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5063
  
2015
J. Econ. Entomol. 108(5): 2200–2212; DOI: 10.1093/jee/tov201
Male adult navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), were irradiated using a laboratory scale x-ray irradiation unit to determine the required dose for complete egg sterility of mated female moths and inherited sterility of F1 and F2 generations. Adult male A. transitella were irradiated in two separate experiments at 100–300 Gy and 50–175 Gy. Mating frequency, fecundity, and fertility of normal females crossed with irradiated parental males was compared with the mating of nonirradiated moths. Mating frequency was 100% for females crossed with nonirradiated control males. At male treatment doses of 150 Gy the percentage of females found unmated increased, while multiple-mated females decreased. Female fecundity was not affected while fertility was affected in a dose-dependent relationship to exposure of parental males to x-ray irradiation. Embryonic development of eggs to the prehatch stage and egg eclosion did not occur at radiation doses 125 Gy. Emergence of F1 adults was low and occurred only for progeny of parental males exposed to doses 100 Gy, with no emergence at 125 Gy. Though fecundity appeared similar for control and irradiated F1 females, no F2 eggs hatched for the test exposures of 50–100 Gy. Based on our results, a dose of 125 Gy had efficacy in inducing both primary parental sterility in treated male moths and inherited sterility in F1 male and female moths. Results suggest that A. transitella might be considered a candidate for the sterile insect technique using adults irradiated at these relatively low x-ray exposure doses.
LIGHT,DM; OVCHINNIKOVA, I; JACKSON ES, AND HAFF RP.
Amyelois transitella, navel orangeworm, irradiation, x-ray, sterility
5062
  
2016
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology [online print february 2016]; DOI: 10.1002/arch.21330
The sterile insect technique (SIT) was developed to eradicate the new world screwworm from the southern United States and Mexico, and became a component of many area-wide integrated pest management programs, particularly useful in managing tephritid fruit flies. SIT is based on the idea of rearing and sterilizing male pests, originally by ionizing radiation, and then releasing into field, where they compete for and mate with wild females. Mating with sterile males leads to reduced fecundity to lower pest populations. There are concerns with the use and distribution of radioisotopes for SIT programs, which have led to developing X-ray irradiation protocols to sterilize insects. We considered the possibility that X-ray irradiation exerts sublethal impacts aside form sterilizing insects. Such effects may not be directly observable, which led us to the hypothesis that X-ray irradiation in one life stage creates alterations in biological fitness and protein expression in the subsequent stage. We tested our hypothesis by irradiating larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis. There are two major points. One, exposing larvae to X-ray treatments led to reduced adult emergence, fecundity, fertility, and flight capacity from the corresponding pupae and emerged adults. Two, the X-ray treatments led to substantial expression changes in 27 pupal proteins. We assorted the 67 spots representing these proteins into three groups, metabolism, development, and structure. Our interpretation is these X-ray induced changes in biological performance and protein expression indicate their adult counterparts may be disabled in their abilities to successfully compete for and mate wild females in native habitats.
Chang CL , Goodman CL , Ringbauer J , Geib SM , Stanley D
radiation;chitin;oriental fruit fly;gene expression
5061
  
2016
Food Control Available online 19 February 2016 (doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.02.029)
A low-dose gamma radiation phytosanitary treatment against the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, was developed for guava fruits. The measure for efficacy of the treatment is preventing adult emergence from late third instars that were reared in the fruit of guava, Psidium guajava L. The dose-response tests with 1-, 2-, 3-, 7-d-old larvae in guava were initiated to determine the most tolerant stages, the late-aged third instars. No adult emerged from a total of 100,684 late-aged third instars irradiated at the dose of 97∼116 Gy, resulting in an efficacy of 99.9970% at the 95% confidence level. The minimum dose for 100% preventing adult emergence from 2-, 5-, 7-d-old pupae (1,800 pupae in each dose) reared in artificial diets was 100, 500, and 1750 Gy, respectively. Quality determinations on ‘Taiwan’ guavas were conducted at 1, 3 and 7 days after gamma radiation at doses of 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,200, 2000 and 6000 Gy. The guavas could tolerate radiation dose up to 600∼800 Gy as there were no significant changes in organoleptic characteristics (≤800 Gy), the chemical and nutritional contents (sugar, sucrose, total sugar, titratable acid, vitamin C, and soluble solid) (≤600 Gy). Therefore, a dose of 116 Gy, which give the disinfestations efficacy of 99.9968% for the late-aged larvae in guavas and 100% mortality of 2-d-old pupae, is suggested as the minimum absorbed dose for phytosanitary irradiation treatment of B. dorsalis in fruits.
Zhao Jupenga, Ma Juna, Wu Mutaoa, Jiao Xiaoguob, Wang Zhanggenc, Liang Fana, Zhan Guopingd
Bactrocera dorsalis; guava; phytosanitary irradiation; quality evaluation; gamma radiation
5060
  
