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Published literatures on tephritid fruit flies.  Full text might be available if public free.

Thermostability of organophosphate pesticides and some of their major metabolites in water and beef muscle
Coulibaly K.;Smith S.
Year: 1993
The thermostability of six organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and some of their major metabolites in water and beef muscle was investigated. Ten grams of lean (7.7% fat) beef and water samples, fortified with mixtures of OPs or their metabolites to 50 ppm concentration, were heated in a water bath at 70 or 80 degrees C. The compounds in water and those extracted from meat samples were analyzed by HPLC. Retrieval of parent OPs ranged between 64.5 and 98.4% from raw meat, between 30.0 and 87.4% from cooked meat, and between 10.6 and 107.2% from water. Recoveries of primary (oxon) and secondary (alcohol) metabolites varied between 56.0 and 103.0% from raw meat, between 23.9 and 81.0% from cooked meat, and between 72.7 and 105.0% from water. Alcohol metabolites from heat-degraded oxons in water and beef were identified by HPLC and GC-MS. The OPs and their metabolites were thermally degraded, but notable amounts were still present in the heated water and beef muscle
Study of single compound additives to minimize the matrix-induced chromatographic response enhancement observed in the gas chromatography of pesticide residues
Erney D.R.;Poole C.F.
Year: 1993
The analysis of 19 organophosphorus and seven organochlorine pesticides in milk extracts gave an enhanced response of 6-83% compared with analysis in an organic solvent. This can cause erroneously high recoveries for quantified residues in food. Six compounds of differing polarity and volatility were used for their potential to mask adsorptive and catalytic interactions occurring at the onset of sample vaporization and transfer to the separation column. The agents were glycerin, PEG, formic acid, formamide, 1,2,3-tris(2-cyanoethoxy)propane and NNN'N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropane)ethylenediamine added to organophosphorus pesticides in acetone (10-50 mg/ml). The results were compared with those obtained for a residue-free milk matrix. Analysis was by GC on a column (14 m x 0.53 mm) coated with DB-17 (1 micro m) and flame photometric detection; no details of the carrier gas are given. None of the single chemical additives eliminated the matrix effects, but there was some success for methamidophos, acephate and omethoate. The additives were not as effective as the milk matrix in transferring the analytes
Explanation of the matrix-induced chromatographic response enhancement of organophosphorus pesticides during open tubular column gas chromatography with splitless or hot on-column injection and flame photometric detection
Erney D.R.;Gillespie A.M.;Gilvydis D.M.;Poole C.F.
Year: 1993
A matrix dependent chromatographic response was observed for organophosphorus pesticides in extracts from milk and butterfat. This resulted in recoveries >100% for residue-free extracts spiked with organophosphorus pesticides when quantitation was achieved by calibration against standards prepared in residue-free solvents. The authors suggested that the matrix protects the organophosphorus compounds from adsorption and/or decomposition in hot vaporizing injectors thus ensuring a more complete transfer fromn injector to column compared to the results observed when standards dissolved in matrix-free solvent were used. The enhancement was minimized by using hot, on-column injection at an optimized injection temp. (230degree). The preferred method of calibration was to use matrix-matched standards prepared by adding known amounts of organophosphorus pesticides to a residue-free sample matrix similar to the sample to be analysed
Reliability of mycotoxin assays - an update
Horwitz W.;Albert R.;Nesham S.
Year: 1993
Around 80% of the 793 accepted mycotoxin assays, mostly conducted by TLC, LC and ELISA, exhibit an RSD of less than twice the value predicted by the Horwitz equation. The precision of TLC and LC are similar and are better than that of ELISA methods. Means of handling numeric and non-numeric data using a computer database are discussed. The primary factor affecting RSD is concn., although analyte, matrix, method and age of study are also contributory factors. These results are applied in a discussion relating to the setting of maximum toxin limits in food, the specific example being aflatoxin levels in milk
Determination of polar pesticides by phase-transfer catalysed derivatization and negative-ion chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Meiring H.D.;Den Engelsman G.;de Jong A.P.J.M.
Year: 1993
The cited determination involved extraction of the acidic compounds from aq. samples using tetrahexylammonium hydrogensulfate as a catalyst and derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide. Gas chromatography was conducted on a CPSil 19CB (0.25 micro m) fused-silica column (25 m x 0.25 mm), temp.-programmed from 70degreeC (held for 1 min) to 220degreeC at 15degreeC/min and to 260degreeC (held for 10 min) at 5degreeC/min. Negative-ion CIMS was carried out with methane as moderator gas and at 70 eV. The detection limit was 0.05 micro g/l of the pesticides in drinking water; no calibration ranges or RSD are given. The recoveries were ~108%. The method was applied to surface water and blood samples
IAEA programme of natural matrix reference materials for the determination of radionuclides
Strachnov V.;Valkovic V.;LaRosa J.;Dekner R.;Zeisler R.
