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J. Agric. Food Chem. 48; 559-565.
Oufedjikh H., Mahrouz M., Amiot M. J., and Lacroix M.
J. Agric. Food Chem., 50 (25), pp 7271–7276.
Mahrouz Mostafa, Lacroix Monique, D'Aprano Giuseppe, Oufedjikh Hafida, Boubekri Cheikh, and Gagnon Marcel
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 76; 1631-1635
The effects of a potential quarantine treatment consisting of exposure to X-ray irradiation against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on ‘Clemenules’ mandarin quality are presented and compared with those from the standard cold temperature quarantine treatment. X-ray irradiation doses of 0.195 and 0.395 kGy had no detrimental effects on fruit quality (rind color, firmness, juice yield, maturity index, internal volatiles, deterioration index and sensory evaluation). These results therefore indicate that X-ray irradiation is a harmless and highly effective quarantine technique for clementine mandarin and this technique could be as useful as the current cold treatment for ‘Clemenules’ mandarins.
Alonso, M., Palow L., del Rio M.A., Jacas J.A.
Citrus disinfestation; Ceratitis capitata; Physical pest control; Fruit quality; Clementine mandarin
Food Technology in Australia, 22: 664-667
Radiosterilization & Radiopreservation--Foods; N28610 --Life Sciences--Radiation Effects on Animals--Invertebrates; AUSTRALIA; BANANAS; DISINFESTATION; EGGS; FLAVOR; FRUIT FLIES; GAMMA RADIATION; IRRADIATION; LARVAE; PUPAE; RADIATION DOSES EGGS/radiation effects on survival of fruit fly, on bananas,; GAMMARADIATION/effects on survival of eggs and pupae of fruit flies on bananas; PUPAE/radiation effects on survival of fruit fly, on bananas,; FRUITS/bananas,radiation processing of, survival of eggs and pupae of fruit flies following; INSECTA/Dacus strumeta, radiation effects on survival of eggs and pupae of,on bananas,
Eric B.; LeCompte J.; Klein S.; Kricker W.
RADIATION, DOSES, EGGS, effects, survival, fruit fly, effect on bananas
Radiation Physics and Chemistry 130:148–153.
The corn stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) is an important corn pest in the Mediterranean countries.In this study, we investigated the influence of X-ray irradiation on different developmental stages, reproduction and DNA damage to the insect. Eggs (0–24 hold),larvae(5thinstar), pupae (5 days after pupation) and adults (24h after emergence) were irradiated with X-ray irradiationat target doses of 0(control), 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. Eggs irradiated at all doses did not hatch. When 5th instar were irradiated pupation and adult emergence significantly decreased. Fecundity of adults from irradiated pupae was inhibited and no eggs werel aid. Moreover,adult longevity decreased after irradiation compared to control. Larvae, pupae, and adults of S. nonagrioides were studied using the single- cell gel electrophoresis (DNAcomet) directly after irradiation. X-ray irradiated larvae, pupae, and adults showed typical DNA fragmentation in adose-dependent manner compared with cells from non-irradiated groups. The amount of DNA damage increased as doses increased and possibly could be used to estimate dose applied in commercial phytosanitary irradiation treatments. Furthermore, irradiation would be an effective phytosanitary treatment for shipped commodities at risk infestation with S. nonagrioides.
Aksoy Hatice Avan, Yazıcı Nizamettin, Erel Yakup
X-ray, irradiated, Hatchability, Pupation, Fecundity, Comet assay
Florida Entomologist, 99(sp1):95-104. DOI:
One of the most important components of a program that has a sterile insect technique (SIT) component is an appropriate irradiation dose. Knowing the organismal dose-response enables the selection of a dose that induces the highest level of sterility while preserving the sexual competitiveness and other desired qualities of the sterile insect. Finding this balance in Lepidoptera is crucial because of the use of inherited (F1) sterility, where the irradiated parent must be competitive enough to mate while its offspring must be sterile. Manipulations of atmospheric oxygen content have been shown to be an effective way of lowering post-irradiation somatic damage while preserving sterility and improving sterile insect performance, particularly in fruit flies. In this study we tested the irradiation dose response of adults of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and the effects of those doses on sterility, longevity, and F1 performance, and whether a nitrogen conditioning-treatment (anoxia) prior to and during irradiation affected these metrics. We found that male and female fecundities were not impacted by dose or atmospheric treatment, but females were sterilized at lower doses than males. Eggs of irradiated parents took longer to hatch than those of unirradiated controls, and offspring of moths irradiated in anoxia lived longer in the absence of food and water. Anoxia conditioning rescued female fertility at intermediate doses but had no similar rescue effect on male fertility, which was always greater than female fertility at a given dose. Males generally lived longer than females and anoxia had a strong effect in lowering the male mortality rate and extending lifespan at a given dose. We show evidence that anoxia-conditioning prior to and during irradiation as part of a lepidopteran program with an SIT component could improve parental and larval performance and longevity.