2015
Insect Molecular Biology. doi: 10.1111/imb.12205 (Article first published online: 11 DEC 2015)
Speckled (Spc), an X-ray-induced lethal mutant of Bombyx mori, exhibits a mosaic dark-brown-spotted larval epidermis in both sexes and egg-laying problems only in females. Here, we report the morphological characterization and molecular mapping of the Spc mutant. Morphological investigations revealed that the epidermal ultrastructure of the small, dark-brown spots was more dense than that of the white regions in both Spc/+ mutants and wild type, and that the lethality of the Spc/Spc mutants occurred during early embryogenesis. Furthermore, the ovarioles and ovipositor were disconnected in approximately 85.5% of Spc/+ females, a further 2.5% had a connection between the ovarioles and ovipositor that was too narrow to lay eggs. The remaining females showed a normal connection similar to that of the wild type. We successfully narrowed down the location of the Spc mutation to a region on chromosome 4 that was ∼1041 kb long. Gene-prediction analysis identified 25 candidate genes in this region. Chromosome structure analysis indicated that a ∼305 kb deletion was included in the mapping region. Temporal and spatial reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis showed that several genes in the mapped region are associated with the Spc mutant. Although the genes responsible for the Spc mutation were not definitively identified, our results further the current understanding of the complex mechanism underlying the multiple morphological defects in Spc mutants.
Tan, D., Tong, X.-L., Hu, H., Wu, S.-Y., Li, C.-L., Xiong, G., Xiang, Z.-H., Dai, F.-Y. and Lu, C.
Bombyx mori;speckled mutant;phenotypic analysis;molecular mapping;autosomal fragment deletion
5059
  
2015
Journal of Economic Entomology, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/tov246 2610-2619 First published online: 28 August 2015
The effect of cold immobilization and long-distance transport of irradiated Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) on the flight ability of male (♂) and female (♀) moths, the longevity of male and female moths, and the realized fecundity of mating pairs CIM (chilled irradiated moths) ♀ × CIM♂, CIM♀ × NIP (nonirradiated pupae) ♂, NIP♀ × CIM♂, and NIP♀ × NIP♂ was examined to improve application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Adult moths treated with 150 Gy of gamma radiation were immobilized with cold temperature between 4 and 6°C inside a polyurethane cooler box and transported for 12 h by road from Citrusdal, Western Cape Province, to Addo, Eastern Cape Province. Nonirradiated moths were transported as pupae inside a cardboard tray and removed by hand after which male and female pupae were separated and placed inside containers for eclosion. Male and female moths were individually placed inside petri dishes to determine longevity or paired with irradiated and nonirradiated counterparts to evaluate realized fecundity before incubation in 100% darkness at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. Flight tests were conducted indoors at 25°C by release of individual moths per hand. A significant decrease in flight ability and longevity of irradiated false codling moth was found after handling, cold immobilization, and transport, although critically, realized fecundity was not affected. Because of the impact of long-distance transport on quality of the released insects as well as the efficacy of SIT, comprehensive protocols for this critical step in the process need to be developed for a pestiferous insect with phytosanitary status such as false codling moth.
Nepgen E. S., Hill M. P., Moore S. D.
application technology, insect shipment, citrus, South Africa
5058
  
2016
Journal of Insect Physiology Volume 85, Pages 17–22; DOI: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2015.11.011
Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids.
Landeta-Escamilla A., Hernández Emilio, Arredondo José, Díaz-Fleischer Francisco, Pérez-Staples Diana
Sperm; Mating inhibition; SIT; Mass-production; Tephritidae
5057
  
