, nausea, redness of the skin, hair loss and decreased organ function. These effects become more severe as exposure is increased.
Disposal (of waste)
Disposal is the placement of waste in an appropriate facility without the intention of retrieval. Radioactive waste disposal aims at emplacing waste in a facility which ensures long-term safety through a system of multiple natural and artificial barriers working together to prevent radioactivity from escaping.
Disused radioactive source
Is a source no longer suitable for its intended purpose as a result of radioactive decay.
A Domain: an area of control or a sphere of knowledge. In the context of learning, a domain is a way to differentiate the individual types of learning (Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor).
EAL - Emergency Action Level
An EAL is a predetermined observable criterion, which if met, triggers the appropriate classification of the emergency and corresponding response actions. EALs are based on the information that is observable by the control room operators and is indicative of the possibility of damage to the fuel in the reactor core or in the spent fuel pool.
Export Credit Agency.
Energy Demand Analysis.
"Effective kilogram" means a special unit used in safeguarding nuclear
material. The quantity in "effective kilograms" is obtained by taking:
(a) For plutonium, its weight in kilograms;
(b) For uranium with an enrichment of 0.01 (1%) and above, its weight in kilograms multiplied by the square of its enrichment;
(c) For uranium with an enrichment below 0.01 (1%) and above 0.005 (0.5 % ), its weight in kilograms multiplied by 0.0001; and
(d) For depleted uranium with an enrichment of 0.005 (0.595) or below, and for thorium, its weight in kilograms multiplied by 0.00005.
Environmental Impact Assessment.
Non-routine situation requiring prompt action to mitigate a hazard for human health and safety, quality of life, property or the environment.
The capability to take actions that will effectively mitigate the consequences of an emergency for human health and safety, quality of life, property and the environment.
The performance of actions to mitigate the consequences of an emergency for human health and safety, quality of life, property and the environment. It may also provide a basis for the resumption of normal social and economic activity.
A statement of intent, especially the expected outcome of a segment of training. Developed from individual or grouped knowledge skills and attitudes to describe the behaviour necessary for a trainee to fulfil or achieve the relevant terminal objectives.
The combination of sources of energy used by a country.
Energy planning is the systematic analysis of all the factors that influence the evolution of a national energy system. It is a repetitive and interactive process used to analyse, develop, monitor and update a country’s energy mix.
Environmental impact assessment
An assessment of the impact of the various nuclear technologies on the local environment.
Engineering Procurement Construction.
A set of policies that define a State’s capability and actions to be taken in reaction to a radiation emergency.
Espoused values are the principles that are adopted, expressed and supported by a person or organization such as strategies, goals and philosophies.
Exempt waste (EW)
Exempt waste is released from regulatory control in accordance with exemption principles. Exempt waste contains such small concentrations of radionuclides that it does not require provisions for radiation protection, irrespective of whether the waste is disposed of in conventional landfills or recycled. Such material can be cleared from regulatory control and does not require any further consideration from a regulatory control perspective.
A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart, which illustrates a project schedule. It illustrates the beginning and end dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. These elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project. A Gantt chart also displays the dependency relationship between activities.
Global nuclear safety framework
A framework for achieving the worldwide implementation of a high level of safety at nuclear installations. Its core is the activities undertaken by each country to ensure the safety and security of the nuclear installations within its jurisdiction. But national efforts are and should be augmented by the activities of a variety of international enterprises that facilitate nuclear safety such as intergovernmental organizations, multinational networks, international standards setting organizations and other stakeholders.
The approach by which the level of analysis, documentation and actions necessary to comply with a requirement are commensurate with the level of safety or risk involved.
Grading can be used in management systems so as to deploy appropriate resources according to the significance or complexity of each activity.
GS-R 3 is an IAEA safety guide containing the IAEA's requirements for management systems.
The safety guides provide detailed guidance on how to meet certain requirements and what sources are available to help meet those requirements.
A declaration a Member State voluntarily signs, in which they agree to adhere to use nuclear power in a peaceful manner. Through the statute, the IAEA seeks to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.
Immobilization of waste
Conversion of waste into a waste form by solidification, embedding or encapsulation. The aim is to reduce the potential for migration or dispersion of radionuclides during handling, transport, storage and/or disposal. See also conditioning.