López-Martínez Giancarlo, Carpenter James E., Hight Stephen D. and Hahn Daniel A.
sterile insect technique; dose response; invasive species; inherited (F1) sterility
Florida Entomologist, 99(sp1):66-72. DOI:
Male and female litchi stem-end borers, Conopomorpha sinensis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) were γ-irradiated in a 60Co source during several periods of their pupal development and as newly emerged adults. When mature pupae, the most suitable stage for irradiation, received increasing γ-radiation doses, the emergence rate, flight ability and adult longevity were increasingly diminished. Females that emerged from mature pupae irradiated with 200, 250, and 300 Gy did not oviposit any eggs when mated with either non-irradiated males (UM) or treated males (TM), indicating that 200 Gy was a sufficient dose for inducing complete sterility in females. The hatch rates of eggs oviposited by non-irradiated females (UF) mated with males irradiated with either 200, 250 or 300 Gy were 31, 13.5 and 0.67%, respectively. However, if the father—parental generation (P)—of the male in the cross, UF × F1M, had been irradiated with either 200, 250 or 300 Gy, then the percent hatch of the eggs produced was either 9.37 ± 1.68, 0 or 0%, respectively; which indicated that 250 and 300 Gy applied to P generation males resulted in complete sterility in F1 males. The sexual competitiveness (C) of male litchi stem-end borers that had been irradiated with 250 Gy ranged between 0.53 and 0.62 as measured by ratio tests in laboratory cages with UF:UM:TM ratios of 1:1:1, 1:1:3 and 1:1:5. In a field cage experiment, a mean C value of 0.48 was observed when males were treated with 250 Gy. The C values obtained suggest that males treated with 250 Gy could compete adequately with wild litchi stem-end borers both under laboratory and field cage conditions to warrant pilot scale field tests
Haohao Fu, Fu-wei Zhu, Yue-ye Deng, Qun-fang Weng, Mei-ying Hu and Tian-zhu Zhang
litchi stem-end borer; irradiation; sterile insect technique; F1 sterility; fecundity; fertility; inherited sterility; sexual competitiveness
International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences vol.3 n.4, 2348-3997
Phytosanitary practices based on the extensive use of insecticides in citrus groves to control the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata may cause the resurgence of resistant strains of this pest, the emergence of secondary pests by elimination of their natural enemies, and increase the growing public concerns over issues related to public health, environmental quality, and food safety. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop an alternative and environmentally compatible method for C.capitata management. This study evaluated the efficacy of treatments using kaolin, spinosad bait or the protein bait application technique (BAT), and assess how these different treatments may be associated with improved control of C.capitata on several citrus varieties. Experiments were conducted in citrus orchards in the Gharb area (North-western part of Morocco): plots of Clementine (Citrus reticulata, var. Cadoux), sweet orange (C.sinensis, var. Hamlin; Washington Navel and Thomson). Success bait (spinosad + food attractant), kaolin suspension and protein bait application technique, based either on deltamethrin (dBAT) or malathion (mBAT) were applied on citrus plots against C.capitata. The effect of these treatments on fruit infestation by C.capitata was also assessed. At harvest, a sample of 1000 fruits was picked randomly from each plot and examined to assess the infestation percentage. There were fewer medfly captured and lower associated fruit infestation in the plots treated with the kaolin compared to those treated with BAT or spinosad. Kaolin used at a low concentration (1.4%) showed a similar level of infestation to spinosad. Based on these field results, it appears that sweet orange (C.sinensis, var. Hamlin) is the most tolerant to C.capitata infestation. The feasibility of combining resistant citrus varieties with these alternative methods of population management is discussed; and will be considered in the development of an integrated pest management strategy against C. capitata in citrus groves in Morocco.