2015
Dr. Mitsuru Nenoi (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-2167-1, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/60409. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/evolution-of-ionizing-radiation-research/ionizing-radiations-in-entomology
Radiation in the form of particles (α or β particles and neutrons) or electromagnetic waves (gamma or X-rays) can induce biological effects in insect cells like in other living cells. Ionization and chemical damages to organic molecules can be caused directly (mostly by particulate types of radiation) or indirectly by free radicals. Radioinduced ions and radicals, most of them coming from water radiolysis, may react with neighboring molecules to produce secondary DNA radicals or even chain reactions, particularly in lipids, and most of the significant biological effects results from damage to DNA. Currently, more than 300 species of arthropods, mostly of economic importance, have already been subjected to irradiation studies for basic research, pest control applications, and disinfestation of commodities (quarantine and phytosanitary purposes). This chapter focused on insect sterilization and disinfestation by ionizing radiations in view of the socioeconomic impacts. The release of insects that are sterile after exposure to radiation aiming to control or eradicate pest populations revealed to be a revolutionary tactic in the area-wide management of pests, and many successful cases with the application of the sterile insect technique can be found around the globe. The use of ionizing radiations to inhibit the spread of quarantine insects represents an important alternative postharvest control, and the development of generic radiation treatments has resulted in a significant increase in the international use of phytosanitary irradiation for trade in horticultural products and other commodities.
Valter Arthur, Andre Machi and Thiago Mastrangelo
Radiation, sterile insects, phytosanitary irradiation
5053
  
1983
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 76: 51–55. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aesa/76.1.51
Mating preference of laboratory-reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (medfly), was studied in field cages. When laboratory-reared flies unirradiated and irradiated with 7, 10, 13, and 16 krad in N2 and dyed were compared with wild flies, mating speed of unirradiated, laboratory-reared flies was faster than that of wild flies. The unirradiated, laboratory-reared males preferred mating with unirradiated, laboratory-reared females, and wild males preferred mating with wild females. When laboratory-reared flies irradiated at 7, 10, 13, and 16 krad in N2 were paired with wild flies, however, mating speed was similar for both strains and mating became random apparently because the mating speed of the irradiated, laboratory-reared flies was reduced. In the tests combining flies exposed to all six treatments (laboratory-reared flies irradiated at 7, 10, 13, and 16 krad in N2, unirradiated flies, and wild flies) in one cage, those wild females which mated, mated equally well with wild males, and laboratory-reared males showing no preference and those laboratory males which mated, mated equally well with wild or laboratory females, again showing no preference.
Wong, T.T.Y., J. I. Nishimoto, andH.M. Couey
Diptera; Tephritidae, competition, medfly; irradiation
5052
  
2015
Journal of Economic Entomology [DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/tov246 First published online: 28 August 2015]
The effect of cold immobilization and long-distance transport of irradiated Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) on the flight ability of male (♂) and female (♀) moths, the longevity of male and female moths, and the realized fecundity of mating pairs CIM (chilled irradiated moths) ♀ × CIM♂, CIM♀ × NIP (nonirradiated pupae) ♂, NIP♀ × CIM♂, and NIP♀ × NIP♂ was examined to improve application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Adult moths treated with 150 Gy of gamma radiation were immobilized with cold temperature between 4 and 6°C inside a polyurethane cooler box and transported for 12 h by road from Citrusdal, Western Cape Province, to Addo, Eastern Cape Province. Nonirradiated moths were transported as pupae inside a cardboard tray and removed by hand after which male and female pupae were separated and placed inside containers for eclosion. Male and female moths were individually placed inside petri dishes to determine longevity or paired with irradiated and nonirradiated counterparts to evaluate realized fecundity before incubation in 100% darkness at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. Flight tests were conducted indoors at 25°C by release of individual moths per hand. A significant decrease in flight ability and longevity of irradiated false codling moth was found after handling, cold immobilization, and transport, although critically, realized fecundity was not affected. Because of the impact of long-distance transport on quality of the released insects as well as the efficacy of SIT, comprehensive protocols for this critical step in the process need to be developed for a pestiferous insect with phytosanitary status such as false codling moth.
Nepgen ES, Hill MP, Moore SD
South Africa; application technology; citrus; insect shipment, sterile insecte technique
5051
  