Any unintended event, including operating errors, equipment failures, initiating events, accident precursors, near misses or other mishaps, or unauthorized act, malicious or non-malicious, the consequences or potential consequences of which are not negligible from the point of view of protection or safety.
Originating in and characteristic of a particular region or country; activities which are carried out by the workforce of a Member State.
Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR)
A holistic IAEA coordinated peer review conducted by a team of international experts, and it covers the comprehensive infrastructure required for building a Nuclear Power Programme, and helps the Member States determine their status and identify further development needs.
Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS)
A peer review service designed to strengthen and enhance the effectiveness of national regulatory infrastructure for nuclear, radiation, radioactive waste and transport safety, and the security of radioactive sources by offering an integrated approach to the review of common aspects of any state’s national, legal and governmental framework and regulatory infrastructure for safety.
Integrated Review of Infrastructure for Safety (IRIS)
A methodology has been developed to support Member States in the self-assessment of their national Infrastructure for safety against the IAEA Safety Guide SSG-16 Establishing the Safety Infrastructure for a Nuclear Power Programme.
An organization (or individual) that has the competence to specify the scope and standard of a required product or service and subsequently assess whether the supplied product or service meets the specified requirements.
For the purposes of radiation protection, radiation capable of producing ion pairs in biological material(s).
ISO 9001 is a standard for management systems which can be used by any organization.
The IAEA SSAC Advisory Service (ISSAS) provides requesting national authorities with recommendations and suggestions for improvements to their State systems for accountancy and control (SSACs) of nuclear material. The missions evaluate the regulatory, legislative, administrative and technical components of the SSAC at both the State and facility level, and assess how the SSAC meets the obligations contained in the State’s safeguards agreement and additional protocol.
Key measurement point (KMP)
"Key measurement point" means a location where nuclear material appears
in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory.
"Key measurement points" thus include, but are not limited to, the inputs and outputs (including measured discards) and storages in material balance areas.
The integrated, systematic approach to identifying, managing and sharing an organization’s knowledge, and enabling persons to create new knowledge collectively and thereby help achieve the objectives of that organization.
Knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform a particular job.
Major radiological release
The prime example of a "major nuclear accident" is one in which a reactor core is damaged and significant amounts of radioactivity are released.
Management oversight refers to the oversight reviews and assessments of the performance of activities that managers carry out in their day-to-day line management activities.
A Management system is a set of interrelated or interacting elements (system) for establishing policies and objectives and enabling the objectives to be achieved in an efficient and effective way.
The management system integrates all elements of an organization into one coherent system to enable all of the organization’s objectives to be achieved. These elements include the structure, resources and processes.
Material balance areas
"Material balance area" means an area in or outside of a facility such that:
(a) The quantity of nuclear material in each transfer into or out of each "material balance area" can be determined; and
(b) The physical inventory of nuclear material in each "material balance area" can be determined when necessary, in accordance with specified procedures, in order that the material balance for Agency safeguards purposes can be established.
A State which demonstrates acceptance of the IAEA Statute and which is determined to be willing and able to carry out the obligations of membership by the General Conference of the Agency.
The conditions necessary to demonstrate that a Phase in the implementation of a nuclear power programme has been successfully completed. The ‘infrastructure milestone’ is therefore a description of a set of conditions, without specific time based implications.
A multi-contract approach sees the owner or an architect/engineer assume overall responsibility for detailed engineering and plant construction. The owner or architect/engineer issues and manages a large number of contracts.
A country considering embarking on a Nuclear Power Programme.
National infrastructure includes organizational, regulatory, social, technological, economic, manpower, governmental, industrial, legal, educational and training infrastructure.
National nuclear power infrastructure
An infrastructure that provides governmental, legal, regulatory, managerial, technological, human and industrial support for the Nuclear Power Programme throughout its life cycle.
A national position for a nuclear power programme is the outcome of a process that establishes the governmental strategy and commitment to develop, implement and maintain a safe, secure and sustainable nuclear power programme. This process will result in a national decision that clearly communicates the country’s national policy, as well as the country’s commitment to proceed according to international obligations of the country, and international norms and standards.
National priorities play a large role in the development of a national energy policy and may include, among others: energy security, energy reliability, development of indigenous energy resources, access to affordable energy services and environmental protection.
Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organisation. An organization that will be formed by the Government to study and initially promote the development of the Nuclear Power Programme, producing a comprehensive study of the issues and conditions necessary for the successful implementation of nuclear power in the country.
Non-conformances are products and processes that do not conform to the specified requirements and should therefore be identified, segregated, controlled, recorded and reported to an appropriate level of management within the organization.
National Radiation Emergency Plan.
Nuclear steam supply system.
Nuclear Power Programme
All the activities and projects aimed at developing nuclear power and activities entailing sustained attention to many interrelated activities over a long duration and involving a commitment of at least 100 years throughout the installation, planning, preparation, construction, operation, decommissioning and waste disposal management.
A Nuclear Power Programme will require the establishment of a sustainable national infrastructure that provides governmental, legal, regulatory, managerial, technological, human and industrial support for the programme, throughout its life cycle.
The achievement of proper operating conditions, prevention of accidents or mitigation of accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue radiation hazards.
The prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities.
An electricity buyer via a pre-negotiated offtake agreement. An offtake agreement is an agreement between a producer of a resource and a buyer of a resource to purchase/sell portions of the producer's future production. An offtake agreement is normally negotiated prior to the construction of a facility to secure a market for the future output of the facility. If lenders can see the company will have a purchaser of its production, it makes it easier to obtain financing to construct a facility.
Operational Intervention Levels
In an emergency, predetermined OILs are used immediately and directly (without further assessment) to determine the appropriate protective actions and other response actions.
Operational Safety Assessment Review Team (OSART)
A service to review operational safety performance at a nuclear power plant to assist Member States in enhancing the operational safety of specific nuclear power plants and to promote the continuous development of operational safety within all Member States through the dissemination of information on IAEA safety standards and good practices.
Operational waste is radioactive waste generated during the operation of a nuclear power plant. Whilst the radioactivity of this waste is much lower than that found in spent fuel, the volume of this waste is far larger.
Any organization or person applying for authorization or authorized and/or responsible for nuclear, radiation, radioactive waste or transport safety when undertaking activities or in relation to any facilities or sources of ionizing radiation. This includes, inter alia, private individuals, governmental bodies, consignors or carriers, licensees, hospitals, self-employed persons, etc.
Organizational culture encompasses physical manifestations (behaviours, words, and symbols) as well as invisible aspects (norms, values, thoughts, feelings and assumptions) that are shared by people in an organization and that influence the way people interact with each other inside and outside the organization.
People employed in an organization or engaged in an organized undertaking.
1 Site personnel
All persons working in the site area of an authorized facility, either permanently or temporarily.
2 Operating personnel
Individual workers engaged in the operation of an authorized facility.
The period during which the specific conditions required are completed in order to reach a Milestone.
A long cloud of smoke or vapour extending from a point of origin.
Policy (for radioactive waste management)
National policy for spent fuel and radioactive waste management is important for every country that produces radioactive waste. It is particularly vital in countries which are in the early stages of introducing nuclear power to enable development of safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of radioactive waste and spent fuel.
Document that provides the detailed analysis necessary for a government to make an informed decision to adopt nuclear power.
Precedence Diagram Method (PDM)
PDM is a method of constructing a project schedule network diagram using nodes (boxes) to represent activities and their dependencies, using connecting arrows.
A prefeasibility study evaluates the potential of introducing nuclear power into a country’s energy mix. The prefeasibility study does not evaluate the option of a specific nuclear power plant project (this is the role of the feasibility study) but rather analyses the role of a new nuclear power programme in a country’s overall energy system and economy. Any prefeasibility studies conducted by a country will provide valuable information and input for the final comprehensive report.
A process can be defined as any activity or group of activities that takes an input, adds value to it, and provides an output.
The designated individual who has the authority and responsibility for each process is often referred to as the process owner.
Programme (or Project) Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
PERT is a statistical tool designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in a project. Commonly used in conjunction with CPM, PERT is able to incorporate uncertainty by scheduling a project when precise details and durations of all activities may not be known.
Managing a project in accordance with the agreed scope, schedule, cost and quality requirements.
When used in IAEA publications, the term radiation normally refers only to ionizing radiation (see definition). The IAEA has no statutory responsibilities in relation to non-ionizing radiation.