Year: 1993
Presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Biological and Environmental Reference Materials, held in Aachen, Germany on May 11-14, 1992. An account is given of the work of the Analytical Quality Control Services of the IAEA in the distribution of reference materials, the organization of collaborative tests and the provision of training courses in analytical methods. The statistical methods used and the rejection of outliers during the derivation of "consensus" values are discussed. Nineteen natural matrix materials, with natural and elevated levels of radionuclides, are tabulated and a further 12 are in preparation. The radionuclides determined were K-40, Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-90, Tc-99, Ru-106, Ba-133, Cs-134, Cs-137, Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-228, Th-232, Pu-238, Pu-239 and Pu-240
Mechanisms of movement of organochlorine pesticides from soils to cows via forages
Willett L.B.;O`Donnell A.F.;Durst H.I.;Kurz M.M.
Year: 1993
When cattle were allowed to graze land previously used as orchards, residues of DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene] were detectable in milk fat and adipose tissues. Concentrations of DDE exceeded .3 microgram/g at times. Concentrations of DDE in adipose tissue were similar to those in milk fat at the beginning of lactation; residues in first lactation cows were approximately three times higher than in multiparous cows that were grazing similarly. Based on the equation [DDE, microgram/g]milk fat = .28 (daily dose, mg).82, consumption of soil was likely not the sole source of residue when soil concentrations of DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p- chlorophenyl)ethane], DDE, and DDD [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p- chlorophenyl)ethane] ranged from nondetected to 3.6, 2.1, and .655 microgram/g, respectively. Grass appeared to be the likely source. Four plots were located on three orchard locations and one control location. Grasses in subplots were harvested at 2-, 4-, or 6-wk intervals during the 18-wk study. Grasses were extracted differentially to determine DDT and DDE residues adhering to the plant surface and those associated with plant tissue. Surface residue was not significant. The DDE averaged between .01 and .11 microgram/g in dry grass tissues. Differences between residues in grasses among plots were associated with soil residue concentrations. Concentrations of DDE were not associated with air or soil temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, or dry biomass harvested. Precipitation increased the volatilization of residues from soil and deposition in 2- and 4-wk grass samples. Volatilization was confirmed by filter paper traps impregnated with ethylene glycol and suspended 15 cm above the soil surface of pasture plots and in the laboratory model studies
Preparation of a cabbage candidate reference material to be certified for residues of agrochemicals
Zeisler R.;Strachnov V.;Perschke H.;Dekner R.
Year: 1993
Presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Biological and Environmental Reference Materials, held in Aachen, Germany on May 11-14, 1992. Spiked cabbages were cut and the stems were removed by hand. They were then dried at 40degree, ground with an impact pulverizer and milled with a jet mill. After homogenization, the product was packed in 40 g amounts in brown glass bottles and radiation sterilized. The homogeneity and stability were tested at several stages during the production. Organic compounds (13 pesticides and herbicides) were determined by extraction with methanol, clean-up of the extract on a C18 cartridge with hexane elution and GLC on a Supelco column (30 m x 0.53 mm), with temp.-programming (55degree to 270degree) and ECD. Inorganic constituents were determined by XRF, AAS, ICP OES and NAA. The material is now being evaluated in a collaborative exercise expected to lead to recommended values
Studies on F1 radiation sterilization of diamondback moth and mulberry wild silkworm
Yang Rongxing; Xia Darong; Cu Weiping; Chu Jiming;
Year: 1993
The study began in 1988 under the aegis of the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on Radiation Induced F1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control. During the following four years the control of the mulberry wild silkworm (Bombyx mandarina Moore) and the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) by means of radiation induced sterility was studied. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 6 tabs
The mass rearing and utilization of Trichogramma to control Lepidopterous pests: achievements and outlook.