Smaili M.C., Bakri A., Gaboune F. , Bouharroud R. and Blenzar A.
Morocco, Citrus, Varieties, Medfly, Integrated Pest Management.
J. Econ. Entomol. 108(5): 2200–2212; DOI: 10.1093/jee/tov201
Male adult navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), were irradiated using a laboratory scale x-ray irradiation unit to determine the required dose for complete egg sterility of mated female moths and inherited sterility of F1 and F2 generations. Adult male A. transitella were irradiated in two separate experiments at 100–300 Gy and 50–175 Gy. Mating frequency, fecundity, and fertility of normal females crossed with irradiated parental males was compared with the mating of nonirradiated moths. Mating frequency was 100% for females crossed with nonirradiated control males. At male treatment doses of 150 Gy the percentage of females found unmated increased, while multiple-mated females decreased. Female fecundity was not affected while fertility was affected in a dose-dependent relationship to exposure of parental males to x-ray irradiation. Embryonic development of eggs to the prehatch stage and egg eclosion did not occur at radiation doses 125 Gy. Emergence of F1 adults was low and occurred only for progeny of parental males exposed to doses 100 Gy, with no emergence at 125 Gy. Though fecundity appeared similar for control and irradiated F1 females, no F2 eggs hatched for the test exposures of 50–100 Gy. Based on our results, a dose of 125 Gy had efficacy in inducing both primary parental sterility in treated male moths and inherited sterility in F1 male and female moths. Results suggest that A. transitella might be considered a candidate for the sterile insect technique using adults irradiated at these relatively low x-ray exposure doses.
Amyelois transitella, navel orangeworm, irradiation, x-ray, sterility
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology [online print february 2016]; DOI: 10.1002/arch.21330
The sterile insect technique (SIT) was developed to eradicate the new world screwworm from the southern United States and Mexico, and became a component of many area-wide integrated pest management programs, particularly useful in managing tephritid fruit flies. SIT is based on the idea of rearing and sterilizing male pests, originally by ionizing radiation, and then releasing into field, where they compete for and mate with wild females. Mating with sterile males leads to reduced fecundity to lower pest populations. There are concerns with the use and distribution of radioisotopes for SIT programs, which have led to developing X-ray irradiation protocols to sterilize insects. We considered the possibility that X-ray irradiation exerts sublethal impacts aside form sterilizing insects. Such effects may not be directly observable, which led us to the hypothesis that X-ray irradiation in one life stage creates alterations in biological fitness and protein expression in the subsequent stage. We tested our hypothesis by irradiating larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis. There are two major points. One, exposing larvae to X-ray treatments led to reduced adult emergence, fecundity, fertility, and flight capacity from the corresponding pupae and emerged adults. Two, the X-ray treatments led to substantial expression changes in 27 pupal proteins. We assorted the 67 spots representing these proteins into three groups, metabolism, development, and structure. Our interpretation is these X-ray induced changes in biological performance and protein expression indicate their adult counterparts may be disabled in their abilities to successfully compete for and mate wild females in native habitats.
Chang CL , Goodman CL , Ringbauer J , Geib SM , Stanley D
radiation;chitin;oriental fruit fly;gene expression
Food Control Available online 19 February 2016 (doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.02.029)
A low-dose gamma radiation phytosanitary treatment against the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, was developed for guava fruits. The measure for efficacy of the treatment is preventing adult emergence from late third instars that were reared in the fruit of guava, Psidium guajava L. The dose-response tests with 1-, 2-, 3-, 7-d-old larvae in guava were initiated to determine the most tolerant stages, the late-aged third instars. No adult emerged from a total of 100,684 late-aged third instars irradiated at the dose of 97∼116 Gy, resulting in an efficacy of 99.9970% at the 95% confidence level. The minimum dose for 100% preventing adult emergence from 2-, 5-, 7-d-old pupae (1,800 pupae in each dose) reared in artificial diets was 100, 500, and 1750 Gy, respectively. Quality determinations on ‘Taiwan’ guavas were conducted at 1, 3 and 7 days after gamma radiation at doses of 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,200, 2000 and 6000 Gy. The guavas could tolerate radiation dose up to 600∼800 Gy as there were no significant changes in organoleptic characteristics (≤800 Gy), the chemical and nutritional contents (sugar, sucrose, total sugar, titratable acid, vitamin C, and soluble solid) (≤600 Gy). Therefore, a dose of 116 Gy, which give the disinfestations efficacy of 99.9968% for the late-aged larvae in guavas and 100% mortality of 2-d-old pupae, is suggested as the minimum absorbed dose for phytosanitary irradiation treatment of B. dorsalis in fruits.