The nucleus of a radioisotope is unstable. In an attempt to reach a more stable arrangement of its protons and neutrons, the nucleus will spontaneously decompose. This decomposition of the nucleus is referred to as radioactive decay.
During radioactive decay an unstable nucleus spontaneously decomposes to form a different nucleus, giving off radiation in the form of atomic particles or high energy rays. This decay occurs at a constant, predictable rate that is referred to as half-life. A stable nucleus will not undergo this kind of decay and is thus non-radioactive.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or activities greater than clearance level (e.g. activity concentration, above which regulatory control is necessary).
Radioactivity is the phenomenon whereby atoms undergo spontaneous random disintegration, usually accompanied by the emission of radiation. In IAEA publications, radioactivity should be used only to refer to the phenomenon. To refer to the physical quantity or to an amount of a radioactive substance, use activity.
Conditions found in an area resulting from the presence of a radiological hazard.
Regulatory body (The). An authority or a system of authorities designated by the government of a State as having legal authority for conducting the regulatory process, including issuing authorizations, and thereby regulating nuclear, radiation, radioactive waste and transport safety.
A nucleus (of an atom) that possesses properties of spontaneous disintegration (radioactivity). Nuclei are distinguished by their mass and atomic number.
The safety requirement documents relate to the safety requirements which should be considered and used in designing, operating and commissioning nuclear facilities. The requirements are not mandatory, however, they are recommended.
An organization whose function, among others, is to respond to a radiation emergency in accordance with national or local radiation emergency plan.
An agreement between the IAEA and one or more Member States which contains an undertaking by one or more of those States not to use certain items in such a way as to further any military purpose and which gives the IAEA the right to observe compliance with such undertaking.
The achievement of proper operating conditions, prevention of accidents or mitigation of accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue radiation hazards.
The assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, protection and safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance.
Safety Guides provide recommendations and guidance on how to comply with the safety requirements, indicating an international consensus that it is necessary to take the measures recommended (or equivalent alternative measures). The Safety Guides present international good practices, and increasingly they reflect best practices, to help users striving to achieve high levels of safety. The recommendations provided in Safety Guides are expressed as ‘should’ statements.
A framework through which this safety is achieved, and described as the set of institutional, organizational and technical elements and conditions established in a Member state to provide a sound foundation for ensuring a sustainable high level of nuclear safety.
An integrated and consistent set of Safety Requirements establishes the requirements that must be met to ensure the protection of people and the environment, both now and in the future. The requirements are governed by the objective and principles of the Safety Fundamentals. If the requirements are not met, measures must be taken to reach or restore the required level of safety.
The format and style of the requirements facilitate their use for the establishment, in a harmonized manner, of a national regulatory framework. The safety requirements use ‘shall’ statements together with statements of associated conditions to be met. Many requirements are not addressed to a specific party, the implication being that the appropriate parties are responsible for fulfilling them.
Systematic Approach to Training.
Strategic Environmental Assessment – assesses the consequences of the policies and programs created for a new nuclear power plant.
Sealed radioactive source
A sealed radioactive source is a container of encapsulated radioactive material, which usually has the appearance of a small, harmless piece of metal. The capsule or material of a sealed source is strong enough to maintain leak tightness under the conditions of use for which the source was designed, and also under foreseeable mishaps. In more technical terms, it is radioactive material, used as a source of radiation, that is
- permanently sealed in a capsule or
- closely bonded and in a solid form.
The source is designed to contain the radioactive material under normal operating conditions and usually has high concentration of radioactive material in a small volume.
The prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage,
unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities.
Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Relevant and Targeted, as applied to training objectives.
Subject matter expert.
Solidification of radioactive waste
Immobilization of gaseous, liquid or liquid-like materials by conversion into a solid waste form, usually with the intent of producing a physically stable material that is easier to handle and less dispersible. Calcination, drying, cementation, bituminization and vitrification are some of the typical ways of solidifying liquid waste. See also conditioning; immobilization.
Nuclear fuel is removed from a reactor following irradiation. This material, known as spent fuel, is no longer efficient mainly due to the depletion of fissile material and a build-up of neutron absorbing fission products.
Spent fuel management
All activities that related to the handling or storage of spent fuel, excluding off-site transport. It may also involve discharges.
A split package contract means the technical responsibility is divided between a relatively small number of contractors, each building a large section of the plant (for example, the nuclear island or balance of plant).