2007
In: Vreysen MJB, Robinson AS, Hendrichs J. (ed) Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests from research to field implementation. Springer, Netherlands, pp 497‒504
fields, and ditches of an herbicide that selectively kills key spring broad leaf hosts of the tarnished plant bug Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) was developed and implemented in four 23 square kilometre areas. Overall mean numbers of tarnished plant bug adults and nymphs were significantly lower in treated-area cotton. The average reductions in overall mean numbers of plant bugs in the treated areas were 45.5 and 47% for adults and nymphs, respectively, from 1999-2001. Economists at Mississippi State University conducted an analysis of the programme used on over 8400 hectares of cotton in 1999-2001, and demonstrated that the technology produced savings of USD 14.59/ha in insecticide costs (herbicide application included). An environmental impact study conducted by Louisiana State University, detected no to extremely low levels of herbicide residue in run-off water from conducting the programme. Research is currently being conducted to investigate the use of a fungal entomopathogen, sterile males, and parasitoids to augment or replace the use of herbicides.
ABEL C.A, SNODGRASS G.L. and GORE J.
Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, cotton, marginal areas, early season wild host plant, area-wide suppression, herbicides
5050
  
2007
In: Vreysen MJB, Robinson AS, Hendrichs J. (ed) Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests from research to field implementation. Springer, Netherlands, pp 475‒485
oconut palms in India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and the Philippines. Recently, this pest has spread to countries in the Persian Gulf and some areas of the Mediterranean basin where it is aserious menace to date palms. Management of this pest using conventional methods is not effective due to the difficulty of detecting early infestations. Trials were therefore conducted to assess the possibility of eventually including the sterile insect technique (SIT) to target populations at low densities as part of future integrated management of this pest.The steps taken included the adoption of a new mass-rearing method for weevils using coconut petioles, determination of the sterilization dose at 15Gy, a new relative method for estimating population levels of red palm weevils, and finally field release and recapture studies using pheromone traps. This paper deals with the results of these attempts to develop the SIT for use against the red palm weevil on Poothuruth Island near Dalavapuram Island in Kerala.
Krishnakumar R, Maheshwari P
Red Palmweevil, date palm, release-recapture studies, Kerala, sterile insect technique, IPM
5049
  
2014
 Journal title : Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry Volume 57, Issue ,2,  pp.141-144. Publisher : The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemisty. DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2014.021
The effects of electron beam irradiation on control of Myzus persicae and Planocococcus citri (Risso) were evaluated with the changes of mortality, emergence rate, fecundity, and egg hatchability. As a result of this study, M. persicae and P. citri (Risso) was not directly affected by electron beam irradiation with low doses (30, 60, 90, and 120 Gy) but the irradiation had effects on inhibition of development and reproduction of the pests.
Lee, Gyeong-Ae  ;  Park, Min-Goo  ;  Cho, Jae-Young ;
electron beam . insect/pest control . irradiation . Myzus persicae . Planococcus citri (Risso)
5048
  
2014
 Korean journal of applied entomology Volume 53, Issue ,4, pp.391-398. Publisher : Korean Society of Applied Entomology
 DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2014.10.0.054
 
This study investigated inhibitory doses of electron beam and X-ray irradiation by comparing their effects on the development and reproduction of four insect pests (Myzus persicae, Tetranychus urticae, Liriomyza trifolii, and Frankliniella intonsa). When M. persicae nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy of electron beam and 30 Gy of X-ray beam, offspring production by adults that developed from the treated nymphs was completely inhibited. When M. persicae adults were irradiated with 200 Gy of electron beam and 50 Gy of X-ray beam, emergence of the  generation was inhibited. However, these two ionizing radiations did not affect adult longevity. When T. urticae eggs were irradiated with 150 Gy of electron beam and 50 Gy of X-ray beam, egg hatching was completely inhibited. When L. trifolii pupae were irradiated, the emergence rate decreased with increasing doses of X-ray irradiation. After F. intonsa adults were irradiated with 250 Gy of electron beam and 200 Gy of X-ray beam, egg hatching of the  generation was completely suppressed.
Yun, Seung-Hwan  ;  Kim, Minjun  ;  Kim, Hyunah  ;  Lee, Seon-Woo  ;  Yoo, Dae Hyun  ;  Kim, Hyun Kyung  ;  Koo, Hyun-Na  ;  Kim, Gil-Hah ;
Insect pests . Electron beam . X-ray . Inhibition dose
 