Zhao Jupenga, Ma Juna, Wu Mutaoa, Jiao Xiaoguob, Wang Zhanggenc, Liang Fana, Zhan Guopingd
Bactrocera dorsalis; guava; phytosanitary irradiation; quality evaluation; gamma radiation
Insect Molecular Biology. doi: 10.1111/imb.12205 (Article first published online: 11 DEC 2015)
Speckled (Spc), an X-ray-induced lethal mutant of Bombyx mori, exhibits a mosaic dark-brown-spotted larval epidermis in both sexes and egg-laying problems only in females. Here, we report the morphological characterization and molecular mapping of the Spc mutant. Morphological investigations revealed that the epidermal ultrastructure of the small, dark-brown spots was more dense than that of the white regions in both Spc/+ mutants and wild type, and that the lethality of the Spc/Spc mutants occurred during early embryogenesis. Furthermore, the ovarioles and ovipositor were disconnected in approximately 85.5% of Spc/+ females, a further 2.5% had a connection between the ovarioles and ovipositor that was too narrow to lay eggs. The remaining females showed a normal connection similar to that of the wild type. We successfully narrowed down the location of the Spc mutation to a region on chromosome 4 that was ∼1041 kb long. Gene-prediction analysis identified 25 candidate genes in this region. Chromosome structure analysis indicated that a ∼305 kb deletion was included in the mapping region. Temporal and spatial reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis showed that several genes in the mapped region are associated with the Spc mutant. Although the genes responsible for the Spc mutation were not definitively identified, our results further the current understanding of the complex mechanism underlying the multiple morphological defects in Spc mutants.
Tan, D., Tong, X.-L., Hu, H., Wu, S.-Y., Li, C.-L., Xiong, G., Xiang, Z.-H., Dai, F.-Y. and Lu, C.
Bombyx mori;speckled mutant;phenotypic analysis;molecular mapping;autosomal fragment deletion
Journal of Economic Entomology, DOI: 2610-2619 First published online: 28 August 2015
The effect of cold immobilization and long-distance transport of irradiated Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) on the flight ability of male (♂) and female (♀) moths, the longevity of male and female moths, and the realized fecundity of mating pairs CIM (chilled irradiated moths) ♀ × CIM♂, CIM♀ × NIP (nonirradiated pupae) ♂, NIP♀ × CIM♂, and NIP♀ × NIP♂ was examined to improve application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Adult moths treated with 150 Gy of gamma radiation were immobilized with cold temperature between 4 and 6°C inside a polyurethane cooler box and transported for 12 h by road from Citrusdal, Western Cape Province, to Addo, Eastern Cape Province. Nonirradiated moths were transported as pupae inside a cardboard tray and removed by hand after which male and female pupae were separated and placed inside containers for eclosion. Male and female moths were individually placed inside petri dishes to determine longevity or paired with irradiated and nonirradiated counterparts to evaluate realized fecundity before incubation in 100% darkness at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. Flight tests were conducted indoors at 25°C by release of individual moths per hand. A significant decrease in flight ability and longevity of irradiated false codling moth was found after handling, cold immobilization, and transport, although critically, realized fecundity was not affected. Because of the impact of long-distance transport on quality of the released insects as well as the efficacy of SIT, comprehensive protocols for this critical step in the process need to be developed for a pestiferous insect with phytosanitary status such as false codling moth.
Nepgen E. S., Hill M. P., Moore S. D.
application technology, insect shipment, citrus, South Africa
Journal of Insect Physiology Volume 85, Pages 17–22; DOI: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2015.11.011
Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids.