Year: 1993
The release of mass-produced egg parasites of the genus Trichogramma to control Lepidopterous pests has gained increasing attention in the last few years. About 18 different species of this egg parasite are being used to control pests on corn, sugar-cane, rice, soybean, cotton, sugar-beet, vegetables and pine. Some information on the global use of Trichogramma is given. Trichogramma evatiescens (Westw.) has been used commercially to control the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) in Germany since 1980. The treated area reached about 6200 ha in 1992. The use of Trichogramma delldrolimi Matsumura to control the codling moth Cydia pomonella L.) and the summer fruit tortrix moth Adoxophyes orana (F.R.) was started in 1990 and covered an area of c. 15 ha in 1992. Research is being carried out to select effective Trichogramma species to control other pests such as grape berry moth Eupoecilia ambiguella (Hb.), plum fruit moth Cydia funebrana Tr. and diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.).\r
Glossary for chemists of Terms Used in Toxicology.
Duffus J.H.
Year: 1993
Combined effects of oxygen, partial vacuum, temperature, humidity and gamma radiation on mating competitiveness of Culex pipiens complex L. males.
Abdel-Rahman-AM; Wakid-AM; Hafez-M;
Year: 1993
When the pupal stage of C. pipiens complex males was exposed to gamma radiation (60 Gy), oxygen, partial vacuum (0.1 torr), low temperature (10?C) for 1 or 2 h, or low humidity (31% RH) for 3 h, applied separately, their mating competitiveness was not affected. However, when they were exposed to the 2nd, 3rd or 4th factor followed by irradiation with 60 Gy gamma radiation after 0.5, 1 or 2 h, the mating competitiveness was insignificantly decreased. When the pupae were exposed to low humidity (31% RH) for 3 h and then irradiated immediately or after 0.5, 1 or 2 h, the mating competitiveness was significantly decreased.\r
Combined effects of gamma radiation and some physical factors on the rate of development of Culex pipiens complex (L.).
Wakid-AM; Hafez-M; Abdel-Rahman-AM; Hafez-MK;
Year: 1993
The role of some physical factors, applied separately or combined with gamma radiation, on the F1 rate of development of Culex pipiens when treated in the pupal stage was studied. The results showed no or slight effect of all treatments on incubation period of eggs. Larval duration was increased when parental pupae were exposed to low temperature (10?C), low humidity (31% RH) or when any of the factors was combined with gamma radiation (30 Gy). Larval development was stopped at some mating combinations, when gamma radiation followed exposure to partial vacuum (0.1 torr) or low humidity; Pupal duration in most of the treatments was increased. Percent pupation was significantly reduced at all treatments, especially when partial vacuum or temperature was combined with gamma radiation when pupation was inhibited at all mating combinations except controls (normal males X normal females). Generally, adult emergence was decreased at all treatments and was inhibited when parental pupae were exposed to partial vacuum, low temperature, or low humidity combined with gamma radiation.\r
GC analyses of monosaccharides of Culex pipiens complex of China.
Zhao-TongYan; Zhou-Fang; Chen-LiYin; Lu-BaoLin; Zh
Year: 1993
Analytical results of the monosaccharides present in the Culex pipiens complex in China, showed that those for C. pipiens pipiens and C. pipiens pallens, as well as C. quinquefasciatus, were essentially the same qualitatively and quantitatively and thus of no real value in biosystematic studies of this complex.\r
The influence of oxygen, partial vacuum, temperature, relative humidity combined with gamma radiation on the mosquito Culex pipiens complex L. I. Effect of exposure to temperature and relative humidity alone.
Hafez-M; Abdel-Rahman-AM; Osman-AZ; Wakid-AM;
Year: 1993
The results revealed that a temperature of 10?C was the most effective temperature for pupal mortality of C. pipiens complex mosquitoes, followed by 32?C, then 20?C and 26?C. There was a gradual increase in pupal mortality with increasing time of exposure. Pupal mortality increased with decreasing relative humidity levels. Exposure for short time periods did not affect significantly the pupal mortality. Increasing the exposure time increased mortality.\r
Glossary for chemists of terms used in toxicology.
Duffus J.H.
Year: 1993
Pesticides in shallow groundwater in the Delmarva Peninsula.
Koterba M.T.;Banks W.S.L.;Shedlock R.J.