Any actor-institution, group or individual with an interest in or a role to play in the societal decision making process.
Stochastic effects associated with the long-term effects of low-level radiation exposure. They include cancer, leukemia and genetic defects. Increased levels of exposure will make these health effects more likely to occur, but will not influence the type or severity of the effect.
Storage (for spent fuel or radioactive waste)
In this context, storage refers to the holding of spent fuel or of radioactive waste in a facility that provides for its containment with the intention of retrieval. Storage is by definition an interim measure (for a limited period of time) contrasted with disposal, which is a permanent solution for radioactive waste.
Strategy (for radioactive waste management)
The national strategy details the way in which the policy will be implemented. It specifies the arrangements for managing each of the waste streams created by the nuclear power plant. This includes the required facilities for waste processing, storage and disposal. It also sets out a time frame for the implementation of each waste management stage.
Where a single contract covers the entire plant design and construction.
Systematic Approach to Training (SAT)
Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) is the IAEA recommended approach to competence management, which is generally accepted by all nuclear organizations. The SAT process identifies the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary required to perform a particular job to a specified standard and enables the development of training programmes to support this requirement.
A measurable, well-defined unit of work with an identifiable beginning and end. A task can be split into sub-tasks.
Formal identification of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to competently perform a task.
In the training context, a statement on the purpose or goal of a particular training session, course or programme. It describes the measurable performance a trainee should be able to demonstrate on completion of a training intervention.
The ESPOO Convention
Informal name for the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context.
A statement of the expected performance of a trainee, in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes, on completion of a particular part of a training programme, to what standards and under what conditions.
Transactional leaders are managers; they set objectives, monitor performance, and make corrections as needed.
Transformational leaders have a vision, and inspire people to go above and beyond their mere self-interest to achieve it.
Where a single contract covers most plant construction, but the owner/operator manages the civil and infrastructure works.
The vendor is the entity responsible for supplying all (or part) of the Nuclear Power Plant, according to the contract specifications of the Member State. They are responsible for ensuring that adequate safety standards, consistent with international safety standards, are integrated into the design of the nuclear power plant.
Very low level waste (VLLW)
Waste that does not necessarily meet the criteria of EW, but that does not need a high level of containment and isolation and, therefore, is suitable for disposal in near surface landfill type facilities with limited regulatory control. Such landfill type facilities may also contain other hazardous waste. Typical waste in this class includes soil and rubble with low levels of activity concentration. Concentrations of longer lived radionuclides in VLLW are generally very limited.
Very short lived waste (VSLW)
Waste that can be stored for decay over a limited period of up to a few years and subsequently cleared from regulatory control according to arrangements approved by the regulatory body, for uncontrolled disposal, use or discharge. This class includes waste containing primarily radionuclides with very short half-lives often used for research and medical purposes.
The process of incorporating materials into a glass or glass-like form.
Vitrification is commonly applied to the solidification of liquid high level waste from the reprocessing of spent fuel. The vitreous product that results from incorporating waste into a glass.
World Association of Nuclear Operatives.
A method used to group various types of radioactive waste according to their physical, chemical and radiological characteristics. The IAEA General Safety guide GSG 1 recommends the main radioactive waste classes.
The IAEA waste classification is based primarily on considerations of long term safety, and thus, by implication, disposal of the waste.
All activities, administrative and operational, that are involved in the handling, pre-treatment, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal of radioactive waste.
Waste Management Organization (WMO)
The waste management organization is body responsible for safe disposal (ultimate solution) of RW and SF. In some countries this body could take also responsibility for some pre-disposal RW/SF activities.
An activity where types of waste or material (radioactive or exempt) are separated or are kept separate on the basis of radiological, chemical and/or physical properties, to facilitate waste handling and/or processing.
Work breakdown structure (WBS)
WBS is a breakdown of a project into smaller components, based on specific project deliverables. It defines and groups projects, which helps organize and define the total work scope. It also helps to provide a necessary framework for cost estimation and control, and provides guidance for schedule development and control.
The systematic identification and analysis of what an organization (and a country) is going to need in terms of the size, type and quality of workforce to achieve its objectives. It determines what mix of experience and competencies are expected to be needed, and identifies the steps that should be taken to get the right number of the right people in the right place at the right time.