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Collaborative Projects
International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

Collaborative Projects are an important part of INPRO’s activities. The Collaborative Project are proposed by, and carried out with active participation of INPRO Members.

The following INPRO Collaborative Projects are currently in progress:

Comparative Evaluation of Nuclear Energy System Options (CENESO)

The objective of the project is to elaborate and extend the approach to comparative evaluation of nuclear energy system/scenario options developed in the KIND project and perform new studies on comparative evaluation of energy options, including also non-nuclear options and considerations of climate change mitigation. The project intents to examine applicability of the comparative evaluation approach to support decision analysis and prioritization in development of national nuclear energy programmes and capacity building in Member States. Terms of Reference.
Access to CENESO Project Workspace (for Project participants)

INPRO Service to the Member States — Analysis Support for Enhanced Nuclear Energy Sustainability (ASENES)

The specific objective of this INPRO activity is to develop training and lecture materials on the modelling of nuclear energy evolution scenarios, on comparative evaluation of nuclear energy system options and on road mapping towards enhanced nuclear energy sustainability. This service will complement the already established service on Nuclear Energy System Assessment (NESA). Currently, there are two INPRO Coolaborative Projects related to the ASENES:

Sustainable deployment scenarios for small modular reactors (SMR)

The collaborative project is supposed to apply ASENES tools to the SMR systems with renewables, SMR systems without renewables and scenario analysis and system assessment regarding sustainability. The Terms of Reference is under development.
Access to SMR Project Workspace (for Project participants)

Development and analysis of scenarios involving small numbers of fast reactors to support multi-recycling of plutonium in light water reactors and fast reactors (Fast Forward)

The main objective of this project is to perform two or more pilot studies with the emerging service on “Development and Analysis of Scenarios involving Small Numbers of Fast Reactors to Support Multi-recycling of Plutonium in Light-water Reactors and Fast Reactors” (FAST FORWARD). The studies would have the technical objective to demonstrate the organized use of the INPRO scenario modelling and decision support analysis tool set and to make recommendations on improvements. The Terms of Reference is under development.
Access to Fast Forward Project Workspace (for Project participants)

Cooperative Approaches to the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (BACK END)

The main objective of the project is to analyse institutional and economic impediments as well as legal aspects of international cooperation in the area of the nuclear fuel cycle Back End, and to find possible ways to overcome the impediments to ensure globally sustainable nuclear energy systems. Terms of Reference.

Case Studies for the Deployment of Factory Fuelled Small Modular Reactor (SMR)

The main objective of this project is to examine the legal and institutional issues for export deployment of a small modular reactor (SMR) with a factory built, fuelled and tested reactor; to elaborate guidelines, propose solutions where possible, and point out the difficulties that could arise in order to fill the gaps identified in international nuclear laws to cover the operational cycle of factory-fuelled SMRs. Terms of Reference.

Completed INPRO Collaborative Projects:

Roadmaps for a Transition to Globally Sustainable Nuclear Energy Systems (ROADMAPS)

The project has the objective to develop a structured approach for achieving globally sustainable nuclear energy systems, providing models of cooperation among countries and a template for documenting actions, scope of work, and timeframes for specific collaborative efforts by particular stakeholders. The final report content has been approved. Terms of Reference

Proliferation Resistance and Safeguardability (PROSA) Assessment Tools

The project proposed an assessment approach of proliferation resistance that is simpler and easier to understand than the current INPRO Methodology guidance in this area (TECDOC-1575 rev. 1, vol. 5, 2008), and it has further developed the concept of proliferation resistance and safeguardability analysis and assessment tools. The results of this project will also provide recommendations for revision of the INPRO manual in the area of proliferation resistance mentioned above. The final report is being finalized. Terms of Reference.

Environmental Impact of Potential Accidental Releases from Nuclear Energy Systems (ENV-PE)

This project aims at at providing a framework to assess radiation doses and related risks to human health caused by potential radioactive releases during an accident in a nuclear power plant. A potential accident scenario will be defined as “source term” including the associated probability and representative environmental data. Early and late health effects will be determined by applying environmental dispersion models dedicated to accidental releases and dose/effects functions. Final report, 2020.

Environmental Impact Benchmarking Applicable for Nuclear Energy System under Normal Operation (ENV)

This project aims to develop and test benchmarking on the environmental impact assessment of nuclear systems, including an innovative nuclear energy system. Different benchmarkings could be performed depending on which part of the impact assessment the focus will be. The project focuses on testing the benchmarking approach using one source term, one release scenario under normal operations, and one target group. The final report is being finalized.