Year: 1993
A regional study of the areal and depth distribution of pesticides in shallow groundwater in the Delmarva Peninsula of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia was done to (i) relate the pesticides detected to landscape and shallow subsurface features, and (ii) evaluate aquifer vulnerability and the potential contamination of drinking-water supplies. Water samples collected at 100 wells from 1988 to 1990 were analyzed for concentrations of 36 pesticides, four metabolites, and other constituents. The most commonly detected residues were atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, alachlor, metolachlor, and dicamba. Concentrations were low, few exceeded 3 microgram L-1. Most detections correlate with the intensive use of these herbicides in three widely distributed and commonly rotated crops-corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine mar (L.) Merr.], and small grain-particularly if grown in well-drained soils. Most detections occurred in samples collected from shallow wells screened within 10 m of the overlying water table. The shallow depth distribution of most residues is consistent with their suspected history of use (ca. 20 yr), and patterns in shallow groundwater flow in the surficial aquifer in the study area. The areal and depth distributions of detectable residues in groundwater did not correlate with a vulnerability index, nor any of the component scores developed to estimate that index using the DRASTIC method. The shallow depth of most detections also indicates why few samples from water-supply wells in this study had measurable concentrations of pesticides; most supply wells are deeper than 10 m below the water table. The low number of contaminated samples from supply wells implies that deep groundwater currently (1992) used for drinking generally does not contain detectable pesticide.\r
Animal Products: Contributors to a Safe Food Supply
Anderson P.T.;Crooker B.A.;Pullen M.M.
Year: 1993
Effects of gamma irradiation on the reproductive capacity and the longevity of Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).
Vercosa-P; Falcao-PHB; Furtado-AF
Year: 1993
Adults of P. megistus were exposed to doses of gamma-radiation ranging from 10 to 80 Gy. Males were more adversely affected than females. The longevity of females submitted to 10 Gy was not different to that of controls. Some of the males irradiated at 10 Gy copulated with non-irradiated females, but only a few eggs were laid. Fertility was seriously affected in all groups of irradiated insects, especially in those exposed to higher doses. A dose of 80 Gy induced sterility in males and females. It is suggested that the expulsion of gelatinous spermatophores by females irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy may be due to an irradiation-induced modification in the pH of the bursa copulatrix.\r
Radiation induced F1 sterility in Lepidoptera for area-wide control:
Year: 1993
\rThe 13 chapters in this book consist of the papers, by various authors, presented at a conference held in Phoenix, Arizona, on 9-13 September 1991. The papers consider: effect of substerilization doses of radiation on the biology of Plutella xylostella; studies on F1 radiation sterilization of P. xylostella and Bombyx mori; radiation-induced F1 sterility in Helicoverpa zea and potential for area-wide control; rearing and gamma radiation effects on mature pupae of Pectinophora gossypiella and their F1 progeny; effect of gamma radiation at pupal stage on Spodoptera frugiperda parent and F1 generation reproduction; inherited sterility in progeny of gamma-irradiated male S. littoralis; possibilities of using radiation-induced F1 sterility for control of Ostrinia nubilalis in Romania; studies on chromosomal aberrations and inherited sterility in O. furnacalis; current status of an F1 sterility program for Lymantria dispar; crossing experiments between O. nubilalis amd O. furnacalis to explore the possibility of hybrid sterility; and a study of the mechanisms and possibilities of using F1 sterility for genetic control of Laspeyresia pomonella [Cydia pomonella]. Conclusions and recommendations and a list of participants are included.
The reproducing capacity of gamma irradiated adults of Trogoderma versicolor (Creutz).
Year: 1993
Adult males and females of the dermestid stored products pest Trogoderma versicolor were treated with gamma radiation 12-24 h after emergence. Males required greater doses than females for sterilization; reproductive incapacity increased as the dose increased. Doses of 210 and 80 Gy were sufficient to induce almost complete sterility for males and females, resp. Egg production/female was greatest in crosses with irradiated males compared with production in crosses with females treated by any dose (from 20-210 Gy). Male progeny of treated P1 males showed a greater reduction in fertility than female progeny, but this fertility was lowest in progeny of a cross between F1 males X F1 females. Male progeny of irradiated males showed greater sterility than their fathers
The study of population fluctuation of fruit flies on the way to Doi Ang Khang.
Segsarnviriya, S.Limohpasmanee, W. Sutantawong, M.