Landeta-Escamilla A., Hernández Emilio, Arredondo José, Díaz-Fleischer Francisco, Pérez-Staples Diana
Sperm; Mating inhibition; SIT; Mass-production; Tephritidae
Dr. Mitsuru Nenoi (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-2167-1, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/60409. Available from:
Radiation in the form of particles (α or β particles and neutrons) or electromagnetic waves (gamma or X-rays) can induce biological effects in insect cells like in other living cells. Ionization and chemical damages to organic molecules can be caused directly (mostly by particulate types of radiation) or indirectly by free radicals. Radioinduced ions and radicals, most of them coming from water radiolysis, may react with neighboring molecules to produce secondary DNA radicals or even chain reactions, particularly in lipids, and most of the significant biological effects results from damage to DNA. Currently, more than 300 species of arthropods, mostly of economic importance, have already been subjected to irradiation studies for basic research, pest control applications, and disinfestation of commodities (quarantine and phytosanitary purposes). This chapter focused on insect sterilization and disinfestation by ionizing radiations in view of the socioeconomic impacts. The release of insects that are sterile after exposure to radiation aiming to control or eradicate pest populations revealed to be a revolutionary tactic in the area-wide management of pests, and many successful cases with the application of the sterile insect technique can be found around the globe. The use of ionizing radiations to inhibit the spread of quarantine insects represents an important alternative postharvest control, and the development of generic radiation treatments has resulted in a significant increase in the international use of phytosanitary irradiation for trade in horticultural products and other commodities.
Valter Arthur, Andre Machi and Thiago Mastrangelo
Radiation, sterile insects, phytosanitary irradiation
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 76: 51–55. DOI:
Mating preference of laboratory-reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (medfly), was studied in field cages. When laboratory-reared flies unirradiated and irradiated with 7, 10, 13, and 16 krad in N2 and dyed were compared with wild flies, mating speed of unirradiated, laboratory-reared flies was faster than that of wild flies. The unirradiated, laboratory-reared males preferred mating with unirradiated, laboratory-reared females, and wild males preferred mating with wild females. When laboratory-reared flies irradiated at 7, 10, 13, and 16 krad in N2 were paired with wild flies, however, mating speed was similar for both strains and mating became random apparently because the mating speed of the irradiated, laboratory-reared flies was reduced. In the tests combining flies exposed to all six treatments (laboratory-reared flies irradiated at 7, 10, 13, and 16 krad in N2, unirradiated flies, and wild flies) in one cage, those wild females which mated, mated equally well with wild males, and laboratory-reared males showing no preference and those laboratory males which mated, mated equally well with wild or laboratory females, again showing no preference.
Wong, T.T.Y., J. I. Nishimoto, andH.M. Couey
Diptera; Tephritidae, competition, medfly; irradiation
Journal of Economic Entomology [DOI: First published online: 28 August 2015]
The effect of cold immobilization and long-distance transport of irradiated Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) on the flight ability of male (♂) and female (♀) moths, the longevity of male and female moths, and the realized fecundity of mating pairs CIM (chilled irradiated moths) ♀ × CIM♂, CIM♀ × NIP (nonirradiated pupae) ♂, NIP♀ × CIM♂, and NIP♀ × NIP♂ was examined to improve application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Adult moths treated with 150 Gy of gamma radiation were immobilized with cold temperature between 4 and 6°C inside a polyurethane cooler box and transported for 12 h by road from Citrusdal, Western Cape Province, to Addo, Eastern Cape Province. Nonirradiated moths were transported as pupae inside a cardboard tray and removed by hand after which male and female pupae were separated and placed inside containers for eclosion. Male and female moths were individually placed inside petri dishes to determine longevity or paired with irradiated and nonirradiated counterparts to evaluate realized fecundity before incubation in 100% darkness at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. Flight tests were conducted indoors at 25°C by release of individual moths per hand. A significant decrease in flight ability and longevity of irradiated false codling moth was found after handling, cold immobilization, and transport, although critically, realized fecundity was not affected. Because of the impact of long-distance transport on quality of the released insects as well as the efficacy of SIT, comprehensive protocols for this critical step in the process need to be developed for a pestiferous insect with phytosanitary status such as false codling moth.