Review of Innovative Reactor Concepts for Prevention of Severe Accidents and Mitigation of their Consequences (RISC)

This project aims to demonstrate that technical and institutional innovations related to advanced reactor designs provide continued progress to ultimately meet a design requirement to practically exclude releases warranting relocation or evacuation outside NPP sites in case of a severe accident.The final report is being finalized.

Waste from Innovative Types of Reactors and Fuel Cycles (WIRAF)

For reactors currently operating, the expected types or wastes to be generated are known and, aside from a few problematic wastes, most of these wastes have clearly defined cradle-to-grave pathways. However, for advanced and innovative reactors and their fuel cycles some waste types will either be new or are already known to be problematic. One of the primary challenges for advanced and innovative reactors and their nuclear fuel cycles is that solutions must be identified for all problematic wastes prior to initiating construction. The Collaborative Project WIRAF takes the first steps on the road toward considering the back end of the fuel cycle and waste generation early in the development of new reactors and their associated fuel cycles. Final report, 2019.

Key Indicators for Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems (KIND)

The project has the objective to of developing guidance and tools for comparative evaluation of nuclear energy system/nuclear energy scenario options based on a set of problem-specific key indicators, reflecting upon certain subject areas of the INPRO methodology, and a selected verified judgment aggregation/uncertainty analysis method. The approach is intended for establishing a productive dialogue between energy-option proponents and decision makers regarding sustainable nuclear energy options.
Final report, 2019

Synergistic Nuclear Energy Regional Group Interactions Evaluated for Sustainability (SYNERGIES)

The project applied and amended the analytical framework developed in GAINS to model more specifically the various forms of collaboration among countries, assess benefits and issues relevant for collaboration, and identify those collaborative scenarios and architectures that ensure a ‘win-win’ strategy for both suppliers and users of peaceful nuclear energy technologies. The results of the study have increased understanding of how best to enhance sustainability of nuclear energy systems in the 21st century. Final report, 2018 and Brochure, 2019.

Implementation Issues for the Use of Nuclear Power in Small Countries (SMALL)

The project was to study issues related to the implementation of a nuclear power programme in countries with small capacity grids. Six INPRO members: Armenia, Chile, France, Russia, United States and Viet Nam initiated the collaborative project on this topic. During implementation of the project, it was decided that Armenia could be taken as a case study. Final Report, 2015.

Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Systems (GAINS)

As a result of efforts carried out within the GAINS project, a unique analytical framework has been developed for dynamic scenario analysis of nuclear energy systems, focussing on main issues of nuclear energy sustainability.  GAINS has applied the developed framework to the analysis of global nuclear energy system scenarios and identified several global nuclear energy architectures with enhanced sustainability. Final report, 2013 and Brochure, 2014.

Investigation of Technological Challenges Related to the Removal of Heat by Liquid Metal and Molten Salt Coolants from Reactor Cores Operating at High Temperatures (COOL)

The project covered cooling of reactor cores operating at high temperature up to 1000oC with a focus on liquid metals and molten salts for use in high temperature reactors, advanced fast reactors and accelerator driven systems. Final Report, 2013.

Advanced Water Cooled Reactor Case Studies in Support of Passive Safety Systems (AWCR)

The project was to study natural circulation and thermal stratification phenomena relevant to AWCRs. Specifically the reactor systems proposed to be considered are CAREM, Advanced Heavy Water Reactor, and APR+. Final Report, 2013.

Performance Assessment of Passive Gaseous Provisions (PGAP)

The overall objective of this collaborative project was to contribute to an international consensus on the definition of the reliability of passive systems that involves natural circulation, and on a methodology to assess this reliability. Final Report, 2013.

Proliferation Resistance: Acquisition/Diversion Pathway Analysis (PRADA)

The overall objective of the project was to provide guidance on enhancing proliferation resistance of innovative nuclear energy systems and to contribute to strengthening the assessment area of ‘proliferation resistance’ of the INPRO methodology. Final Report, 2012.

Further Investigation of the Thorium Fuel Cycles (ThFC)

Fuel cycles based on thorium (232Th) are the options that may provide an opportunity to use vast deposits of this nuclear material to supply future large scale deployment of nuclear energy systems and enhance the sustainability of nuclear power. The overall objective adopted of the project was to examine the potential of thorium based fuel cycles (ThFC) to improve the sustainability of nuclear power. Final Report, 2012.