Year: 1992
The topics of this study were to study on population \r fluctuation and their effects on fruit flies control project. Methyl \r eugenol traps were placed every one kilometer on the way to Doi Ang \r Khang from 8th kilometer to 23th kilometer. The trapped fruit flies \r were identified and counted every 2 weeks. The result was found that \r there are 6 species of fruit flies such as: Dacus dorsalis Hendel \r (59.08%), Dacus zonatus (Saunders) (39.40%), Dacus nigrotibialis \r (Perkins) (1.07%), Near Dacus correctus (Bezzi) (0.35%), Dacus \r correctus (Bezzi) (0.11%) and Dacus tau (Walker) (0.001%), and the \r fruit flies population in this area did not effect to fruit flies \r control in Doi Ang Khang\r
Effect of radiation on the sterility of Chinese citrus fly
Liu Qiongru;Zhao Caidao;Li Huaixie;Hu Zhaohui
Year: 1992
The appropriate irradiation stage for sterilization \r treatment on Chinese citrus fly Dacus citri (Chen) is at last pupal \r phase, one to two days before emergence, as the colour of compound \r eyes and wings changed from pink to black. The emergence rate, \r life-span and mating time of this insect after irradiation with 9 \r krad of gamma-rays were similar to those of the normal ones, while \r the mating rate between irradiated male and normal female was \r increased, and the hatching rate of their eggs was zero. It is \r indicated that the 9 krad of gamma-rays is a suitable irradiation \r dose for the sterilization of Chinese citrus fly\r YEAR (Publication Year): 1992
Studies on the mechanism of radiation-induced sterility of Chinese citrus fly, Dacus citri
Year: 1992
Studies on the pupal development, morphology of the reproductive system, genesis of the germ cells and effects of radiation on the structure of eggs and sperms of Dacus citri [Bactrocera minax] are reported. The development of the somatic cells was completed in the late pupal stage. Exposure of mature pupae to 9 Krad gamma rays did not affect adult activity and mating capability but did induce full sterility, indicating an appropriate time of treatment and dose. The total chromosome length was 56.2 ?m and the karyotype was asymmetric. The DNA contents of the salivary glands and intestinal cells of the larvae declined 24 h after treatment, but recovered gradually.\r
Review of irradiation as a quarantine treatment for insects other than fruit flies
Heather NW
Year: 1992
The status of gamma irradiation as a potential quarantine treatment for insects other than fruit flies was reviewed. Research has been reported on five orders of insects and four groups of mites. Recent research on several species of Coleoptera, one scale insect, three species of Lepidoptera, one leaf miner and two thrips has also been reported. Past research has emphasized the effects of irradiation on Coleoptera and Lepidoptera as pests of stored products. In general, a dose of 300 Gy was found to be effective as a quarantine treatment. Integration of irradiation with other treatments used for disease control or for enhancing the quality of commodities should be considered, along with alternatives to the probit 9 concept as applied to quarantine security.
Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambola, papaya and mango.
Vijaysegaran S;Lam PF;Yon Rohani Mohd;Karim Mohd;Nordin Abd.;Ramli Hassan;Yusof Norimah
Year: 1992
Preliminary experiments carried out on the effects of irradiation on carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.) with regard to fruit fly treatment, fruit injury and the physicochemical and organoleptic properties showed that irradiation can be successfully developed and should be investigated further as a quarantine treatment for these fruits. Emergence of normal adult fruit flies of the Dacus dorsalis complex did not occur when infested carambolas were treated at doses as low as 100 Gy. Carambola showed external symptoms of injury at irradiation doses in excess of 200 Gy. There appeared to be some reduction in sugar content at doses exceeding 100 Gy. Papaya, cv. ''Eksotika'', tolerated irradiation up to 300 Gy. Irradiation at this dose did not alter the ripening behaviour, nor did it cause any injury or alter the organoleptic: properties of the fruit. An additional benefit was that doses above 250 Gy significantly reduced freckling of the fruit and enhanced its cosmetic value. ''Eksotika'' is an ideal candidate for quarantine treatment using gamma irradiation. Mango, cv. ''Harumanis'', tolerated irradiation fairly well. Exposure of fruit to doses of up to 750 Gy did not produce significant injury.
Dosis optima de irradiacion a pupas de Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedman)(Diptera: Tephritidae) para la obtencion de adultos esteriles sexualmente competitivos
Toledo J.A.
Year: 1992
Mating competitiveness of irradiated Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Moreno, D. S.; Sanchez, M.; Robacker, D. C.; Worley, J.
Year: 1992
In caged full-grown orange trees, sterile males from the old \r colony were one-third as successful and those from the 2-year- \r old colony were one-fifth as successful in mating as the feral \r flies. Irradiation also slowed the mating response of \r laboratory-reared males as compared with unirradiated males, \r but the slow response put the flies in phase with the mating \r period of the feral flies. \r \r \r
Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for Mexican mangoes
Bustos, M.E.; Carrasco, H.; Toledo, J.; Enkerlin, W.R.; Reyes, J.