Nepgen ES, Hill MP, Moore SD
South Africa; application technology; citrus; insect shipment, sterile insecte technique
In: Vreysen MJB, Robinson AS, Hendrichs J. (ed) Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests from research to field implementation. Springer, Netherlands, pp 497‒504
fields, and ditches of an herbicide that selectively kills key spring broad leaf hosts of the tarnished plant bug Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) was developed and implemented in four 23 square kilometre areas. Overall mean numbers of tarnished plant bug adults and nymphs were significantly lower in treated-area cotton. The average reductions in overall mean numbers of plant bugs in the treated areas were 45.5 and 47% for adults and nymphs, respectively, from 1999-2001. Economists at Mississippi State University conducted an analysis of the programme used on over 8400 hectares of cotton in 1999-2001, and demonstrated that the technology produced savings of USD 14.59/ha in insecticide costs (herbicide application included). An environmental impact study conducted by Louisiana State University, detected no to extremely low levels of herbicide residue in run-off water from conducting the programme. Research is currently being conducted to investigate the use of a fungal entomopathogen, sterile males, and parasitoids to augment or replace the use of herbicides.
Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, cotton, marginal areas, early season wild host plant, area-wide suppression, herbicides
In: Vreysen MJB, Robinson AS, Hendrichs J. (ed) Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests from research to field implementation. Springer, Netherlands, pp 475‒485
oconut palms in India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and the Philippines. Recently, this pest has spread to countries in the Persian Gulf and some areas of the Mediterranean basin where it is aserious menace to date palms. Management of this pest using conventional methods is not effective due to the difficulty of detecting early infestations. Trials were therefore conducted to assess the possibility of eventually including the sterile insect technique (SIT) to target populations at low densities as part of future integrated management of this pest.The steps taken included the adoption of a new mass-rearing method for weevils using coconut petioles, determination of the sterilization dose at 15Gy, a new relative method for estimating population levels of red palm weevils, and finally field release and recapture studies using pheromone traps. This paper deals with the results of these attempts to develop the SIT for use against the red palm weevil on Poothuruth Island near Dalavapuram Island in Kerala.
Krishnakumar R, Maheshwari P
Red Palmweevil, date palm, release-recapture studies, Kerala, sterile insect technique, IPM
 Journal title : Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry Volume 57, Issue ,2,  pp.141-144. Publisher : The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemisty. DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2014.021
The effects of electron beam irradiation on control of Myzus persicae and Planocococcus citri (Risso) were evaluated with the changes of mortality, emergence rate, fecundity, and egg hatchability. As a result of this study, M. persicae and P. citri (Risso) was not directly affected by electron beam irradiation with low doses (30, 60, 90, and 120 Gy) but the irradiation had effects on inhibition of development and reproduction of the pests.
Lee, Gyeong-Ae  ;  Park, Min-Goo  ;  Cho, Jae-Young ;
electron beam . insect/pest control . irradiation . Myzus persicae . Planococcus citri (Risso)
 Korean journal of applied entomology Volume 53, Issue ,4, pp.391-398. Publisher : Korean Society of Applied Entomology
 DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2014.10.0.054
This study investigated inhibitory doses of electron beam and X-ray irradiation by comparing their effects on the development and reproduction of four insect pests (Myzus persicae, Tetranychus urticae, Liriomyza trifolii, and Frankliniella intonsa). When M. persicae nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy of electron beam and 30 Gy of X-ray beam, offspring production by adults that developed from the treated nymphs was completely inhibited. When M. persicae adults were irradiated with 200 Gy of electron beam and 50 Gy of X-ray beam, emergence of the  generation was inhibited. However, these two ionizing radiations did not affect adult longevity. When T. urticae eggs were irradiated with 150 Gy of electron beam and 50 Gy of X-ray beam, egg hatching was completely inhibited. When L. trifolii pupae were irradiated, the emergence rate decreased with increasing doses of X-ray irradiation. After F. intonsa adults were irradiated with 250 Gy of electron beam and 200 Gy of X-ray beam, egg hatching of the  generation was completely suppressed.
Yun, Seung-Hwan  ;  Kim, Minjun  ;  Kim, Hyunah  ;  Lee, Seon-Woo  ;  Yoo, Dae Hyun  ;  Kim, Hyun Kyung  ;  Koo, Hyun-Na  ;  Kim, Gil-Hah ;
Insect pests . Electron beam . X-ray . Inhibition dose
J. Econ. Entomol. 108(3): 868–872; DOI: 10.1093/jee/tov068
Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5–7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1–4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread.