5047
  
2015
J. Econ. Entomol. 108(3): 868–872; DOI: 10.1093/jee/tov068
Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5–7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1–4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread.
DOWNEY DANIELLE, CHUN STACEY, AND FOLLETT PETER
Aethina tumida, honey bee, Apis mellifera, x-ray radiation, sterile insect technique
5046
  
2014
Tissue and Cell; 46(4):274-285. DOI:10.1016/j.tice.2014.06.003 ·
In the present study we describe the morphology of the male reproductive apparatus and sperm ultrastructure of the red palm weevil - an invasive pest of several palm tree species - as well as the most important steps of spermatogenesis. The reproductive apparatus consists of a pair of testes (each formed by two lobes) a long tube-like accessory gland, a prostate gland and a small accessory gland. Characteristic features of the sperm are: 90 to 100 μm total length, 10 μm nucleus, two mitochondrial derivatives, two accessory bodies, one well-developed puff-like structure and a typical insect 9 + 9 + 2 flagellar axoneme. One of the methods used for the biological control of pests is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), for the evaluation of which we make a preliminary comparison of the sperm ultrastructure of non-irradiated and irradiated weevils (at a dose of 80 Gray). Feasibility of SIT to control red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier): An integrated physiological, ecological and genetic approach. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/267526500_Feasibility_of_SIT_to_control_red_palm_weevil_(Rhynchophorus_ferrugineus_Olivier)_An_integrated_physiological_ecological_and_genetic_approach [accessed Jul 8, 2015].
Paoli Francesco,Dallai Romano, Cristofaro Massimo, Arnone Silvia, Francardi Valeria, Roversi Pio Federico
Genital apparatus; Genital system; Insect spermatogenesis; Sterile insect technique (SIT); TEM
5045
  
2013
Atti Accad Naz Ital Entomol Rendiconti Anno LXI:239–246 http://www.accademiaentomologia.it/Rendiconti/2013/06l_Musmeci.pdf
The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), a weevil native to South- eastern Asia and Melanesia where it is a serious pest of coconuts, is considered the most dangerous pest of Canarian palm trees and date palm trees in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle Asia. Aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility to control the weevil pest by implementation of sterile insect technique (SIT) , particularly useful in area-wide IPM programs. Bioassays carried out at the ENEA C. R. Casaccia facilities were addressed to test the effects of different doses of γ rays on the weevil reproductive physiology and mating behavior. In spite of the apparent drawbacks in reproductive behavior of females observed in field (polyandry and high levels of fertility), laboratory experiment s satisfy some important requisites for the application of this technique (last male sperm precedence, high vitality and ability of mating of irradiated males) and suggest the possibility to use SIT in particular geographical contexts. Results and perspectiv es are discussed
Musmeci S, Cristofaro M, Arnone S, Sasso R, Baccaro S, Pasquali A, Catarci S
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Sterile Insect Technique, red palm weevil, integrated pest management
5044
  
2012
ESA 60TH Annual Meeting, Knoxville, Tennessee (USA)
Cristofaro M, Arnone S, Musmeci S, Sasso R, Lai A, De Biase A, La Marca A, Belvedere S, Marcari V, Senia G, Catarci S
5043
  
2013
Bull. Entomol. Res. 103:241–250
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most threatening pest of palms worldwide. The potential of gamma-irradiated males to spread a pathogenic strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) to control this pest was studied. First, the effects of gamma irradiation (15 and 25 Gy) on the mating success and performance of adult males irradiated at age one day were studied in the laboratory. Although male longevity decreased after irradiation (118.6 vs. 244.7 days for irradiated and control males, respectively) and their testes suffered from the treatment, fecundity of mated females did not depend on the irradiation status of the male (86.8±5.5 eggs in 15 days). However, egg hatching was significantly lower in couples with irradiated males (31.4% vs. 86.5% for irradiated and control couples, respectively), and this value decreased after a second mating (6.1% vs. 85.9%). Therefore, irradiation did not affect male sexual competiveness but sperm quality. Second, a semi-field assay was carried out to evaluate infestation in young Phoenix canariensis caused by different combinations of couples with irradiated and/or B. bassiana -challenged males. The number of immature stages found in infested palms was significantly higher when females mated with untreated males and lower when mated with irradiated males (either B. bassiana -infected or not). Some females from the fungus-challenged treatments showed post-mortem hyphal growth, and this horizontal transmission proves that irradiated males could act as a vector for B. bassiana and should be considered as a new method to improve the biological control of R. ferrugineus.
Llácer E, Santiago-Álvarez C, Jacas JA
gamma irradiation, horizontal transmission, entomopathogenic fungus, palm pest, Phoenix canariensis , autodissemination, sterile males
5042
  