Year: 1992
Laboratory experiments involved the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina, A. ludens and Ceratitis capitata, over a range of doses between 10 and 250 Gy. Irradiation was carried out using a Co-60 AECL irradiator model JS-7400. The experiments were designed to achieve a dose distribution equal to or less than 1.025. Fricke dosimeters were used. Fertility tests were carried out on emerged adults of A. ludens and C. capitata. A larval dose of 40 Gy or more resulted in zero fertility in the case of A. ludens, while the corresponding figure for C. capitata was 60 Gy. The adults that emerged of A. serpentina died before reaching sexual maturity. It was concluded that i) irradiation at the dose of 60 Gy totally inhibits the emergence of A. serpentina and A. ludens adults. And ii) the dose of 150 Gy inhibits the emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults from 99.9% of irradiated larvae, and those which survive are sterile. The doses of 60 and 150 Gy exceed the mortality probit 9 threshold, and are within the tolerance limit of fresh fruit (approximately 1000 Gy). (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs
US Environmental Protection Agency. 1992 (Feb. 4). Ethyl Parathion, Correction to the Amended Cancellation Order.
Year: 1992
Gamma irradiation as a commodity treatment against the Queensland fruit fly in fresh fruit
Jessup AJ;Rigney CJ;Millar A;Sloggett RF;Quinn NM
Year: 1992
Third instars of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), were more tolerant to gamma irradiation than other stages that infest fresh fruit from Australia. A dose of 75 Gy prevented the development of adults when the eggs or larvae were irradiated in apples (Malus domestica L.), oranges (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), avocados (Persea americana Mill.), mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and cherries (Prunus avium L.). The proventriculus of the treated larvae developed normally, while development of the supraoesophageal ganglion was retarded. All the fruits, with the exception of avocados, tolerated 100 Gy without developing injury symptoms. The quality of ''Ron''s Seedling'', ''American Bing'' and ''Lambert'' sweet cherry drupes was not affected by doses of up to 1 000 Gy. Peduncle discoloration increased in ''Ron''s Seedling'' cherries irradiated at 600 and 1000 Gy. When ''Lisbon'' lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) were treated at doses of up to 1000 Gy and stored at 15 oC for up to 6 weeks, irradiation reduced the total titratable acidity and the total soluble solids, while the juice and pH increased. Irradiation accelerated the yellow colour formation in green lemons, as well as flesh and peel softening and button senescence in both yellow and green lemons. Tissue damage in the form of flesh and albedo discoloration. albedo toughness and flesh cavitation occurred in the irradiated lemons. Irradiation increased pericarp browning in ''Bengal'' lychees (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) stored at 4 oC or 10 oC at 85-90% relative humidity, but had no effect on lychees stored at 20 oC in a constant flow of ethylene free air at 95~100% relative humidity. Irradiation had no effect on the ethylene production, but lychees dosed at 75 and 150 Gy evolved more carbon dioxide than did untreated lychees or those dosed at 300, 600 or 1000 Gy. Lychees treated with a combination of polyvinyl chloride wrapping plus irradiation at 75-300 Gy and stored at 4 oC experienced no adverse effects on the fruit quality, taste or mould development compared with wrapped, dipped, untreated lychees. The ascorbic acid content of ''Valencia'' oranges was not affected by doses between 25 and 300 Gy.
Effects of gamma radiation on the insect mortality and fruit quality of Philippine ''Carabao'' mangoes
Manoto EC;Resilva SS;del Rosario SE;Casubha LC;Lizada CC;Esguerra EB;Brena SR;Fuentes RA
Year: 1992
Research using gamma radiation for the disinfestation of (Philippines)Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel,(subsequently renamed Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock) larvae in ''Carabao'' (''Manila Super'') mangoes and its effect on the overall quality and acceptability of the treated fruit was undertaken in the Philippines. The results showed that mature larvae of the fruit fly were the insect stage most tolerant to irradiation, with the young eggs being the most sensitive. Using more than 100 000 mature larvae in mangoes, a minimum dose of 100 Gy was required to prevent the emergence of adult fruit flies and to maintain quarantine security against the possibility of introducing this pest into the importing country. ''Carabao'' mango fruits subjected to gamma radiation at 100, 150 or 250 Gy resulted in fruits of an acceptable quality. In contrast to vapour heat treatment, no internal breakdown was observed, even in fruits irradiated at 350 Gy. At this dose, a low, but significant, incidence of pulp discoloration was found- in one trial only. Both vapour heat treatment and gamma radiation needed to be supplemented with hot water treatment for effective and more consistent disease control. Although irradiation appears to delay ripening, its effect seems to be largely on the development of peel colour. The results of this study indicated that irradiation could be an appropriate quarantine treatment for the ''Carabao'' mango. Therefore, use of irradiation at a minimum dose of 100 Gy as a quarantine treatment for the oriental fruit fly in mature green mango fruits can be recommended. However, when field infestation studies were conducted on 3200 mature green ''Carabao'' mangoes obtained from different parts of the country, a very low field infestation of 0.031 % was observed. A single fruit was found to be infested with eight larvae of the oriental fruit fly. With these findings, quarantine treatment may not be required, provided proper protection from infestation is applied after harvest or before export.
Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Nuclear Techniques in Insect Research and Control.
IAEA Technical Reports Series 336
Year: 1992
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Effect of substerilizing gamma dose on mating competitiveness of Trogoderma granarium Everts males through three filial generations
Ahmed, M. Y. Y.; Salem, H.; Gharib, O. H
Year: 1992
When newly-emerged males of Trogoderma granarium were exposed \r\n to 75 Gy, the irradiated males were semisterile when they were \r\n paired with untreated females. When F1 sons of irradiated males \r\n were added to untreated adults at I male : U male : U female \r\n ratios of 1:1:1, 5:1:1, 10:1:1 and 15:1:1, the percentage egg \r\n hatch decreased from 77.8 in the controls to 64.4 at the ratio \r\n 1:1:1 and to 46.2, 40.9 and 38.9 at ratios 5:1, 10:1 and 15:1, \r\n resp. The competitiveness values of F1 males were below the \r\n limits considered acceptable except when the ratios were 10:1 \r\n and 15:1.
The role of gamma irradiation in tolerance of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Duv.) to some insecticides.
Abdel-Salam, K.A;El-Deeb, M.A.; El-Fishawi, A.A.
Year: 1992
Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effect of irradiating T. confusum pupae on the susceptibility of their adults to four insecticides. Results indicate that gamma irradiation significantly decreased the tolerance of adults from pupae irradiated 1 and 2 days before eclosion to Duradin. On the contrary, malathion and formothion, belonging to the same chemical group, i.e. organophosphate, were similar in their toxicity to adults, showing that irradiation or pupae afforded some protection to adults from death. However, s. fenvalerate exhibited the same trend noticed for malathion and formothion where irradiation of pupae reduced its effectiveness to adults. In general, adults from pupae irradiated 1 and 2 days before eclosion were less tolerant to tested insecticides than those from pupae irradiated 3 days before eclosion. Studying of tolerance ratio of various insecticides revealed that at 24 hr post-treatment, the most obvious trend is that adults from irradiated pupae, 3 days before eclosion, showed a moderate level of tolerance to formothion (3.29-fold) and s. fenvalerate (3.62-fold), and high level of tolerance to malathion (16.30-fold). While all adults from irradiated pupae elucidated different levels of tolerance to malathion, formothion and s. fenvalerate, the effectiveness of Duradin on those adults was significantly enhanced. This means that the application of Duradin in combination with gamma radiation is more effective than their separate applications. The dissimilarity or adult responses to the insecticides may be attributed to the enzyme alterations, either quantitative or qualitative and are the key to these irradiation effects on toxicity of insecticides to insects.
Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment
Bustos M.E.;Enkerlin W.;Toledo J.;Reyes J.;Casimiro A.
Year: 1992
This research project was conducted following the guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) infested with third instars of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) at doses of 10-250 Gy. The radiation geometry achieved a maximum/minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy, applied to third instars in the infested fruits, sterilized this species and prevented the emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A. ludens and A. obliqua, a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 and 27% fertility, respectively. The adults of A. serpentina that emerged died before reaching sexual maturity. Confirmatory tests, at the probit 9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C capitata. The quality of fruits irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological and sensorial tests. Determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss in the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated, since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both the treated and untreated fruits in the same way.
Effect of sterile boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and
Villavaso_EJ; McGovern_WL; Roberson_JL; Smith_JW; Ray_HW,; Monke_BJ
Year: 1992
Competitiveness of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Haynes JW;Smith JW
Year: 1992
Column Extraction of Residues of Several Pesticides from Fruits
Kandenczki L; Z. Arpad; I. Gardi; A. Ambrus, L. Gyorfi; G. Reese and W.
Year: 1992
Homogeneous sample pulp, prepared from fruits and vegetables of\rdifferent water content with or without additional water, is\radsorbed on the surface of activated Florisil to obtain a free-flowing\rpowder, which is extracted in a glass column with ethyl\racetate or methylene chloride-acetone (9 + 1, v/v). In most cases,\rno further cleanup is necessary for subsequent gas\rchromatographic measurement. The recovery of pesticide\rresidues, including carbamate, organochlorine, organophosphate,\rsynthetic pyrethroid, triazine, urea, and miscellaneous\rpesticides, is generally " "" " 80 %, and is independent of the sample\rmaterial. The column extraction is faster, less laborious, and less\rexpensive than extractions based on traditional techniques,\rliquid partition, or other conventional chromatographic\rprocedures.
Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual,
Year: 1992
Mokliwoci stosowania promieniowania jonizuj4.cego kwarantannie roglin.
Ignatowicz S
Year: 1992
Fruit-flies of the Eastern Palaearctic species of Urophora R. -D (Diptera: Tephritidae). II. Review of species of the subgenus Urophora s. str. (Communication 1)
Korneyev V. A., White I. M.
Year: 1992
In Russian; English summary; English translation: Entomol. Rev., Wash., 1993, 72(5): 35-47
Reclassification of the Palaearctic Tephritidae (Diptera). Communication I.
Korneyev V. A.
Year: 1992
Tephritid flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) associated with asteraceous plants in Eastern Europe
Korneyev V. A.;Kameneva E. P.
Year: 1992
The practical application of irradiation disinfestation for food and agricultural commodites.
Marcotte M
Year: 1992
Effects of disinfestation-dose irradiation on the physiology of Tai So lychee.
McLauchlan RL;Mitchell GE;Johnson GI;Nottingham SM;Hammerton KM
Year: 1992
Tai So lychees (Litchi chinensis) were irradiated at 0, 75 or 300 Gy in replicated experiments using a 60Co source. Fruits were analysed shortly after irradiation and again after 3 weeks' storage at 5<SUP>0</SUP>C for external colour, internal colour, soluble solids
Experiment on irradiation of lychee for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt)
Lin Chao Sen;Heather NW
Year: 1992
Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for agricultural products infested by acarid mites (Acarina: Acaridae)
Ignatowiez S
Year: 1992
Irradiation was considered as a quarantine treatment for acarid mites (Acarina: Acaridae) in agricultural commodities. For immediate mortality of the mites, doses higher than 2000 Gy of gamma radiation were required. Doses in the range of 1300-1500 Gy were sufficient if lethality within a few weeks was the goal. A dose of 250-300 Gy would be effective if the objective was to prevent the reproduction of living mites. At this dose, adult survivors of the acarid mites could be present in the treated commodities, but they would not give rise to offspring; thus, these pests would not be able to perpetuate in a new area. However, live mites in agricultural products could be of concern to quarantine personnel. Therefore, a simple test is needed to ensure that the mites have been irradiated and that they do not pose a quarantine risk. A test to verify that a pest has been irradiated and is incapable of reproduction may be based on the infecundity of the treated mites.
Evolutionary Trends Of Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isozymes In Some Species Of Tephritid Flies
Matioli, S. R.;Morgante, J. S.;Lasserre, D. F.;Solferini, V. N.
Year: 1992
Larval ADH from some tephritid and related families (drosophilids and otitids) were analysed by starch gel electrophoresis. A remarkable variation in the number of ADH loci was observed. No activity of this enzyme was present in Tomoplagia rudolfi larvae. One Adh locus was observed in Acinia fucata, Rachiptera limbata, Rhagoletis nova, and Rhagoletis conversa. In A. fucata and R. limbata, the enzyme migrated anodically and showed a marked activity on long chain alcohols. The locus corresponding to that enzyme was named Adh-2. The enzyme of R. nova and R. conversa (locus Adh-1) migrated cathodically and showed a wide substrate specificity, with a high activity on short chain alcohols, as occurs with the enzyme produced by the Adh locus of D. melanogaster. The pattern of larval ADH in Euxesta eluta (Otitidae) was similar to that observed in the two species of Rhagoletis.\r\nTwo ADH loci were detected in Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha grandis, A. fraterculus e A. striata, with the same basic characteristics of the loci Adh-1 and Adh-2 described above, but with lower substrate specificity. In A. obliqua, A. serpentina and A. bistrigata besides Adh-1 and Adh-2, a third Adh locus was observed (Adh-3); the enzyme was similar to that produced by the Adh-2 locus of the other Anastrepha species. Some A. bistrigata individuals had another enzyme with substrate specificity similar to that of ODH of D. melanogaster. This enzyme may be the product of a fourth locus.\r\nSpecific activity of larval ADH and ethanol content in the host fruits were also determined in other Anastrepha species. These two parameters were found to be positively correlated.
Absence of infestations of Caribbean fruit fly in commercial Florida 'Tahiti' lime fruits
Hennessey, M. K.;Baranowski, R. M.;Sharp, J. L.
Year: 1992
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