Aethina tumida, honey bee, Apis mellifera, x-ray radiation, sterile insect technique
Tissue and Cell; 46(4):274-285. DOI:10.1016/j.tice.2014.06.003 ·
In the present study we describe the morphology of the male reproductive apparatus and sperm ultrastructure of the red palm weevil - an invasive pest of several palm tree species - as well as the most important steps of spermatogenesis. The reproductive apparatus consists of a pair of testes (each formed by two lobes) a long tube-like accessory gland, a prostate gland and a small accessory gland. Characteristic features of the sperm are: 90 to 100 μm total length, 10 μm nucleus, two mitochondrial derivatives, two accessory bodies, one well-developed puff-like structure and a typical insect 9 + 9 + 2 flagellar axoneme. One of the methods used for the biological control of pests is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), for the evaluation of which we make a preliminary comparison of the sperm ultrastructure of non-irradiated and irradiated weevils (at a dose of 80 Gray). Feasibility of SIT to control red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier): An integrated physiological, ecological and genetic approach. Available from: [accessed Jul 8, 2015].
Paoli Francesco,Dallai Romano, Cristofaro Massimo, Arnone Silvia, Francardi Valeria, Roversi Pio Federico
Genital apparatus; Genital system; Insect spermatogenesis; Sterile insect technique (SIT); TEM
Atti Accad Naz Ital Entomol Rendiconti Anno LXI:239–246
The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), a weevil native to South- eastern Asia and Melanesia where it is a serious pest of coconuts, is considered the most dangerous pest of Canarian palm trees and date palm trees in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle Asia. Aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility to control the weevil pest by implementation of sterile insect technique (SIT) , particularly useful in area-wide IPM programs. Bioassays carried out at the ENEA C. R. Casaccia facilities were addressed to test the effects of different doses of γ rays on the weevil reproductive physiology and mating behavior. In spite of the apparent drawbacks in reproductive behavior of females observed in field (polyandry and high levels of fertility), laboratory experiment s satisfy some important requisites for the application of this technique (last male sperm precedence, high vitality and ability of mating of irradiated males) and suggest the possibility to use SIT in particular geographical contexts. Results and perspectiv es are discussed
Musmeci S, Cristofaro M, Arnone S, Sasso R, Baccaro S, Pasquali A, Catarci S
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Sterile Insect Technique, red palm weevil, integrated pest management
ESA 60TH Annual Meeting, Knoxville, Tennessee (USA)
Cristofaro M, Arnone S, Musmeci S, Sasso R, Lai A, De Biase A, La Marca A, Belvedere S, Marcari V, Senia G, Catarci S
Bull. Entomol. Res. 103:241–250
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most threatening pest of palms worldwide. The potential of gamma-irradiated males to spread a pathogenic strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) to control this pest was studied. First, the effects of gamma irradiation (15 and 25 Gy) on the mating success and performance of adult males irradiated at age one day were studied in the laboratory. Although male longevity decreased after irradiation (118.6 vs. 244.7 days for irradiated and control males, respectively) and their testes suffered from the treatment, fecundity of mated females did not depend on the irradiation status of the male (86.8±5.5 eggs in 15 days). However, egg hatching was significantly lower in couples with irradiated males (31.4% vs. 86.5% for irradiated and control couples, respectively), and this value decreased after a second mating (6.1% vs. 85.9%). Therefore, irradiation did not affect male sexual competiveness but sperm quality. Second, a semi-field assay was carried out to evaluate infestation in young Phoenix canariensis caused by different combinations of couples with irradiated and/or B. bassiana -challenged males. The number of immature stages found in infested palms was significantly higher when females mated with untreated males and lower when mated with irradiated males (either B. bassiana -infected or not). Some females from the fungus-challenged treatments showed post-mortem hyphal growth, and this horizontal transmission proves that irradiated males could act as a vector for B. bassiana and should be considered as a new method to improve the biological control of R. ferrugineus.