2015
International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences (IJRAS) Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 29-33
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitiscapitata) eggs and larvae (1st, 2nd and 3rd instars) in ‘Valencia’ oranges, and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. The fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. The treatment with gamma irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of all immature stages of C. capitata in ‘Valencia’ oranges if applied at the doses of 72.88 Gy. Larvae of 3rd instar are more radio resistent when compared to eggs and larval of 1st and 2nd instar. The doses of gamma radiation used do not affect the chemical proprieties of ‘Valencia’ orange fruits. IDIDAS COMMENT: infestation was artificial, so results may not reflect the natural situation for which a treatment must be efficacious. Also, no data on effect of the treatment (dose not stated) on fruit were given other than the comment that quality was similar to non-irradiated ‘Valencia’ orange.
Bortoli, Sergio A. De; de Albergaria, Nuno M. M. S.; Dória, Háyda O. S.; Vacari, Alessandra M.; Duarte, Rogério T.; Arthur, Valter
Ionizing Radiation, Quarantine Treatment, Disinfestation, Ceratitis Capitata, Citrus Sinensis
5041
  
2014
Pest Manag Sci. article published online: 10 September 2014
(wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/ps.3905
BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmeswas about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n = 12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n = 108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populationswere not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allowearly detection and delimitationwhile invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
Suckling David Maxwell, Kean John M, Stringer Lloyd D,
Cáceres-Barrios Carlos, Hendrichs Jorge, Reyes-Flores Jesus
and Dominiak Bernard C.
Tephritidae; male annihilation; sterile insect technique; bait; trap; surveillance; incursions; quarantine
5040
  
2015
Biocontrol Science and Technology, 25:9, 1092-1103, DOI: 10.1080/09583157.2015.1030723
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata is a koinobiont larval parasitoid that is currently used to control fruit flies of the genera Anastrepha, Ceratitis and Bactrocera. In the rearing process, a fraction of the host larvae that are exposed to parasitoids escape from parasitism and develop into viable and fertile flies. This creates the need to eliminate emerging flies before the parasitoids are shipped for release, increasing costs due to additional handling steps. Exposure of fly eggs or larvae to gamma-irradiation before they are parasitised has been used to reproductively sterilise hosts, or even inhibit their emergence. Our aim was to determine whether X-ray radiation applied to Anastrepha fraterculus third instar larvae before they are exposed to parasitoids, inhibits fly emergence in non-parasitised larvae without affecting the performance of the parasitoids that emerge from parasitised larvae. Three X-ray doses: 6250.2 R, 8333.6 R and 10417 R (equivalent to 60, 80 and 100 Gy, respectively) and one γ-ray dose (100 Gy) were tested. Fly emergence decreased with increasing doses of radiation, showing null values for the higher X-ray dose and the dose of 100 Gy. Irradiation showed either no impact or a positive effect on parasitism rate and fecundity. Sex rate was biased towards females in almost every dose. We conclude that the two types of radiation evaluated here were equally effective in suppressing fly emergence with no detrimental effects on the biological quality of the produced parasitoids. X-rays offer an alternative method of irradiation than the conventional radiation source, i.e. γ-rays. These results represent a significant improvement in the development of a biological control programme against A. fraterculus.
Bachmann Guillermo E., Paladino Leonela Z. Carabajal, Claudia A. Conte, Francisco Devescovi, Fabián H. Milla, Jorge L. Cladera, Diego F. Segura & Mariana M. Viscarret
biological control; gamma rays; Anastrepha fraterculus; Diachasmimorpha longicaudata; fruit fly pests; natural enemies
5039
  
2014
J. Rediat. Res. Appl. Sci. 7:110-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrras.2013.12.007
Three substerilizing doses 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation were tested against full grown male and female pupae or against full-grown male or female pupae of Agrotis ipsilon. The results showed that fecundity of irradiated females crossed with irradiated males was decreased by increasing irradiation dose. The decrease in egg hatchability % and increase in sterility % induced by gamma radiation were found to be positively correlated with the dose level. The parentage of larval and pupal mortality increased significantly (p
Salem HM, Fouda MA, Abas A A, Ali WM, Gabarty A ().
Gamma irradiation Substerilizing doses Agrotis ipsilon
5038
  