Llácer E, Santiago-Álvarez C, Jacas JA
gamma irradiation, horizontal transmission, entomopathogenic fungus, palm pest, Phoenix canariensis , autodissemination, sterile males
International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences (IJRAS) Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 29-33
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitiscapitata) eggs and larvae (1st, 2nd and 3rd instars) in ‘Valencia’ oranges, and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. The fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. The treatment with gamma irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of all immature stages of C. capitata in ‘Valencia’ oranges if applied at the doses of 72.88 Gy. Larvae of 3rd instar are more radio resistent when compared to eggs and larval of 1st and 2nd instar. The doses of gamma radiation used do not affect the chemical proprieties of ‘Valencia’ orange fruits. IDIDAS COMMENT: infestation was artificial, so results may not reflect the natural situation for which a treatment must be efficacious. Also, no data on effect of the treatment (dose not stated) on fruit were given other than the comment that quality was similar to non-irradiated ‘Valencia’ orange.
Bortoli, Sergio A. De; de Albergaria, Nuno M. M. S.; Dória, Háyda O. S.; Vacari, Alessandra M.; Duarte, Rogério T.; Arthur, Valter
Ionizing Radiation, Quarantine Treatment, Disinfestation, Ceratitis Capitata, Citrus Sinensis
Pest Manag Sci. article published online: 10 September 2014
( DOI 10.1002/ps.3905
BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmeswas about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n = 12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n = 108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populationswere not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allowearly detection and delimitationwhile invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
Suckling David Maxwell, Kean John M, Stringer Lloyd D,
Cáceres-Barrios Carlos, Hendrichs Jorge, Reyes-Flores Jesus
and Dominiak Bernard C.
Tephritidae; male annihilation; sterile insect technique; bait; trap; surveillance; incursions; quarantine
Biocontrol Science and Technology, 25:9, 1092-1103, DOI: 10.1080/09583157.2015.1030723
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata is a koinobiont larval parasitoid that is currently used to control fruit flies of the genera Anastrepha, Ceratitis and Bactrocera. In the rearing process, a fraction of the host larvae that are exposed to parasitoids escape from parasitism and develop into viable and fertile flies. This creates the need to eliminate emerging flies before the parasitoids are shipped for release, increasing costs due to additional handling steps. Exposure of fly eggs or larvae to gamma-irradiation before they are parasitised has been used to reproductively sterilise hosts, or even inhibit their emergence. Our aim was to determine whether X-ray radiation applied to Anastrepha fraterculus third instar larvae before they are exposed to parasitoids, inhibits fly emergence in non-parasitised larvae without affecting the performance of the parasitoids that emerge from parasitised larvae. Three X-ray doses: 6250.2 R, 8333.6 R and 10417 R (equivalent to 60, 80 and 100 Gy, respectively) and one γ-ray dose (100 Gy) were tested. Fly emergence decreased with increasing doses of radiation, showing null values for the higher X-ray dose and the dose of 100 Gy. Irradiation showed either no impact or a positive effect on parasitism rate and fecundity. Sex rate was biased towards females in almost every dose. We conclude that the two types of radiation evaluated here were equally effective in suppressing fly emergence with no detrimental effects on the biological quality of the produced parasitoids. X-rays offer an alternative method of irradiation than the conventional radiation source, i.e. γ-rays. These results represent a significant improvement in the development of a biological control programme against A. fraterculus.
Bachmann Guillermo E., Paladino Leonela Z. Carabajal, Claudia A. Conte, Francisco Devescovi, Fabián H. Milla, Jorge L. Cladera, Diego F. Segura & Mariana M. Viscarret
biological control; gamma rays; Anastrepha fraterculus; Diachasmimorpha longicaudata; fruit fly pests; natural enemies
J. Rediat. Res. Appl. Sci. 7:110-115.
Three substerilizing doses 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation were tested against full grown male and female pupae or against full-grown male or female pupae of Agrotis ipsilon. The results showed that fecundity of irradiated females crossed with irradiated males was decreased by increasing irradiation dose. The decrease in egg hatchability % and increase in sterility % induced by gamma radiation were found to be positively correlated with the dose level. The parentage of larval and pupal mortality increased significantly (p
Salem HM, Fouda MA, Abas A A, Ali WM, Gabarty A ().
Gamma irradiation Substerilizing doses Agrotis ipsilon
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