2015
Journal of Entomology and Nematology, Vol.7(3), pp. 26-29. DOI: 10.5897/JEN2015.0124
Fruit flies are regarded as one of the most devastating pest of fruits and vegetables on earth planet. Generally chemical control is implemented for their control but it poses lot of eco-environmental concerns so the emphasis is now turning towards eco-friendly management practices. Bio-control is an efficient and environmentally sound approach and augmentation is primarily focus on classical biological control program. In this study, eight sub-sterilizing doses of 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 were tested against Bactrocera zonata and Bactrocera cucurbitae pupae. The results showed that radiation prolong the duration of pupal stage and hatching is reduced by applying radiation. This also shows that when the quantity of the radiation increases, the adult emergence decreases. This study could be very useful in exploiting the potential host for longer period of time for culturing their pupal parasitoids.
NAVEED M., ARIF MJ., AHMAD N.
Sub sterilizing doses, radiation, fruit flies and emergence.
5037
  
1969
International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes 20: 791-795. doi:10.1016/0020-708X(69)90042-8
The effect of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 Source on adults of the fruit fly (Dacus ciliatus Loew) following pupal exposure was determined. When 7 days old pupae were irradiated at 5 krad., partial sterility with normal longevity was observed in the adults while irradiation at doses of 8·5 and 10 krad. induced complete sterility with normal longevity and preoviposition period which lasted throughout their adult life. The optimum sterilizing dose for this fly thus lies in the range of 8·5–10 krad. and can be safely utilized for the eradication of this fly from Karachi area by sterile male release method.
Huque H. and Ahmad C.R.
Dacus tephritidae sterility radiation
5036
  
2012
Journal of Northwest A&F University 40: 57-61
The experiment was to study elimination effects of irradiation against different stages citrus red mite (Panonychus citri Mcgregor) and to conform the effective dosage in order to achieve inspection and quarantine. The eggs, larvae, protonymphs of citrus red mite were selected and irradiated by gamma irradiation (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 Gy), while adults were at the dosage of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy). The effect of irradiation against hatching rates and mortality of different stages of citrus red mites was studied. It was found that after being irradiated at the dosage of 200 Gy, the 24 h-old eggs of citrus red mites were not hatched, so the gamma irradiation at the dosage of 200 Gy obviously had lethal effect on the eggs. After irradiated at the dosage of 400 Gy, the mortality of the larvae was as high as 96%. Gamma irradiation among the 300-400 Gy made the larvae sterile and the dosage of 400 Gy was sterile dosage to the protonymphs of citrus red mite. The adults laid less eggs which did not hatch at more than dosage of 400 Gy. After 15 days, the mortality of adult mites irradiated at the dosage of 400-600 Gy was 100%; while irradiated at the dosage of 800 Gy, the mortality was 100% after 13 days. So the irradiation among the 400-800 Gy made the adults sterile or lethal. The gamma irradiation at the dosage 400 Gy made citrus red mite at different stages lethal or sterile. So the citrus fruits irradiated at 400 Gy could achieve quarantine treatment requirement.
Zhu FW, Deng YY, Weng QF, Hu M.Y.
mites, Panonychus citri, plant protection, irradiation, Citrus
5035
  
2013
Radiation Physics and Chemistry 90: 111-119.
Osouli Sh, Ziaie F, Haddad Irani Nejad K, Moghaddam M.
mites
5034
  
2013
Acta Agriculturae Zhejiangensis 25:533-536.
Wu Q, Lin WC, Wang BK, Qi WY, Xiong LD, Wei JY, Chen JY.
mite, China
5033
  
2002
Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University 21: 347-351.
Zhou LJ, Hu MY, Huang JG, Xu WS, Cheng DM, Wang WX.
citrus rust mite, China
5032
  
1996
Nukleonika 41: 81-88.
Ignatowicz S, Wróblicka-Sysiak M.
bulb mite
5031
  
2015
Florida Entomologist
Arthur V, Machi AR.
Acari, Eriophyidae
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